Transport System in Pakistan - (( Rail Transport))
Contents of Presentation: Rail Transport History of Railways in Sub-continent & Rail Transport in Pakistan Salient Features Railway Network & Division Division of Pakistan Railway Routes & Track Railway Station and Junctions Dry Ports Traffic (Passenger & Freight) Passenger Freight Traffic/Transport Equipment or Assets Locomotives Coaching Wagons Freight Wagons Marshalling Yard Loco sheds Bridges & Tunnels Parcel service Freight booking Procedure & Documents Crises of Rail Transport In Pakistan & Solution of Crises
Rail Transport:Conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. Andit is categorized as primary mode of conveyance. Its Consisted on: Freight & PassengerHistory of Railways in Sub-continent & rail transport in PakistanoHistory of Railways in Sub-continent:1847 Sir Henry Edward Frere, appointed as the Commissioner of Sindh , sought permission from LordDalhousie to begin a survey for a Karachi Seaport and a railway line in 1858. The proposed railway linewould be laid from Karachi (city) to Kotri.In 1861 the first railway line was opened to the public, between Karachi (city) and Kotri, with a totaldistance of 169 km.oHistory of Railways in Pakistan:In 1947, 3,133 km of North Western Railways were transferred to India, leaving 8,122 km route toPakistan. Of this 6,880 km route were Broad gauge, 506 km were Meter gauge, & 736 km were Narrowgauge. In 1954, the railway line was extended to Mardan and Charsada, and in 1956 the Jacobabad-Kashmore 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge line was converted into broad gauge. In 1961, the Pakistani portionof North Western Railways was renamed Pakistan Railways. The Kot Adu-Kashmore line was constructedbetween 1969 & 1973. In 2006, Mirpur Khas-Khokhrapar 126 km metre gauge railway line wasconverted to broad gauge .
Salient Features:oThe Pakistan Railways is a Federal Government Department under Ministry of Railways.oRailway Minister - Khawaja Saad RafiqueoFounded: 14- August, 1947oHead quarter in Lahore.o82,176 Person Employed upto Jun, 2012oRoute wise Pakistan standing on 27 number out of 151 countries.oFinancial Result:o558 Railways Stations/Junctions upto 2012o522 Locomotives upto 2012o1584 Passenger Wagons upto 2012o17,611 Freight/Cargo wagons upto 2012oIn 2011-2012 → Pakistan Railways carried 41,097,192 passengers wagons.oIn 2011-2012 → 1,323,000 tons of freight carried during 2011-2012 & 61,392 freight wagons.oAt the end of the year 2012, the Pakistan Railways had a total of 7,791 km route. Thiskilometerage consists of two different gauges, i.e., 7,479 km of broad-gauge & 312 km of metre-gauge.2010-11 2011-12Gross Earning/Revenue * Thousand 18,612,068 15,444,393Expenses * Thousand 31,464,910 31,443,343Operating Ratio 169.06% 203.59%
Railway Network & DivisionoDivision in Pakistan Railway:Currently Pakistan Railway has Seven Divisions:1) Lahore 2) Multan 3) Rawalpindi 4) Karachi 5) Sukkur 6) Peshawar 7) QuettaFunctions & Responsibilities:•Railway Division is responsible for overall control of Pakistan Railways as well as to guidethe overall policy.•All matters pertaining to Pakistan Railways.•Maintenance of Railway lines for strategic reasons.•Negotiations with International Organizations and other Countries and implementation ofagreements, with them.•Coordination of Development Projects.•Overall efficiency and safety of Railways.•Coordination of Rail movements into and from Ports.
