This finish causes a fabric to inhibit the growth
The humid and warm environment found in textile
fibers encourages the growth of the microbes.
Infestation by microbes can cause cross-infection
by pathogens and the development of odor where the
fabric is worn next to skin.
In addition, stains and loss of fiber quality of textile
substrates can also take place.
To avoid cross infection by pathogenic micro
To control the infestation by microbes;
To arrest metabolism in microbes in order to
reduce the formation odour; and
To safeguard the textile products from staining,
discolouration and quality deterioration.
To control microorganisms
The following requirements need to be satisfied to obtain
maximum benefits out of the finish:
Durability to washing, dry cleaning and hot pressing
Selective activity to undesirable microorganisms
Should not produce harmful effects to the manufacturer, user
and the environment;
Compatibility with the chemical processes
Easy method of application
No deterioration of fabric quality
Resistant to body fluids and
Resistant to disinfections/sterilization.
Antimicrobial Finishing Methodologies:
The antimicrobial agents can be applied to the
textile substrates by exhaust, pad-dry-cure, coating,
spray and foam techniques.
The substances can also be applied by directly
adding into the fibre spinning dope.
Uniforms, tents, defense textiles and technical textiles, such as, geotextiles
Home textiles, such as, curtains coverings, and bath mats
The application of the finish is now extended to textiles used for outdoor,
healthcare sector, sports and leisure.
Bioactive fibre is a modified form of the finish, which includes
chemotherapeutics in their structure, i.e., synthetic drugs of bactericidal
and fungicidal qualities.
These fibres are not only used in medicine and health prophylaxis
applications but also for manufacturing textile products of daily use and
The field of application of the bioactive fibres includes sanitary materials,
dressing materials, surgical threads, materials for filtration of gases and
liquids, air conditioning and ventilation, constructional materials, special
materials for food industry, pharmaceutical industry, footwear industry,
clothing industry, automotive industry etc.
Static electricity can cause many processing problems
for textile materials, especially those made form
hydrophobic synthetic fibres.
In most dry textile processes, fibres and fabrics move
at high speeds over various surfaces which can generate
electrostatic charging from frictional forces.
This electrical charge can cause fibres and yarns to
repel each other, leading to ballooning.
Anti static property can be brought out:
By reducing the charge,
By increasing the surface conduction power,
By making the fibre hydrophilic.
Most of the antistatic finishes are based on the first mechanism ie.,
by reducing the charge and increasing the surface conduction.
Silicone emulsions, PE emulsions, PE Glycols, Poly Ammonium
Quaternary Salts, Acrylic Polymers can be used for this purpose.
In fact the Silicone emulsion when used, produces antistatic
property by reducing the friction between the fibres with added
advantages of soil release property, softness and suppleness etc.,
Mechanism of Antistatic Finishes
METHODS OF APPLICATION
There are two methods of application of antistatic agents.
By incorporating non-durable antistatic agents into polymer during
manufacture of synthetic fibres.
By applying either non-durable or durable antistatic agents, on the
filament or yarn or fabrics. These are applied either by Exhaust
method or by Pad – Dry – Cure method.
Some of the commercial antistatic agents for synthetic fibres are
Cirrasol Pt (ICI), Ceramine R, ANS (Sandoz), Antista Oil, Antista
D,M (Ahura chemical products), Antistatic Oil, Antista D (Hico
products Ltd.,), Antistatin C, D and M (BASF).
The textile products that are treated with antistatic
finishes includes –
a) Carpets for computer room.
b) Upholstery fabrics and airbags for automobiles.
c) Conveyor belts.
d) Filtration fabrics.
e) Airmail bags, parachutes.
f) Fabrics for hospital operating rooms and
g) Protective clothing for work with flammable gases,
liquids and powdered solids.
CREASE RESISTANCE FINISH
The formation of crease is an undesirable property to the
So material has to be made either crease resistant or
The objective of this finish is to keep the fabric flat and smooth
and free from undesirable creases.
