CONSTRUCTION-1SUB CODE- ARC 1523
ASSIGNMENT 1 - EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION
(EXPERIENCING, DOCUMENTING AND ANALYSING THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS)
TUTOR – Ar. ALICE LIM LI YUEN
1.0 Introduction and Group members detail. (SI*)
1.1 Introduction to site
2.0 Site and Safety (MM*)
2.1 Plants and Machinery
3.0 External Work (SV*)
4.0 Foundation (MNA*)
4.1 Foundation type and construction process (from site visit)
5.0 Superstructure (from site visit and reference)
5.1 Beam and Column (SI*)
5.2 Slab (MNA*)
5.3 Wall (PZ*)
5.4 Staircase (JE*)
6.0 Doors and Windows (PZ*)
7.0 Roof (LZH*)
7.1 Roof type and construction process (from site visit)
(SI*) Saurabha Iyer
(MM*) Muhammad Mubarak
(SV*) Saravanan Vytelingum
(MNA*) Muhammad Nabeel Ali Joomun
(PZ*) Prisha Zenia
(JE*) Jonathan Edwards
(LZH*) Lim Zhi Hong
Introduction to site
• Location – Megan Salak park, Jalan 1/125E ,
Desa Pedaling ,57100 Kuala Lumpur
• date of approval- 11 July 2013
• Date of completion – January 2016
• Developer- Chico Development Sdn Bhd
• Architect- Akitek Akiprima SDN BHD
• Landscape architect- Primeclass Landscaping
• Contractor- Suncity Trading and Construction
• House type- 3story semi d
• Land tenure – freehold
• 115 units
Introduction to the group members
Saravanan Vytelingum 0320563
Muhammad Nabeel Ali Joomun 0320583
Muhammad Mubarak 0319984
Saurabha Iyer 0320569
Prisha Zenia 0320762
Jonathan Edwards Woe 0320458
Lim Zhi Hong 0304547
Importance of following safety site rules
Accident rates are
higher in construction
sites because people
doesn’t pay much
attention to the
surrounding and the
that is placed outside
of the construction
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
• All refers to protective clothing,
helmet, goggles or other garments
or equipment designed to protect
the wearer’s body from injury.
• Staffs and workers must wear and
use PPE as appropriate.
• Sub-con and their workers must
not wear short pants/slipper to
Site safety rules:
• To prevent any injuries on
the head as it is the most
• To prevent dust particals
from the construction site
to draw on the head.
• To prevent from any ear damage due to
drilling and construction work
should be worn
in this area
Safety helmets must be worn:
Hearing protection must be worn
• To prevent danger of
foot injuries due to
falling or rolling objects
or objects piercing the
sole and where such
employee’s feet are
exposed to electrical
No person who is under the influence of
alcohol or drugs are allowed in the site
• as a drunk person may not be
conscious , it may be dangerous
as they could walk to buildings
which are not complete which
are full of metal bars therefore
it will be dangerous
• To reduce electrical shock
hazard when near exposed
electrical conductors which
could contact the head.
No unauthorized entry
• All visitors must report to
• Management or workers
may not be responsible for
High visibility clothing
must be worn in this area
• So that when to
construction work is
going on’ it will be easier
to be noticed by the
bright color of the
clothing to prevent any
accidents from happening
Safety googles must be worn.
• The dust particles at the site
may be harmful to the eye
therefore by wearing a
safety google it can prevent
the dust from entering the
eye. Eg flying particles,
molten metals, liquid
chemicals or acids.
First aid box
• First aid equipment is
kept in the site
managers office as it is
easier and faster
access in case of
Children must not
play in the site
• When the construction
activity is going on, it will
be dangerous for the
children as any accidents
might happen such as
getting hit by vehicles or
Hand glove must be
worn • to protect the
• To protect hands
• Helps to minimize the
risk of fall when a
worker is doing the
high up the building
Reasons for using
• High output - Complete work volume
• Quality work - Accuracy and
• Economy - Cost effectiveness.