Railway Network & Divisiono Routes & Tracks:Pakistan Railways is a two-gauge system i.e., broad-gauge and metre-gauge. The gauge-wise length and track length as on 30th june, 2012 is under:And Double line track consists of 1,283 kilometersNote:•The percentage of wooden, cast iron, steel and concrete sleepers laid in the track at theend of the year 2011-2012 was approximately 27.%, .26%, and 47% respectively.•Broad Gauge/Indian Gauge 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in), is a broad track gauge commonly usedin India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Argentina and Chile.•Metre Gauge 1,000 mm (3 3 3⁄8 in)•A narrow gauge railway (or narrow gauge railroad) is a railway that has a track gaugenarrower than the 1,435 mm (4 8 1⁄2 in) of standard gauge railways.Route in km Track in kmBroad-gauge → 7,479 11,366Metre-gauge → 312 3897,791 11,755
Railway Network & DivisionoRoutes:A railway route connecting two or more places or other railway routes.oDomestics Route and International RouteDomestics Route:Karachi-LahoreKarachi-FaisalabadKarachi-RawalpindiKarachi-PeshawarRawalpindi-QuettaLahore-QuettaLahore-RawalpindiKarachi-QuettaLahore-FaisalabadLahore-SialkotLahore-Khanewal
Railway Network & DivisionoDomestics Route and International Route International RoutesCurrent:Pakistan to India → Pak & Ind Interna onal Route is Most Opera ve ( Samjhota Express)Pakistan to Iran → Pakistan Iran is also Opera ve route to the Zahedan City, IranProposed:Pakistan to China → There is no link with China however, Prime Minister of Pakistandisclosed that in near future Pakistan will link its both seaports Karachi and Gawadar seaport with China via Railway Track.Pakistan to Turkey →An Istanbul-Tehran-Islamabad passenger rail service wasproposedPakistan to Turkmenistan → via Afghanistan (proposed)Pakistan to Afghanistan → Currently there is no rail link to Afghanistan ,owever Pakistan Rail has proposed to help build an Afghan Rail Network
Railway Network & DivisionoRailway Station and JunctionsRailway Stations:Railway Stations is a railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unloadpassengers and/or freight/cargo. It generally consists of a platform next to the track anda station building (depot) providing related services such as ticket sales and waitingrooms. The smallest stations are most often referred to as stops or, in some parts of theworld, as halts.Freight Stations/Good Stations:Goods or freight stations deal exclusively or predominantly with the loading andunloading of good.A station where goods are not specifically received or dispatched, but simply transferredon their way to their destination between the railway and another means of transport,may be referred to as a transshipment railway station.Junction:A point at which two lines or separate routes diverge from each other.
Railway Network & DivisionoImportant Railway stations in Pakistan: (Freight Stations and Junction)Karachi City Railway Station•04 Platforms & 04 Tracks & Cargo and Parcel service is also available hereKarachi Cantt Railway Station•08 Platforms & 08 Tracks & Cargo and Parcel service is also available here.
Railway Network & DivisionoImportant Railway stations in Pakistan: (Freight Stations and Junction)Lahore Junction Railway station•The Lahore Junction railway station has all the facilities. 11 Platforms & 11 Tracks& Cargo and Parcel service is also available here.Rawalpindi Railway Stations•Opened in 1881, 05 Platforms available. Cargo and Parcel service is also available.Sialkot Junction Railway Station•Opened in 1880, 03 Platforms & 05 Tracks available. Cargo and Parcel service isalso available hereFaisalabad Railway Station•A large amount of cargo is exported and imported into Faisalabad with manydeliveries a day from all parts of the Pakistan.07 Plate Form.
Railway Network & DivisionoImportant Railway stations in Pakistan: (Freight Stations and Junction)Peshawar Cantonment Railway Station•The routes are Peshawar from linked to Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Multan, Hyderabad, Rohri,Attock, Mianwali, Larkana, Mardan, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Khanewal,Nawabshah and Nowshera. Cargo and Parcel service is also available here.Quetta Railway Stations•Quetta is connected to Lahore by a 727 miles long railway line. Similarly, it is also connected byrail with Peshawar (986 miles) and Karachi (536 miles) . It is also connected by railway withZahedan, which is a city in neighboring Iran. Cargo and Parcel service is also available here.Khanewal Junction railway station•The routes are Khanewal from linked to Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, Quetta, Multan,Faisalabad, Sargodha, Jhang, Hyderabad, Sibi, Sukkur, Attock, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur, Gujrat,Gujranwala, Rohri, Jacobabad, Nawabshah and Nowshera.Other Important Railways Stations & Junctions:• Jacobabad Junction railway station, Khairpur Railway Stations, Sukkur Railway Stations, Rohri Junction railwaystation, Sibi Railway Station, Multan Railway Station, Chiniot Railway Station, Larkana Railway Station etc.