This is purely chemical and permanent finish.
Mainly applied in cotton, rayon and flax.
Wrinkle occurs due to the hydrogen bonds of the
cellulosic molecules in the amorphous region.
Due to application of heat or moisture, the hydrogen
bond breaks and new hydrogen bond occurs at new
Therefore wrinkling can be reduced if the hydrogen
bond formation can be reduced.
The most commonly used cross linking agents are the
The resins react with the OH groups of cellulose
forming cross links which is durable & hence
increases crease recovery thereby dimensional
stability of the fabric.
It imparts a smooth and quick drying property.
It improves resilence, handle and draping quality.
Increases strength of rayon in both wet and dry state.
It becomes partially waterproof and rot proof
Improves fastness to light and washing of many dyestuffs.
It decreases the tensile strength and tear strength.
It decreases the abrasion resistance.
Gives unwanted harsh and stiff feel.
It gives an unpleasant odour.
It turns the fabric yelllow after chlorine bleaching.
Wash & Wear and durable press (permanent press) finishes are
given using resin precondensates.
This kind of finish is not suitable where pressed in creases are
Inserted creases on this fabric disappear quickly during wear.
For sharp retention of pressed in creases and freedom from ironing
the fabrics, the garments require durable press finish.
The cross linking agents are first applied by padding.
After padding, the fabric are made into garments or some
Then the Curing treatment is given to the fabric at a high
temperature in the form of garments.
This finishing is called as Durable Press finishing.
The sequence of process of durable press finish
This type of finish is generally used in garments making.
High concentration of resin and curing at high temperature for a
longer time are required for this kind of finish.
DMDHEU is the resin which is used for this finishing.
These finishes are achieved by similar techniques as crease
DMEU or Ethyl Carbomates may also be used for durable press
The resin should be fast to washing and should not affect the Light fastness
of certain dyes.
The main disadvantage of this finish is loss in strength and Reduction in
Abrasion resistance, because of the combination of high resin content, and
prolonged curing at high temperature.
Ionic and Non-ionic softeners are therefore added to the resin finishing bath
to minimize the loss in strength and abrasion resistance.
Emulsion of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, silicones etc; are also added.
Fabric is stable when retains original size & shape during use
Relaxation shrinkage—occurs during washing, steam
pressing or dry cleaning; most occurs during first care cycle
Progressive shrinkage—continues at smaller rates for several
additional care cycles
Cotton, flax, lyocell & HWM rayon exhibit relaxation
Regular rayon exhibits high relaxation shrinkage & moderate
Wool exhibits moderate relaxation shrinkage & high
Other properly set MF exhibit relaxation shrinkage & no
Relaxation shrinkage finishes:
Knit fabrics shrink due to stitch elongation during manufacture—return to
normal size during laundering
Minimized by overfeeding fabric between sets of rollers to induce lengthwise
shrinkage; loop drying; heat setting of thermo-plastic fibers.
Woven fabrics shrink when wetting relaxes strain of manufacture—most
noticeable in filling direction.
Compressive shrinkage used to maximize shrinkage.
Progressive shrinkage finishes:
Stabilized by heat setting; when properly set, have no progressive
shrinkage & little relaxation shrinkage.
Surface coating—polyamide solution enables fibers to move
back and forth without entangling; controls shrinkage, pilling &
Halogenation—chlorine partially dissolves scales and reduces
Rayon fibers— Resins reduce fiber swelling & make it resistant
Soil release finish is a kind of finish which facilates
the removal of soil during laundering under
common household conditions.
Active wear and leisure wear are mainly treated
with soil release finish.
Examples of apparels applied with soil release
finish are industrial uniforms and napery etc.
FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL
Nature of soil- oily soil or particulate soil,
hydrophobic or hydrophilic, liquid or solid.