• Nature of work - Dangerous if do the
TYPES OF PLANT AND
1. Excavating and earth- moving
• Trucks and hauling equipment
• Vacuum excavators
2. Lifting and vertical transportation
• Mobile cranes
• Tower cranes
• Goods hoists
• Passengers hoists
5) Concrete plant and equipment
• Concrete trucks
• Concrete mixing plant
• Concrete pumps
Plants and Machinery
Backhoe loader is engineering vehicle, which consist of a
tractor, fitted with a shovel or bucket on the front and a
small backhoe on the back.
• Digging shallow excavations
• Digging trenches
• General grading
• Lifting loads
• Loading and carrying materials
Uses of excavators:
• Excavating below or above natural surface of ground
on which machine rests.
• Digging bigger trenches.
• Digging pits for basements,
• General grading work.
• Loading onto haul units (dumper trucks)
Excavator bucket can be replaced with a breaker or
hammer turning the unit into a demolition machine.
Construction equipment found on site
• A full revolving superstructure mounted on a truck with multi section-
• These cranes can travel on public roads between projects under own
power with minimum or no dismantling and reassembling.
• Therefore very suitable if a job requires crane utilization for a few hours
to a couple of days.
To hoist materials and machineries.
Vibrating smooth wheel roller
Vibratory road roller can be equipped with
single drum or double drum.
• Rolling aggregates
• Compaction of clay and sand
• Proof rolling of subgrades and in
compacting asphalt pavements.
• External works on our construction site are mainly:
• Setting out
• Site boundary
• Temporary shelters
Starting period : Semptember
Construction start :
Handing Over : January 2016
Site Area : 18 Hectares
Functional external features may take the form of
access requirements where security may be an
issue. To enhance security on any project fencing
could be used to separate the site from adjacent
properties and land. Any from of fencing, whether
it be full permimeter fencing or partial fencing
installed at key areas of the site, can stop or cut
down any unwanted pedestrian or vehicular
The primary form of fencing present on our site is
mainly metal hoardings placed moslty around the
whole site boundary except around the
hillside.Another form of protection at our site
boundary would be the retaining wall (R.E Wall) or
Retaining Concrete Wall (R.C Wall).
Retaining wall R.C wall
Metal hoarding 14
Storage of material and temporary shelters
They are actually small housing shelters for storing site equipments and for construction workers to rest.
Earthworks are engineering works created through the
moving or processing of parts of the earth's surface
involving quantities of soil or unformed rock. The earth may
be moved to another location and formed into a desired
shape for a purpose. Much of earthworks involves machine
excavation and fill or backfill.
Excavation may be classified by type of material:
• Topsoil excavation
• Earth excavation
• Rock excavation
• Muck excavation - this usually contains excess water and
• Unclassified excavation - this is any combination of
Excavation may be classified by the purpose:
• Roadway excavation
• Drainage or structure excavation
• Bridge excavation
• Channel excavation
• Footing excavation
• Borrow excavation
• Dredge excavation
• Underground Excavation
Typical earthworks include roads, railway beds, causeways, dams, levees, canals,
and berms. Other common earthworks are land grading to reconfigure the
topography of a site, or to stabilize slopes.
Earth-moving machines such as the loader, production trucks, the grader, the
bulldozer, the backhoe, and the dragline excavator.
One unique and very ingenios way of using waste concrete to prevent soil erosion and provide
slope protection is by graniting.This method is implemeted by fitting pipes into the slopes to carry
accumulated water from the top away while the face of the slope is sprayed with waste concrete
from construction also helping to save on material cost.
This method of sloping is aesthetically pleasing, economical and prevents materials wastage.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from an area.
The drainage system on the site is essential as it carries away waste water from the site to
its respective destination.
Civil engineers and construction managers work alongside architects and supervisors,
planners, quantity surveyors, the general workforce, as well as subcontractors.