Railway Network & DivisionoDry Ports:The containerization of cargo and the establishment of Dry Ports were steps that further facilitatedmultimodal movement of goods. Pakistan Railways foresee that the cargo transportation in future isgoing to rely heavily on container traffic. At present, there are six dry ports running under themanagement of Pakistan Railways.1) Lahore Dry Port Established in 19732) Karachi Dry Port Established in 19743) Quetta Dry Port Established in 19844) Peshawar Dry Port Established in 19865) Multan Dry Port Established in 19866) Rawalpindi Dry Port Established in 1990In addition to the above, there are four Dry Ports established and running under the management ofprivate sector1. Sialkot Dry Port Established in 19862. Faisalabad Dry Port Established in 19943. Pak-China Sust Dry Port4. NLC Dry Port at Thokar Niaz Beg Lahore5. NLC Dry Port at Quetta6. DP World Lahore/ Prem Nagar Dry Port
Traffic (Passenger & Freight) :oPassenger:•Passenger traffic comprises 50% of the total revenue annually.•During the year 2011-2012, the Pakistan Railways carried 41,097,192 passengers making a total of16,093,350,581 passenger-kilometers, averaging 392 kilometers per passenger. These figures include passengerstravelling on reduced fare tickets but excluding those travelling on free passes.•During the year 2011-2012, Average Rate Charged per Passenger per Kilometer 69.27 in Paisa.•Out of 41,097,192 passengers carried during 2011-2012 29,730 (0.07%) travelled in Air-conditioned sleeper,121,299 (0.30%) in Air-conditioned sitter, 17,590(0.04%) in First class sleeper, 436,457 (1.26%) in Air-conditioned(Standard) class, 37,347,474 (90.88%) in Economy class 2,814,488 (6.85 %) in the Second Class and 330,154(0.80%) in Air-Conditioned Business Class.oFreight:•Pakistan Railway earned Rs. 1583.284 million in freight traffic from 01-07-2011 to 30-06-2012.•The Freight Business Unit operates over 200 freight stations on the railway network. The Unit serves the Ports ofKarachi and Bin Qasim as well as all four provinces of the country and generates revenue from the movement ofagricultural, industrial and imported products such as petroleum oil & lubricants (POL), wheat, coal, fertilizer, rockphosphate, cement and sugar. About 39% of the revenue is generated from the transportation of POL products,19% from imported wheat, fertilizer and rock phosphate. The remaining 42% is earned from domestic traffic.•1,323,000 tons of freight carried during 2011-2012.•61,392 freight wagons were loaded during 2011-2012 on the entire These figures also include wagons receivedfrom foreign Railways.•2011-12, Comparative loading of all divisions is as under:Division Karachi Sukkur Multan Lahore Rawalpindi Peshawar Quetta Total2011-12 11,056 3,620 5,238 36,087 1,708 2,671 1,012 61,392
Traffic/Transport Equipment or Assets:oLocomotivesA locomotive or engine is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.On 30th June, 2012, Pakistan Railways had total 522 (12 steam locomotives, 494 Diesel Electriclocomotives and 16 Electric locomotives on entire system.)DE Locos → 494Electric Locos → 16Steam Locos → 12(5 BG + 7 MG)Electrified Track consists of 544 Kilometers as detailed below:•Lahore-Khanewal Section =>285.46 km route and 521.22 km track &•Lahore-Moghalpura-Lahore Cantt => 7.60 km route and 22.78 km track.Note: Pakistan Railways hade 522 locomotives in its possession, just 152 are operating, according tospokesman Dildar Hussain.
