TECHNOLOGY AS A PROCESS1 Discuss about the concept, perspective and also dimension in the process of technology transfer, as the technology itself consider as a process.
Criteria2 Criteria that should be concerned: Identifying important factors Understand how it operate Ensure the implementation is effective and sustained The significant of the concern: Decision maker do not understand the above perspective of technology Does not clearly mention in the policies
Meanings And Perspective Of3 Technology Technology is the principal means adopted by nations seeking developmental progress and higher standards of human life.
4 Five important features of technology in modern economy (Kozmetsky, 1990) are: i. Technology is a replenishable national resource. ii. Technology generates wealth which turn to power (economic, social and political) iii. Technology is a prime factor in domestic productivity and international government. iv. Technology requires new managerial philosophy and practice. v. Technology as a body of knowledge encompasses both ‘hard technology’ and ‘soft technology’. Hard technology in the form of plant, machinery and equipment, etc Soft technology in the form of training, know-how and more efficient in organizing existing factors of production
Application Aspect of Technology5 Transfer In the application aspect of technology transfer, it regards the integration aspect of: Resources Production methods Knowledge Embodied knowledge in various tools
CLASSIFICATION OF6 TECHNOLOGY The classification of technology that will be discussed in this topic is depends on: Application Knowledge base (Week 7 and 9) Organization Others
7 Besides that, classification of technology can be discussed under the following dimension: Level of technology – high and low Labor-intensive and capital intensive Modern or traditional International Patent Classification (IPC)
Engineering Approach8 Technology based on engineering approach are: Technology means a process of transformation A way of combining inputs to obtain an output Tools for changing material – operations and equipment required.
Economic Approach9 Technology based on economic approach are: Technology interconnects inputs and outputs within the process. Efficiency of input for output Technique-particular method of combining inputs to make output ‘Technology is the list of all known techniques, and the production function is the list of all techniques that are technically efficient’
The Black Box Of Technology10 In the engineering approach, technologies are skills, knowledge, procedures and activities for transforming inputs into outputs; hence increase in technology (T) reduces inputs per output (Fransman, 1986). Formerly, developing nations have lower output per workers than in developed nations because of low levels of capital per worker. Y = f ( L, K, N, E, T ) Where Y is output, L is labour, K is capital, N is natural resources, E is entrepreneur, T is technology
Effect of Increase in Technology11 Output per worker in developing nation is lower than developed nation Any advancement would lead to Lower level of capital and labor corresponding to same level of output Higher level of output corresponding to same level of capital and labor Technology represent the Engineers and Black Box represent the Economist
Arguments12 There are arguments arise in the issues of technology as a process, where: Technology is a technical success not commercial But, the output of technology is profitability (result from the commercialization). The reasons are: Insufficient training and education Inappropriate technology Adaptation Lack of understanding human-machine interaction Various socio-cultural problems Lack of equipment, machinery, know-how, supportive infrastructure, and appropriate management.