Drainage options for the construction industry include:
• Point drainage
It intercepts water at gullies (points). Gullies connect to drainage pipes beneath the ground
surface and deep excavation is required to facilitate this system. Support for deep trenches
is required in the shape of planking, strutting or shoring.
• Channel drainage
It intercepts water along the entire run of the channel. Channel drainage is typically
manufactured from concrete, steel, polymer or composites. The interception rate of
channel drainage is greater than point drainage and the excavation required is usually much
The surface opening of channel drainage usually comes in the form of gratings (polymer,
plastic, steel or iron) or a single slot (slot drain) that runs along the ground surface (typically
manufactured from steel or iron).
Street furniture represents a large and
diverse subcategory of external works. It can
be used to create subtle themes within city
centres, whether it be a traditional or
contemporary theme. Elements of street
furniture may comprise seating, lighting,
signage and litter management. The layout
of street furniture can be used to create
strong visual effects within a city
• Benches and seats
• Cast iron seating
They can be obtained in a wide variety
of colours and finishes.
• Concrete paving stones
They are seen as a cost effective
alternative to traditional clay block
pavers, especially if large numbers are
required for driveway and access road
construction. In industrial
environments reinforced concrete is
favoured for access roads and loading
bays to take the strain of heavy goods
It can also be used to cover large
areas, such as car parks, as it has the
ability to accommodate small
settlements without cracking.
Specialist road surfacing contractors
will be able to advise on specifications
to withstand intended usage.
Hardstanding areas within residential
garden areas may need to be more
To fulfil this requirement products
such as timber decking have been
developed to provide eye catching
functional features within gardens.
Wooden decking can be constructed
to suit most situations with anti slip
surfaces available, along with
Patios, also suited to garden
locations, may typically be
constructed from concrete or
concrete paving slabs.
The foundation is the substructure constructed
below or partly below the surface of the
ground. It anchors the superstructure by
distributing the load safely into the ground.
Settlement is the downward compression of the
soil due to the load of the building on the
foundation. Therefore the foundation is
designed so as to limit the settlement and make
4.0 Introduction to Foundation
Uniform settlement Tipping settlement Differential settlement
Factors considered when choosing foundation
1. Load of building
2. Ground conditions
3. Types of soil
4. Types of structure in neighbourhood
4.0 Types of Foundation
This one takes the load of the
building through made-up ground
or weak soil to load bearing strata.
Building loads is transferred to the
beam through ground beams.
This reinforced foundation
distributes the load over the whole
building area reducing the load per
unit area. Raft foundations are
used where building loads are high
or when ground conditions are
Reasons for using this foundation.
- The ground is quite weak and
in poor condition
- The buildings are 3 storey high
which makes it heavy,
therefore requiring a raft
foundation to distribute the
load uniformly on the weak
Reasons for using this foundation.
- This is used in sloppy areas of the site
- Best foundation to hold the load of the
whole building on the slope having a
ground which is also weak.
4.1 Pile Foundation (from site visit)
Pile foundation is used at the
slopes of the hill. It is more
suitable for this terrain because
the soil here is quite soft and
weak. The load is also well
distributed and thus keeping the
building stable and well
65 cm 65 cm
4.1 Pile Foundation construction process (from site visit)
1. The area where the foundation
will be is excavated.