Traffic/Transport Equipment or Assets:oCoaching WagonsA passenger car (known as a coach or carriage in the UK, and also known as a bogie in India/Pakistan) is a piece ofrailway rolling stock that is designed to carry passengers. The term passenger car can also be associated with asleeping car, baggage, dining, railway post office.Total number of coaching vehicles on Pakistan Railways at the end of the year 2011-2012 was 1,823. This includes1,584 vehicles meant for the conveyance of passengers and 239 vehicles for the conveyance of luggage, parcels, mails,automobiles, horses, etc., as well as departmental vehicles and does not include 225 coaching brake-vans. Air-conditioned passenger coaches operating between important towns are also included in it.Passenger Coaches → 1584Other Vehicle (conveyance of luggage, parcels, mails, automobiles, horses etc) → 239Brake Vans → 225
Traffic/Transport Equipment or Assets:oFreight/Cargo WagonsThe number of freight wagons owned by the Pakistan Railwaysat the end of the year 2011-2012 was 17,611 comprising 5,551covered wagons 6,637 open wagons 3972 special type wagons(for carriage of liquids, explosives, machinery, live-stock, timber,etc.), 969 departmental wagons. This does not include 484brake-vans.Out of these 12,297 of these wagons are 4-wheelers, the restAre mostly 8-wheelers.Description BG MG TotalCovered wagons 5,540 11 5,551Open wagons 6,606 31 6,637Special Type wagons 3,957 15 3,972Departmental wagons 960 9 969Brake Vans. 482 2 484Important Note:Railway is providing for carrying of various cargoes in 20, 40 and 60 also which provides the extra facility toplace 03X20 or 01X40 & 01X20. These 60 are called Chinese flat bed wagons.Other than Chinese Flat Bed wagons, below existing stock is also available in Pak Railways.MBKF 280 for 01X40 or 02x20ZBKF 65 for 60 or 03X20 OR 01X40 & 01X20BFC 109 FOR LOADING OF 40 PR 02X20C/E → Covered Empty-4 Wheeler for 24 ton capacity of loose/ CFS cargoB/C → Boggy Covered-8 Wheeler for 44 ton capacity of loose/CFS cargoFRC 485 → For loading of 20 containersT/W → Tank wagon for Lubricants/ Edible OilsKC → Covered but open from top use for wheat, coal, sulphate etc.
Traffic/Transport Equipment or Assets:oFreight/Cargo WagonsKC→ Covered but open from topfor 22.4 capacityBKF→ Bogie Carrier Covered-8Wheeler for 45.7 ton capacityBKF /C → Bogie Flat WagonContainer, 43.7 ton capacityKW→ Half Covered but open fromtop Container, 21.3 ton capacityFlat Wagon 12 wheeler, 67.1 toncapacityTW→ Tank Wagon/Special CargoLoading, 19.3 tons and 19.348 l capacity
Traffic/Transport Equipment or Assets:oFreight/Cargo WagonsC/E → Covered Empty-4 Wheeler for 24ton capacity of loose/ CFS cargoBC → Boggy Covered-8 Wheelerfor 44 ton capacityZBKF for 60’ or 03X20 or 01X40 & 01X20‘, Coveredbut open from top and 61 tons capacityFlat Wagon 8 wheeler, 44 ton capacityBRH → Bogie Limestone/Cement Hopper, 43.53 tcapacity
Marshalling yardA marshalling yard is a place where goods trains and other loads (such as wagons coming infrom a nearby goods shed) are received, sorted out according to a plan, and new trainsformed and dispatched onwards. Loco Shed:Loco Shed, is a name given to places where locomotives are stored when not being used, and alsorepaired and maintained. They were originally known as "running sheds", "engine sheds", or, for short,just sheds. There are often workshops for day to day repairs and maintenance, although locomotivebuilding and major overhauls are usually carried out in the locomotive works.oPakistan Locomotive Factory:The Pakistan Locomotive Factory was established at Risalpur in 1993 at a total cost of Rs.2284 million includingforeign exchange component of Rs.1496 million. It is a modern factory and is equipped with state of the artplant & machinery. Pakistan Locomotive Factory, Risalpur is also utilized for development of spare parts forPakistan Railways and manufacturing/repair works.
Bridges & Tunnelso BridgesThere are 13841 bridges including 532 major and 13309 minor bridges over the Transport system in Pakistan Railway.Most of the bridges were constructed well before the partition when Railway system was introduced in thesubcontinent in 1861. Though all of them need replacement as the maximum age of a bridge is 100 years, 159 of themare in a dilapidated condition and may cause catastrophe any time, said a senior official of Pakistan Railways.o TunnelsA tunnel is an underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings for entrance and exit, commonly ateach end.Pakistan railways has built many tunnels in its hilly areas of Balochistan and Khojak is the longest. Sibi to Quetta, Thetrain passes through 21 tunnels. Khojak Tunnel was constructed in 1891 and is a 3.91 kilometers long railway tunneland is situated in Balochistan. It was featured on the old Rs. 5 banknote.
