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T.T_Week 6

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T.T_Week 6

  1. 1. TECHNOLOGY AS A PROCESS1  Discuss about the concept, perspective and also dimension in the process of technology transfer, as the technology itself consider as a process.
  2. 2. Criteria2  Criteria that should be concerned:  Identifying important factors  Understand how it operate  Ensure the implementation is effective and sustained  The significant of the concern:  Decision maker do not understand the above perspective of technology  Does not clearly mention in the policies
  3. 3. Meanings And Perspective Of3 Technology  Technology is the principal means adopted by nations seeking developmental progress and higher standards of human life.
  4. 4. 4  Five important features of technology in modern economy (Kozmetsky, 1990) are: i. Technology is a replenishable national resource. ii. Technology generates wealth which turn to power (economic, social and political) iii. Technology is a prime factor in domestic productivity and international government. iv. Technology requires new managerial philosophy and practice. v. Technology as a body of knowledge encompasses both ‘hard technology’ and ‘soft technology’.  Hard technology in the form of plant, machinery and equipment, etc  Soft technology in the form of training, know-how and more efficient in organizing existing factors of production
  5. 5. Application Aspect of Technology5 Transfer  In the application aspect of technology transfer, it regards the integration aspect of:  Resources  Production methods  Knowledge  Embodied knowledge in various tools
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF6 TECHNOLOGY  The classification of technology that will be discussed in this topic is depends on:  Application  Knowledge base (Week 7 and 9)  Organization  Others
  7. 7. 7  Besides that, classification of technology can be discussed under the following dimension:  Level of technology – high and low  Labor-intensive and capital intensive  Modern or traditional  International Patent Classification (IPC)
  8. 8. Engineering Approach8  Technology based on engineering approach are:  Technology means a process of transformation  A way of combining inputs to obtain an output  Tools for changing material – operations and equipment required.
  9. 9. Economic Approach9  Technology based on economic approach are:  Technology interconnects inputs and outputs within the process.  Efficiency of input for output  Technique-particular method of combining inputs to make output  ‘Technology is the list of all known techniques, and the production function is the list of all techniques that are technically efficient’
  10. 10. The Black Box Of Technology10  In the engineering approach, technologies are skills, knowledge, procedures and activities for transforming inputs into outputs; hence increase in technology (T) reduces inputs per output (Fransman, 1986).  Formerly, developing nations have lower output per workers than in developed nations because of low levels of capital per worker. Y = f ( L, K, N, E, T ) Where Y is output, L is labour, K is capital, N is natural resources, E is entrepreneur, T is technology
  11. 11. Effect of Increase in Technology11  Output per worker in developing nation is lower than developed nation  Any advancement would lead to  Lower level of capital and labor corresponding to same level of output  Higher level of output corresponding to same level of capital and labor  Technology represent the Engineers and Black Box represent the Economist
  12. 12. Arguments12  There are arguments arise in the issues of technology as a process, where:  Technology is a technical success not commercial  But, the output of technology is profitability (result from the commercialization).  The reasons are:  Insufficient training and education  Inappropriate technology  Adaptation  Lack of understanding human-machine interaction  Various socio-cultural problems  Lack of equipment, machinery, know-how, supportive infrastructure, and appropriate management.

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