Family – A family is a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption who reside together.It has one of the strongest, most immediate & pervasive effects on a consumer’s personality, motivation & attitude.This is primary & strongest reference group.From marketing point of view, investigating the family becomes important since attitude towards savings & spending, brands and products are often moulded by the family.
The Evolving Indian Family1 From joint family to nuclear family –a due to urbanization & industrialization which has caused occupational changes.b accommodation of cities being expensive compelling families to stay small.2 Working women –a women are more & more exploring their potential in the work forceb distribution of power & responsibilities has also changed.
The latest Nuclear Urban Family1 The members are highly individualistic.2 The members have divergent tastes.3 They have adequate spending power.4 They have unique needs.
Socialization of family members – It refers to a process by which a family member learns the system of values, norms, & expected behavior patterns from each other.1 Consumer socialization of children – the process by which children acquires the skills, attitudes, knowledge & experience necessary to function as consumers.Children watch & imitate parent’s behavior which serve them as role model.2 Adult socialization – Adults get socialized by both family & friends. Family guides them on broader values whereas friends make them learn specific behavior.
Intergenerational socialization – Some product loyalties or brand preferences are transferred from one generation to another.Other functions of the family1 Economic well being – to provide economic support to its members. Though the responsibility to provide economic well being has changed over the last decade.2 Emotional support – emotional nourishment including love, affection & intimacy.3 Sustainable family lifestyle – based on culture & economic conditions family decides the importance of various things in their kids life education career etc.
Family decision making & consumption related roles –Key consumption roles –1 Initiator – who thinks about buying products & gathering of information to aid decision .2 Influencers – whose opinions are sought concerning the criteria the family should use in purchases & which product of brands most likely fit those evaluative criteria.3 Deciders – The person with the financial authority/power to choose how the family money will be spent & the products or brands that will be chosen.4 Buyer – The person who purchases the product.
5 Preparers – Who transforms the product into a form suitable for consumption by other family members.6 Users – who use or consume a particular product or service.7 Maintainers – who service or repair the product so that it will provide continued satisfaction.8 Disposers – who initiate or carry out the disposal or discontinuation of a particular product or service.
Role structure & relative influence across product categories – Traditionally men have been associated with instrumental (functional roles), female usually play (expressive role).Role structure & relative influence by stage of decision making process – As initiators of ideas all family members prove to be important; but as deciders the head of the family played the more important roles.
How family make purchase decisionsMajor characteristics of Indian family are as follows1 family makes & spends money continuously for many years.2 Family decisions are made with private, intimate, & social group.3 Family consumption decisions are often not independent from one another.4 Family has multiple decision makers.5 family decision making differs by the type of product being studied.6 Family differ significantly among themselves.
Dynamic husband – wife decision making – Marketers are particularly interested in understanding spousal influence patterns & decision making processes in order to communicate messages, shape brand choice & guide personal selling activities.These decisions could be husband-dominated, wife- dominated or autonomic.
Family Life cycle - The FLC is a composite variable created by systematically combining such commonly used demographic variables as marital status, size of family, age of family members, presence or absence of children at home.Stage 1 – Bachelorhood (Youth)Stage 2 – HoneymoonersStage 3 – ParenthoodStage 4 – Post-parenthoodStage 5 - Dissolution
Kids Pester PowerRole of children in family decision makingCore categoryPeripheral categoryAdult category