Kind of fibres- Type of fibre, hydrophilic or
hydrophobic, smooth or porous fibre surface.
Nature of textiles- Textile construction, yarn,
Effects of dyeing and printing- difference in binder
films, residual hydrophobic dyeing auxillaries.
Effects of other finishes- compatible with antistatic
finishes, easy care finishes etc.
Non compatible with conventional repellent finishes
and other finishes where hydrophilicity is
determined to finish performance.
Washing conditions- Detergents, hydrodynamic
flow in the washing machine.
Making the fibers more absorbent (hydrophilic).
Permitting better wettability for improved soil removal.
Done by using hydrophilic finishes.
Facilitates soil release during washing.
Prevent soil redeposition.
Also, reduces static charge by maintaining moisture on the
Thus soil attraction during wear can be reduced.
Advantages of soil release:
MECHANISM OF SOIL RELEASE
Adsorption of detergents and absorption of water leading
rolly up soil
Penetration of soil- fibre interface of by wash liquid.
Solubilisation and emulsification of soils.
Mechanical work leading to:-
Hydrodynamic flow carrying away the removal soil.
Fibre flexing to force soil from between th fibres
Surface abrasion to remove soil physically.
Swelling of finish to reduce inter fibre spacing.
Increasing hydrophilicity, swelling of fibre and
Some hydrophobicity (HLB value about 15).
Protective coating with ablative or sacrificial
Alkali treatment of polyester.
CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHES
Carboxy based finishes
Hydroxy based finishes
Ethoxy based finishes
Fluorine based finishes
CARBOXY BASED FINISH
In this kind of finish composition is based on
acrylic and methacrylic acid and ester copolymers.
This composition is taken in ratio to provide the
proper blend of hydrophilicity and olephobocity
required for soil release finish.
These products are usually pad applied in
combination with DMDHEU cross linkers and
provide soil release by a finish swell mechanism.
N-methyol acrylamide react easily with DMDHEU
during the finish curing step for increased
Finishes to be effective about 2.5% solids add-on of
the soil release polymer is necessary.
Other caboxy compounds used are styrene-maleic
anhydride copolymer and sodium carboxymethyl
cellouse is used.
HYDROXY BASED FINISHES
In hydroxy finish mainly starch is used which
functions as a sacrificial treatment.
Other starch-cellulose compounds used for soil
release agents include methyl cellulose, ethyl
cellulose, hydroxypropyl starch,hydroxyethyl
cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and
hydrolysed cellulose acetates.
These finish must be applied in combination with a
binder cross linking agents because these finish
lack the laundering durability.
ETHOXY BASED FINISHES
In this type of finish oxyethylene groups are used for soil release
Products contain polyethylene blocks or ethylene oxide reaction
products with acids, alcohols, amines and phenols etc.
Binding agents are used depending upon the laundering durability.
Mostly done for polyester fibre.
These products provide extremely durable soil release properties for
polyester fabrics either by exhaust or padding application with
about 0.5% solid add ones.
These finish can be applied during dyeing process also.
High soil release performance excellent softness
and combinability with fluorocarbons finishes may
be achieved by special silicon/polyalkylene oxide
This kind of finish is very complicated.
Proper choice of copolymer can be used In fibers to
complete this kind of finish.
Dual action mechanism is illustrated in this kind of finish:-
The hydrophilic blocks are shielded by the fluorocarbon
segments when dry presenting a repellent surface.
After immersion in wash bath the hydrophilic blocks can
swell and actually reverse the interfacial characteristics of
the surface yielding the hydrophilic surface necessary for
Modified fluropolymers are pad applied to fabrics
in combination with durable press cross linking
agents to increase the durability of the finish.
Mixtures of both polymers types provide a
common compromise between efficiency and cost.
Any material deposited on the fibre surface that
would reduce the hydrophilicity property must be
Softeners, lubricants must be investigated before
applying in the fabrics.
