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GLASS

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all about glass

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GLASS

  1. 1. By:Nabaa yousif
  2. 2. TOPICS _history of glass _composition of glass _glass preparation _types of glass _glass recycling _usages of glass
  3. 3. GLASS Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics
  4. 4. HISTORY OF GLASS ._First true glass was made in coastal north Syria _the story of glass dates back to ancient Egypt where glass-making became popular during the late bronze age. _Anglo-Saxon period glass was a luxury material across England. _in 10th century stained glass came to usage. _in 1330crwon glass was produced in rouen. _in 14th and 19th centuries stained glass employed in building purposes. _in 1843 henry bessemer invented float glass. _in 12th century reinfoorced glass and glass bricks came to usage.
  5. 5. COMPOSITION OF GLASS SiO2 Na2O CaO Al2O3 others
  6. 6. SILICA(sand) _silica is another name for the chemical compound SILICON SiO2))OXIDE _each unit of silica includes one atom of silicon and two atom of oxygen _physical properties of silica are 1.Solid in room temperature 2.Pure silica is colorless but if contaminants are present in a sample of quartz, it may be colored 3.Silica has very high melting and boiling points(3,110F)(4,046F) _silica reacts with hydrofluoric acid, it also reacts with metal oxide like sodium oxide or lead oxide ,these reactions are used to produce different types of glass
  7. 7. SODIUM and CALCIUM OXIDE _sodium oxide is added to reduce the melting point of soda ash))the sand _calcium oxide is added to prevent glass from being limestone))soluble in water
  8. 8. MANUFACTURE OF GLASS •FUSION OF RAW MATERIALS Step 1 •WORKING WITH MOLTEN MASSStep 2 •ANNEALINGStep 3
  9. 9. AMOROHOUS GLASS _Glass is called an amorphous solid because its atoms are arranged in a random fashion. because of its irregular atomic structure , when glass is broken, it produces a variety of fracture patterns.
  10. 10. COLORED GLASS _colored glasses are due to inclusion of ions of chemical elements like: _iron(Fe) _cobalt(Co) _nickel(Ni) _copper(Cu) _chromium(Cr) _magnesium(Mg)
  11. 11. TYPES and USES Of GLASS _fused glass _borosilicate glass _soda-line glass _lead crystal glass
  12. 12. FUSED GLASS _the simplest type of glass is fused glass . it consists mainly of silica. _fused glass is made by heating silica to a molten liquid . the liquid is then cooled rapidly to form an amorphous solid.
  13. 13. SODA-LIME GLASS Soda-lime glass is the most common and earliest used glass. It is made by heating silica with calcium oxide and sodium carbonate at around 1 500 c and cooling it quickly
  14. 14. BOROSILICATE GLASS _When boron oxide B2O3 is added to soda-lime glass,borosilicate glass is formed. _it has a lower thermal expansion coefficient. _it is about 3 times as heat-resistant as soda-lime glass. _it is also more resistant to chemical.
  15. 15. LEAD CRYSTAL GLASS _lead crystal glass is soft and easy to melt _it is more expansive than soda-lime glass _it is used for the finest tableware,lead crystal glassware and art objects. _it is suitable for fine crystal becaouse it is optically transparent and contain much more lead.
  16. 16. RECYCLING GLASS
  17. 17. THANK YOU ARIGATO KOZAYMAS

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