S.M. VIRAMANI

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S.M. VIRAMANI

  1. 1. Land use planning for sustaining soybeanproduction and conservation agriculture: Use of high science tools S M Virmani and P Padmavathi in association with Obireddy and D Sarkar Workshop on GIS Applications in Natural Resource Management National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, 20 to 23 February 2013 1 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  2. 2. Key words Sustainable Agriculture: Yield of crops as near to potential yields/ yields obtained at scientist managed plots; The land use can sustain abiotic shocks (eg. water deficit/ droughts) and has the capacity to return to normal quickly; and, The land use is economically viable and socially acceptable. 2 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  3. 3. High Science Tools:GIS: Geographical Information SystemsGPS: Geo Positioning SystemRS: Remotely Sensed Information or Data Continued.. 3 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  4. 4. The Context In early January 2012, the Prime Minister of India, noted that 42% of children in age group of 4-5 years are highly protein / calorie malnourished. He threw a gauntlet to the scientific community to meet this challenge. The Director General of ICAR called a meeting to suggest ways / means to meet this deficit in our country. It was suggested that soybeans, grown on some 11 million ha of land can meet both the protein and energy food needs. Soybeans contain 40% protein and 20% oil. CFTRI has made several preparations of soybean. In fact in China and in Africa soybean is one of major sources of protein to the humans. 4 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  5. 5. Area, output and yield of soybeans: 1973 to 2004 5 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  6. 6. Soybean data used for analysis:NBSS & LUP: 2005 to 06CRIDA: 2005 to 11 6 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  7. 7. Core Growing Area of Soybean Core Soybean Growing Area 1 (2005-06 to 2010-11) 14 16 2 13 4 17 9 5 10 11 15 12 6 Legend 7 Agro_eco_region 3 18 State Boundary 19 Core Soybean Growing area (000 ha) 8 20 10 - 41 41 - 88.3 88 - 151 151 - 227 227 - 432 7 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  8. 8. Soybean Productivity in Core Growing Area Soybean Productivity in Core Growing Area 1 (2005-06 to 2010-11) 14 16 2 13 4 17 9 5 10 11 15 12 6 Legend 7 Agro_eco_region 3 18 State Boundary 19 Productivity (Kg/ha) 8 404 - 691 20 691 - 933 933- 1190 1190 - 1513 1513 - 1956 8 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  9. 9. Soybean: Production and Productivity of the Core Districts State District Produ- Area Production % Cum. % Cum. % Prod- % Cum. Ratio ctivity (‘000 (‘000 tons) Area Area Area uction Prod- (kg/ha ha) uctionM.P Ujjain 1222 432.4 528.4 5.2 432.4 5.2 6.0 6.0 1.1M.P Shajpur 971 332.1 322.5 4.0 764.5 9.2 3.6 9.6 0.9M.P Dewas 1233 293.4 361.8 3.5 1057.9 12.7 4.1 13.7 1.2M.P Sehore 1255 279 350 3.4 1336.9 16.1 4.0 17.7 1.2M.P Rajgarh 1085 275.6 299.1 3.3 1612.5 19.4 3.4 21.1 1.0M.P Sagar 752 264.5 198.9 3.2 1877.0 22.6 2.3 23.3 0.7M.P Mandsaur 810 253.6 205.4 3.1 2130.7 25.7 2.3 25.6 0.8M.P Dhar 1348 252.1 339.9 3.0 2382.8 28.7 3.8 29.5 1.3MH Amravati 995 227.4 226.4 2.7 2610.2 31.4 2.6 32.0 0.9MH Nagpur 1023 223.6 228.7 2.7 2833.8 34.1 2.6 34.6 1.0RJ Jhalawar 1157 222.8 257.7 2.7 3056.6 36.8 2.9 37.5 1.1M.P Indore 1350 219 295.6 2.6 3275.6 39.4 3.3 40.9 1.3MH Yavatmal 794 217.6 172.8 2.6 3493.2 42.1 2.0 42.9 0.7M.P Hoshangabad 992 202.4 200.8 2.4 3695.6 44.5 2.3 45.1 0.9M.P Ratlam 1090 194.7 212.3 2.3 3890.3 46.8 2.4 47.5 1.0M.P Betul 1085 189.3 205.3 2.3 4079.5 49.1 2.3 49.8 1.0MH Washim 847 176.9 149.9 2.1 4256.5 51.3 1.7 51.5 0.8RJ Baren 1213 174.4 211.6 2.1 4430.9 53.4 2.4 53.9 1.1MH Buldhana 933 169.2 157.9 2.0 4600.1 55.4 1.8 55.7 0.9MH Wardha 904 169 152.7 2.0 4769.1 57.4 1.7 57.5 0.8M.P Harda 1483 166.3 246.6 2.0 4935.4 59.4 2.8 60.2 1.4M.P Vidisha 1068 166.1 177.3 2.0 5101.5 61.4 2.0 62.2 1.0MH Latur 1149 159.6 183.5 1.9 5261.1 63.4 2.1 64.3 1.1M.P Guna 1090 159.4 173.8 1.9 5420.5 65.3 2.0 66.3 1.0M.P Khandwa 692 151.9 105.1 1.8 5572.4 67.1 1.2 67.5 0.7MH Nanded 871 143.3 124.9 1.7 5715.7 68.8 1.4 68.9 0.8MH Chandrapur 848 141 119.6 1.7 5856.7 70.5 1.4 70.2 0.8M.P Chindwara 1206 140.4 169.3 1.7 5997.1 72.2 1.9 72.2 1.1M.P Neemach 801 121.7 97.5 1.5 6118.8 73.7 1.1 73.3 0.8RJ Kota 1239 116.3 144.1 1.4 6235.1 75.1 1.6 74.9 1.2MH Hingoli 1068 114.6 122.4 1.4 6349.6 76.5 1.4 76.3 1.0RJ Chittorgarh 997 107.8 107.5 1.3 6457.4 77.8 1.2 77.5 0.9M.P Shivpuri 791 107.3 84.9 1.3 6564.7 79.1 1.0 78.5 0.7M.P Raisen 1139 105.2 119.8 1.3 6669.9 80.3 1.4 79.8 1.1 9 Number of districts: 34 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  10. 