The relative amounts of binders and cross linkers
applied in the conjunction with acrylic copolymer
soil release compounds must be carefully
Flame retardant finishes provide textile with
an important performance characteristics that
is it stopped the propagation of fiber when it
comes in contact with fire.
Flame retardant finish is a surface finishes and
coating that inhibit, suppress, or delay the
production of flames to prevent the spread of
Provide textile with an important performance.
Needs of flame retardants
Protection of consumer
Fire fighter & Emergency personnel
Upholstery and drapery protection
The Airline industry.
Importance of Flame Retardant Finish
There are generally four types of mechanism:-
First approach- In this method a heat sink on or in
the fibre by the use of materials that thermally
decompose through strong endothermic reaction.
If enough heat is can be absorbed by these reaction
the pyrolysis temperature of the fibre is not reached
and hence no combustion takes place.
Example of this method are the use if aluminum
hydroxide or alumina trihydrate and caco3 as fillers
in polymers and coatings.
Second approach- In this approach a material is
applied that form an insulating layer around the
fibres at temperature below the fibre pyrolysis
Boric acid and its hydrated salts function in this
When heated this low melting compound release
water vapor and produce a foamy glassy surface on
the fibre insulating the fibre from the applied heat
Third approach- In this method the pyrolysis
temperature is influenced to produce less
flammable volatiles and residual char.
This condensed phase mechanism is seen in the
action of phosphorous containing flame retardants.
Then it produces phosphoric acid through thermal
decomposition , crosslink with hydroxyl containing
polymers therby altering the pyrolysis to yield less
flammable by products.
Fourth approach- This is the approach of free
Materials in this act as gas phase mechanism
include halogen compounds which during
combustion yields hydrogen halides that relatively
form long lived less reactive free radicals
effectively reducing the heat available for
perpetuating the combustion cycle.
This decreases the oxygen content by flame gas
FLAME RETARDANTS FOR WOOL
One of the process of flame retardants for wool is
“zirpo” which is based on hexafluro zincronate and
It is applied by exhaustion and pad process under acid
condition at pH<3.
The finish is durable dry cleaning and water washing
upto 40c at pH<6.
These finish can be combined with dyeing at pH<3.
It is compatible with shrink resistant and insect
Another flame retardant treatment for wool is based
on exhaustion of an anionic species with use of
tetrabrmophthalic anhydride which hydrolysis to
the carboxlic form during application.
Using TBPA at-10 on weight of fabric under acid
condition provides effective flame retardancy.
This is durable to dry cleaning and mild laundering
TBPA is suspected to generate polybrominated
dioxins under burning conditions.
FLAME RETARDANT FOR
One of the most flame retardant finish for polyester
is bromine contaninig phosphate ester,
It is applied by both exhaustion and padding
processes and provide excellent flame retardancy at
reasonable add ons.
This method was banned because carcinogen is
Another flame retardant for polyester is a mixture
of cyclic phosphates used in a pad-dry-heat set
Heat set conditions of 190-210c for 0.5-2mins are
This product when applied at 3-4% add on can
provide to a wide variety of polyester textiles.
Another approach for duarable flame retardant
finish for polyester is the use of highly brominated
chemicals as topical finish.
Useful material is hexabromocylododecane
To achieve durable flame retardancy fabric is
padded with 8% of a dispersion of this water
insoluble material must be heated above 190c to
form a film of a flame retardant on the fibre
FLAME RETARDANTS FOR
In this only additives to the polymer melt and
tropical finish have been commercialized.
Phosphorous and bromine containing compounds
are the most common.
Treatment is done with the condensation product of
thiourea with formaldehyde and urea.
The flame retardancy is effect is done by lowering
the melting point of nylon by 40c and allowing the
fibre to drip away from the ignition source.
FLAME RETARDANT TO OTHER
Flame retarding for acrylic fibres is to
copolymerise halogen containing monomers into
Polypropylene fibres can be flame retarded with
bromine and phosphorous containing additives to
the polymer belt.