2. Borehole is drilled using
3. The reinforcement cage is
placed inside the borehole and
then filled with concrete
4. The reinforcement of the pile
cap is then placed inside. There is
also the reinforcement for the
column attached to it
5. Formworks are placed around,
and it is then filled with concrete
6. The column is also finished using
the same way and then the pile
cap is covered with soil
4.1 Solid Slab Raft Foundation (from site visit)
Raft foundation is used on the
4.1 Raft Foundation construction process (from site visit)
The ground is excavated 40 cm
deep and then levelled
Wood is used as the formwork
to hold the concrete in shape
Concrete is then poured into the
formwork, levelled and then left
A compacted hardcore layer
(Used as solid working base) and
a blinding layer (Used to prevent
wet concrete from running
down the hardcore) is added
Reinforcements are added. This
will give more strength to the
15 cm thick
Then the soil is added to fil
the gap between the
foundation and the soil
4.1 Stepped Raft Foundation construction process (from site
Hard core layer
Levelled groundThe slope is excavated into steps
which are then levelled. This is
done so as to get flat surfaces
instead of a slope
The surface is then covered with
compacted hardcore and a
The reinforcements which
consists of steel meshes and
steel bars are added.
The wood formworks are placed
and concrete is poured inside.
• Superstructure of a building is the portion of the structure above the foundation. It provides the necessary utility of the building with
comfort, structural safety, ventilation, etc.
SUPERSTRUCTURES IN OUR SITE
1. Simply supported beam
2. Fixed beam
3. Cantilever beam
4. Continuous beam
• Beam is the horizontal member of a structure, carrying transverse loads. Beam is rectangular in cross-section.
Beam carry the floor slab or the roof slab. Beam transfer all the loads including its self-weight to the columns or
1. Fix the
reinforcement bar of
2.Fix the wooden
framework for the
concrete beam and
pour the concrete
3.Let it dry up and
formwork and you
have your rcc beam
CONSTRUCTION OF A RCC BEAM
• The beam in the basement of
our building is attached to
the foundation slab.
• For the ground floor, 1ST and
2nd floor they cast the beam
with the slab since it was not
possible to cast the slab later.
• The ground, 1st and 2nd floor
beam rest on the various
collumns on the basement,
ground and 1st floor
• The 2nd floor beam is cast
with the roof slab at our site.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF BEAMS AT OUR SITE
SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM
COLUMNS• Columns is a vertical structural member. It transmits the load from ceiling/roof slab and beam, including its self-weight to
• Columns may be subjected to a pure compressive load. R.C.C columns are the most widely used now days.
nt bars for
Built the wooden
form work around
and pour concrete
and leave it to dry
Remove the wooden
form work after the
mixture dries and
there we get our
CONSTRUCTION OF A RCC COLUMN
The columns of
coming from the
The reinforcements of the
columns of the ground
floor run from the
columns of the basement
they are smaller in
dimensions compared to
the columns in the
basement yet have the
The reinforcements of
the columns of the first
floor run from the
columns of the ground
floor, they are smaller in
to the ground floor yet
have the same center
The reinforcements of the
columns of the second floor
run from the columns of the
first floor, they are smaller in
dimensions compared to the
first floor with the same center.
We even see that in this floor
the numbers of columns also
reduce since it is the last floor
and has no load of further
Type of slab used in our site:
Two way slab (with beam)
This type of slab is supported on four sides by beams and columns. This
is because the ratio of length to width is less than two. The load is
carried in two directions. The reinforcement is arranged to support the
slab in two directions.
• Framing of beams with column
• Beams dropping from ceiling are visible
The formwork is assembled over
the columns and is supported by
More wood is added to the
formwork so as to look like this.
Then the reinforcement cage
for the beam is placed inside
Steel meshes are inserted,
this will give strength to the
Concrete is then poured inside
and left to dry.
Wall is the vertical plane of a building, it defines an enclosed space or acts as a division. Walls
are made to provide shelter from weathering, safety and privacy. It can be either load bearing
or non-load bearing. The types of structural walls found on the building are: building wall,
partition wall, party wall, and retaining wall.
Types of building materials used : Masonry bricks and Reinforced concrete.
Clay brick sand brick
R.C wall Concrete retaining wallR.C wall
A staircase is a construction designed to link a large vertical
distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances which
is called steps. It allows easy movement between the
different levels of design.
