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biochemistry short intro, cell, cell membrene structure


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Introduction to biochemistry
Cell and its biochemical aspects
Cell membrane structures
Membrane proteins

Published in: Education, Technology

biochemistry short intro, cell, cell membrene structure

  1. 1. D P T - F A 1 2 - 0 3 6 D O C T O R O F P H Y S I C A L T H E R A P Y T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F A I S A L A B A D By Nabeel Amjad
  2. 2. Topics Introduction to biochemistry CELL  Cell and its biochemical aspects  Cell membrane structures  Membrane proteins
  3. 3. Introduction to Biochemistry Introduction  Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within, and relating to, living organisms  Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.  The chemistry of the cell also depends on the reactions of smaller molecules (Micro molecules) and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids which are used to synthesize proteins
  4. 4. Continued. Areas of application biochemistry are applied primarily in  medicine,  nutrients,  agriculture. 1. in medicine, biochemist, investigate the causes and cures of disease. 2. in nutrients, they study how to maintain health and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies. 3. In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers, and try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation, crop storage and pest control.
  5. 5. Cell  Definition: Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms.  Types cells are two types 1. Prokaryotic cell: that lake membrane bounded structures 2. Eukaryotic cell: true cell
  6. 6. Eukaryotic cell
  7. 7. Cell Structures  The Plasma Membrane—A Cell's Protective Coat  The Cytoskeleton—A Cell's Scaffold  The Cytoplasm—A Cell's Inner Space  Genetic Material Cell Organelles include  The Nucleus—A Cell's Center  The Ribosome—The Protein Production Machine  Mitochondria and Chloroplasts—The Power Generators  The Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus  Macromolecule Managers  Lysosomes and Peroxisomes—The Cellular Digestive System
  8. 8. Cell Membrane • The cell membrane, or plasma membrane, is a biological membrane that separates the interior of cell from its external environment • Regulates what comes in and out of the cell • Main components: proteins and phospholipids • The cell membrane is selectively permeable
  9. 9. Cell Membrane Structure  Cell membrane is mainly composed of 1. Lipid bilayer 2. Proteins  According to fluid mosaic model cell membrane consists of lipid bilayer with embedded proteins
  10. 10. Lipid bilayer  universal component of all cell membranes  two layers of fat cells organized in two sheets  most abundant class of lipid molecule found in cell membranes is the phospholipids  Phospholipids molecule contain  phosphate group (polar head)  two fatty acid chain group (nonpolar tail).
  11. 11. Phospholipids arrange themselves to expose hydrophilic head and hide hydrophobic tail
  12. 12. Cell membrane proteins  There are mainly two types of cell membrane protein  Integral proteins  Peripheral proteins
  13. 13. Integral proteins  permanently attached to the membrane  can perform functions both inside and outside of the cell.  Further two types  Integral polytopic proteins, also known as "transmembrane proteins,“  Integral monotopic proteins that are attached to only one side of the membrane and do not span the whole way across
  14. 14. Peripheral membrane proteins  temporarily attached either to the lipid bilayer or to integral proteins  dissociate by treatment with a polar reagent, such as a solution with an elevated pH or high salt concentrations.  Dissociate without harming lipid bilayer