However high add ons are required and fibre
properties are adversely effected.
FLAME RETARADING FIBRE
In order to flame retard natural/synthetic fibre
blends high levels of flame retardants are required.
By using decabromodiphenyl oxide in combination
with antimony trioxide a cotton/polyester blend
fabric can be flame retarded.
In this 37% of add ons are required in addition to
latex and softner .
The colour and hand of the finished fabric is altered
and chemical costs are high.
Water Repellant finishes are which resist the
penetration of water into the fabric but permits the
passage of moisture or air.
If the fabric becomes very wet,water will
eventually pass through.
The principle is that it is coated with the repellant
chemical which permits the passage of air and
vapour between the interlacing in fabric.
Water and the other liquid remain on the surface in
small bead rather than spreading out and getting
The Chemicals used are
Some chemicals used for water repellancy are also
The yarns are coated with water repellent material
The water repellent do not permit the water drop to
spread and penetrate.
WATER REPELLENT FINISH:
A) USING METALLIC SALTS:
Pad the fabric with metal salts like Aluminium Acetate or
Passing the padded fabric through Soap solution like
If necessary a little quantity of wax may be added.
This method is not permanent.
B) USING SILICONE EMULSION:
They impart not only water repellency but also soft handle and improved
Pad – Dry – Cure.
If necessary, Resin maybe added in conjunction with silicone.
Catalyst should be added for permanent durable finish. Eg., for catalyst,
They are added just before the application.
The pad bath contains Silicone, Resin, Emulsifier and a Catalyst.
C) THE VELAN PF PROCESS:
It imparts water repellency and a soft attractive finish. It is fast to washing,
boiling soap solution, dry cleaning etc., It is a compound of Quaternary
Ammonium Salt with Pyridine Base and a compound is formed with cellulose
in the presence of Sodium acetate.
Pad – Dry – Cure – Soaping – Rinse,
1. Padding : 6% Velan PF + 3% Sodium acetate at 35 C,
2. Drying : 60 – 70 C,
3. Curing : 120 C for 2 – 3 mins.
4. Soaping : Soap – 0.2%, Soda – 0.1%,
5. Temp – 35 C,
6. Time – 1 to 2 min.
Any soap or other detergent left in the material will reduce its apparent Water
Water Proof Finish
Water proof finishes are those finishes which will
not allow water to pass through regardless of the
These finishes also adversely affect the comfort
property as they limit the passage of air.
These finish is coated with a resin,wax and oil etc.
It can also be coated or laminated with a film of
natural or synthetic rubber or plastic.such as vinyl
Traditionally, waterproof fabric was made by coating
(like animal fat, wax, vegetable oils). Nowadays, uses
polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer.
Coated fabrics are, however, considered to be more
uncomfortable to wear than water-repellent fabric, as
they are relatively stiff and do not allow the escape of
perspiration of vapour.
‘A film on the surface of the fabric should be formed
for the prevention of air and water’.
When a uniform coating of suitable substances such
as rubber is produced on the surface of a fabric, the
interstices between the warp and weft yarns are
blocked by the continuous film or substance and both
water and air will not pass through the treated fabrics.
It is a chemical finish.
The fabric should not become unnecessarily stiff and the
fabric should have soil release or soil repellent property.
The finish should not alter the fastness properties or dyed
material, feel, strength etc., of the fabric.
It can be carried out by 2 methods,.
1. Hydrophobic substances are deposited on the cloth.
2. The fabric itself becomes hydrophobic.
Water-Resistant fabrics shed water because of their
weave or because they have been treated.
Heavily milled and raised wool fabric are densely
woven cotton,nylon or polyester with a hydrophobic
Resists penetration of water but is not waterproof.
Resists penetration of water for a limited time
depending upon the lengthof exposure and force of