Aspect that should be considered when designing a
staircase is the placement of stairs, ease to travel and most
importantly the safety. Also, the design of a staircase should
take proper consideration of the width, landings, handrail,
guardrails, treads, rises, and nosing which are the
requirements of a staircase.
Concrete staircase are often specified
for their strength, durability, the
protection, food resistance and sound
Concrete Quarter landing staircase
Quarter Landing Stairs represent a variety of straight stairs, which
also include a landing. But here the landing is needed to change a
direction of the flight by 90 degrees and at the same time it serves
as a place for rest when moving. The landing may change its
position in the flight from its beginning and up to its end. Staircases
of this type are more convenient and safe than straight staircases
Advantages of quarter landing stairs shaped Stairs:
1. Quarter landing stairs can be more visually interesting.
2. They provide a visual barrier between floors so they can add some privacy.
3. Also quarter landing stairs can help somewhat with sound transmission between floors if the stairs are contained within
4. Some believe they are safer than straight stairs as the central landing reduces the number of treads one could fall in a
5. The landing can provide a place to stop and rest while ascending.
6. They can be located in a corner of a room if this works better for your design.
Disadvantages of quarter landing stairs shaped Stairs:
1. Quarter landing stairs are a bit more difficult to build.
2. A support is typically required for the landing in a quarter landing stairs. Often this is built into the surrounding walls
so it goes unnoticed. In modern dwellings however it is usually desirable to open up the space leaving the stair
structure visible. In these cases the supporting structure can be visually minimized by taking advantage of the strength
of steel to create slim supporting members. Through careful engineering,it is possible to eliminate the landing support
3. Handrails for these types of stairs require more skill and planning to construct.
4. In climates where basements are used, stairs are typically stacked over each other for efficient use of space. Since
basements are often used for storage, large items can be difficult to move in and out of the basement.
procedure of constructing concrete staircase
step 1 : calculate the stairs dimension
measure the height of one floor to
the other. Divide the height with 7
inches (standard measurement of
rise) to get the number of steps.
measure the horizontal distance the
staircase will span and me sure the
width of staircase from left to right.
step 2 : determine the foundation
the dimension of the staircase’s
foundation are the total length of run
and total width of staircase as
measured in step 1
step 3 : build the formwork around
the reinforcement using either
plywood or framing lumber to build
the form. Cut the side forms
according to the tread and riser
step 4 : prepare the concrete
produce sufficient and well-mixed
mortar with a portable cement
step 5 : pour the mortar
start at the bottom and pour one
step at a time. make sure the
mortars are spread evenly. use a
spade to remove the trapped air
step 6 : add finishing touches
use a simple wood float to clean
and smooth the surface of the
step 7 : leave and wait
spray the stairs with cur in
compound and cover it with burlap.
after a week, remove from the
Rectangle stainless steel handrails
50 x 25mm and 50 x 10mm rectangle stainless steel tube and
fittings can be used to create a modern stainless steel rail which is
suitable for both internal and external use.
Advantages of stainless steel handrail
1. Easy to clean
2. The finishing (satin or mirror) look valuable
3. Not easy rusty
4. Not easy contaminated
5. Very strong in structure
6. Stainless steel look simple but luxury
7 .Stainless steel easy match to some other material such as glass and wood
8. Stainless steel have more accessories to fit with
9. Stainless steel is majority part fabricating onsite, instead of fabricating offsite at the factories
then go onsite to install. Therefore, the job done is more precisely.
10. handrail using stainless steel material to fabricate always look better than other materials as
no requirement of painting or powder coating as steel or aluminium. Fabricator can polish onsite
when install the job. Even some balustrades need to fit or re-fabricated, then the fabricator can
easily re-polish the finishing.
1. higher cost compare to other material.
2. require higher skill to weld and must have proper skill of polishing the stainless steel.
3. need properly maintain when it install at outside.
4. it is not easy to distinguish the material of stainless steel.