Parcels Service:Consignments (other than passengers luggage) when tendered by the public for carriage by passengertrains should be booked under Parcels. Handling of Parcel Consignments: Examination of parcels before booking Declaration of contents of parcels: through Consignment Notes Weighment of parcels Preparation of Way-bills Loading of parcels and luggage Delivery of parcelswhite coloured way bills are used for booking of ordinary parcelsIn case a bicycle/motor cycle, commercial Assistant should see, by personal examination, the maker’s name, number ofthe bicycle, its condition and detachable fittings with it and enter these particulars in the Way-bill.
Freight booking Procedure & DocumentsThe operations connected with the booking of goods traffic consist of their:1) Acceptance;2) Examination;3) Marking;4) Weighing;5) Invoicing/Railway Receipt;6) Loading;7) Unloading And Delivery of Goods1) Acceptance of Goods:When goods are brought to a station for dispatch by goods train, they should invariably be accompanied by aConsignment Note (Form T.1303). The Consignment Note for dangerous, explosive and combustible articles should berequired to be tendered by consignors in Form T. 1304.2) Examination of Goods:Each package in a consignment tendered for dispatch should be carefully examined by the staff responsible, and theactual commodity and private marks should be compared with the description entered in the Consignment Note.3) Marking of goods:Every package in a consignment should be required to be marked by the sender with his name, destination, initial orprivate mark for the purpose of identification.
Freight booking Procedure & Documents4) Weighing:Weighment of outwards goods: Outwards goods should, when the nature of the consignment permits,be weighed in the presence of the sender or his agent. The particulars of Weighment should be enteredon the Consignment Note.5) Invoicing/Railway Receipt:After the goods have been carefully checked, counted, weighed and examined as to condition, and thefreight has been calculated, Invoices or Rail way receipt will be prepared.Goods offered for dispatch in Local traffic should be booked on form T. 1353. This form is in four foils,one each marked ’Original’, ‘Invoice’, ‘Receipt’ and ‘Record’.Goods offered for dispatch in foreign traffic should be booked on form T. 1354. This form is in six foils,one each for Record, Receipt’, ‘Border Station’ Original for Accounts, Junction Invoice and ‘throughinvoice’.6) Loading of Cargo:The arrangements for working goods traffic should be so organized as to obtain the best possible resultsin terms of wagon loads. In loading goods into wagons, care should be taken to avoid all possiblechances of their being damaged during transit and leaving room for claims based on defective andcareless loading and Seal the wagon properly. The station seal should remain in the custody of thestation Master or Commercial Superintendent.
Freight booking Procedure & Documents7) Unloading And Delivery of Goods:The operations involved in the unloading and delivery of inwards goods are:a) Notice of arrival of goods:b) Examination of seals, labels and locks of inwards loaded vehicles;c) Unloading and tally of the contents of such vehicles;d) Reweighment of the goods received;e) The receipt, check and accountal of the inwards Invoices; andf) Delivery of the goods
Crises of Rail Transport In Pakistan & Solution of CrisesDecline Of Pakistan Railways Over the years, lack of attention, poor policies, increasing expenditures,misappropriation of funds, pilferage, nepotism . PR is facing losses due to mismanagement, poormaintenance and weak ticket checks that allow people to get away with not paying for their tickets.Railways destroying by support of Transport Mafia. Corruption is playing major part decline of RailTransport In Pakistan.Solution:First of all government should eliminate corruption in railways sector. Government should ask Chinesefor help in order to make it profitable organization because China has made wonderful progress inrailway industry. Another best solution of this problem is the privatization of Pakistan Railway. We cantake the example of PTCL; before privatization PTCLs monthly losses were in billions. Today it is not onlya profitable organization but also providing excellent services to the customers. Corruption in PakistanRailways can only be removed by privatization of Pakistan Railways.