10. % Irrigated area in Core Soybean Growing Area Percent Irrigated Area in Core Soybean Growing Area Soybean is primarily a dryland crop Legend State Boundary Percent Irrigated Area 2007-2009 < 20 20- 40 40 - 60 60 - 80 80 - 100 10 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  11. 11. % of Soybean Area to Total Area in Core Growing Area % of Soybean Area to Total Area 1 14 16 2 13 4 17 9 5 10 11 15 12 6 Legend 7 Agro_eco_region 3 18 State Boundary 19 Percentage of Soybean area to total area in the country 8 (% Area) 20 0.1 - 0.5 0.5- 1 1 - 1.8 1.8 - 2.7 11 2.7 - 5.2 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  12. 12. Growth in soybean area and output since 1971 to 2005Period Area Output Yield Share in gross (‘000 ha) (‘000 tons) (kg/ha) cropped area (%)1971/72 30 25 819 0.181975/76 to 1979/80 243 196 805 0.141980/81 to 1984/85 786 594 755 0.451985/86 to 1989/90 1679 1233 734 0.941990/91 to 1994/95 3645 3432 941 1.961995/96 to 1999/2000 5794 6232 1076 3.052000/01 to 2004/05 6616 6254 945 3.54Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance, Ministry of Agriculture, GOI, various issues 12 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  13. 13. Soil Drainage in Core Soybean Growing Area 13 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  14. 14. Soil Erosion in Core Soybean Growing Area 14 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  15. 15. Soybean: Comparison of low and high productivity in selected districts /AERsDistrict / AER AESR LGP Rainfall PE (mm) ProductivityState (days) (mm) (kg/ha)Bhind/ North Plains and 4.3 120-150 700-900 1400-1600 745M.P Central HighlandsGwalior/ 4.4 120-150 800-1000 1400-1600 1946M.PLatur/ Deccan Plateau, 6.2 120-150 700-1000 1700-1900 1149MH Hot Semi-AridNizamabad/ 6.2 120-150 700-1000 1700-1900 1604A.P 15 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  16. 16. Reference and Target Districts of Madhya Pradesh STATE: MADHYA PRADESH PRIORITY Reference District Target District 1 TIKAMGARH CHHATARPUR 1 GWALIOR SHIVPURI 1 JHABUA BARWANI 2 GWALIOR SHEOPUR 2 RAJGARH SHAJAPUR 2 NARSIMHAPUR REWA 2 CHHINDWARA SEONI 2 CHHINDWARA HOSHANGABAD 2 CHHINDWARA SATNA 2 CHHINDWARA SIDHI 2 INDORE WEST NIMAR 2 DEWAS EAST NIMAR 2 DHAR JHABUA 2 RATLAM MANDSAUR 2 RATLAM NEEMURCH 3 NARSIMHAPUR RAISEN 16 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  17. 17. Reference and Target Districts of Maharashtra STATE: MAHARASHTRA PRIORITY Reference District Target District 2 AKOLA BULDANA 2 AKOLA AMRAVATI 2 NAGPUR WARDHA 2 NAGPUR CHANDRAPUR 2 NAGPUR YAVATMAL 2 HINGOLI NANDED 2 LATUR OSMANABAD 2 JALNA BID 2 SATARA AHMADNAGAR 2 SATARA NASHIK 3 JALGAON AKOLA 3 JALGAON NANDURBAR 3 JALGAON DHULE 3 JALGAON NASHIK 17 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  18. 18. Soybean: Preliminary Survey Results Low yields are related to;  Land management practices  Non planting on ridges & furrows  Not adequately P, N & Zn fertilized  Seed not renewed at regular intervals  Poor drainage  Poor germination/ plant standSelected KVKs in Maharashtra and M.P 18 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  19. 19. Future.. Select districts and train KVK scientists for increasing productivity Continued.. 19 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  20. 20. Year Import (‘000 tons) 1990/91 22 Target districts with 1000-1200 kg ha-1 1991/92 22 productivity raise it to 2000 kg ha-1 in 1992/93 62 3-5 years time. 1993/94 29 1994/95 39 1995/96 101 Use GIS and GPS technologies. 1996/97 21 1997/98 46 Employ farmer – farmer transfer of 1998/99 440 ‘Good production technologies’. 1999/2000 610 2000/01 583 2001/02 1358 Our current import bill for soybean oil is 2002/03 1197 very high. 2003/04 993 2004/05 1048 Source: Monthly Statistics of Foreign Trade in India, Volume I, Annual Number, Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence 20 & Statistics, Kolkata, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, GOI National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  21. 21. Acknowledgement:Drs. K V Rao and Ch Srinivasa Rao, CRIDA, HyderabadDr. Ramesh Chand, Director, NCAP, New Delhi Thank you.. 21 National Academy of Agricultural Research Management

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