Disadvantages of stainless steel handrail
6.0 Windows and doors
Hinged: side hung
Types of windows
Installation of windows:
The above picture shows the
frame fixed onto the walls after
being plastered and skim
Then the aluminium window
frames are fixed onto it.
Installation of doors:
The frame of the door is fitted
The opening made into the
wall. Then the door is fixed on
This frame using a hinge.
Type of door on site
Side hung timber flush door
Flat roof has a pitch of less than 5’. However, flat roof
structures are suitable for shallow pitched roof (up to
25’), although the building materials must be
adequately protected against slippage. The top section
of the flat roof is the roof covering, known as the roof
weatherproofing or waterproofing.
Layers of structural elements
Flat roofs can have various functional layers, which
must be matched to each other. It is essential that
the layers sequence provide adequate insulation
against heat and noise. Building materials must be
compatible with each other.
-vapor pressure compensation course
Structural element courses
according to the guidelines laid
down by the Zentrolverband des
Flat roof guidelines.
Flat roof can be finished as projecting flat roofs at the
point they meet the façade, or with an upstand. Current
practice is to finish the roof with a parapet or an edge
trim but we are focusing on roof edge with parapet as
we can see in our site
Roof Structure: roof waterproofing, single course,
vapor pressure, compensation course,
thermal insulation, vapor barrier, leveling course
preliminary coating, reinforced concrete
Wall structure: façade slabs, air space, thermal
insulation calcium silicate mansonary
Flat roof is not perfectly flat , the
rafters are laid at slight angle to allow
the rain water to flow. Sheathing and
roofing are applied to the top of the
The hip roof slopes at all sides,
results in an even overhang all
around the building. This roof is
popular due to its low maintenance
Curved roof is known for their
aesthetic appeal. A curved roof also
may help to reduce resistance to wind
Most of the roofs in Malaysia are
flat roof and it is slowly becoming
popular compared to hip roof
Famous for its low maintenance
but users think that it is too old
This kind of roof is not suitable or
housing or commercial
Flat roofs are quicker to apply thus
saves time and money
Hip roof takes more time to apply
thus cost more money but the
maintenance is low
Even more time consuming to build
curved panel roof
Comparison between flat roofs and other types of roof
To conclude throughout all these site visit we have definitely learnt a lot from this experience. From basic structure
theories to being able to indentify construction flaws. We visited one site in Kuala Lumpur (Desa Petaling , Desa hill
villa ) it had 165 unit at different construction levels we saw houses at extraction level, foundation level, basic
framework level, super structures level, completion level and with the final touches. Through this project we
understood how one should go about contracting a three storey house.
We learnt that to start any project we first need to do external works that is setting out boundaries surveying the land
setting out earth works. The next stage is site safety and security. After all this on the basis of land survey we excavate
the land for the foundation. We learnt about two different kinds of foundation at our site i.e. pile foundation and raft
After setting out the foundation we studied the placing and construction of the various superstructures i.e. the columns,
beams, slabs, staircase and wall. Later followed by the construction of the roof. After this the building is checked for
water proofing .
After that we set up the services and the electrical work and fill up the walls .
The stage after this is the placing and installation of the doors and windows. We studied the different kinds of windows
and doors at our site. After all this we see a final wall finishing that consists of plastering followed by smoothing and
leveling which is followed by painting.
After this we need to add up the final touches to the house that is the final paint coat the doors and window knobs
furniture and that is how we construct or house.
• Engineering intro. Rollers.
• BuildingHow. Raft foundation.
• King Saud University. Two way slabs.
• External wall construction.
• Tanja Brotruck, 2007 Birkhauser, Roof Construction, Publishers for Architecture, P.O. Box133,
CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland.
• Barry’s introduction to building construction. Stephen Emmitt, Christopher A. Gorse. Jan 2010
• Different types of beams. http://www.slideshare.net/mbrsalman/civil-engineering-beamscolumns
• Construction of columns and beams from site
Everything else from site information