Chapter 2:Chemistry of Life

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Chapter 2:Chemistry of Life

  1. 1. Fig. 2-0
  2. 2. Fig. 2-0a
  3. 3. Fig. 2-0b
  4. 4. Fig. 2-0c
  5. 5. Fig. 2-1
  6. 6. Fig. 2-2a
  7. 7. Fig. 2-2b
  8. 8. Fig. 2-3 Sodium Chloride Chlorine Sodium +
  9. 9. Fig. 2-3a Sodium
  10. 10. Fig. 2-3b Chlorine
  11. 11. Fig. 2-3c Sodium Chloride
  12. 12. Fig. 2-4a Electron cloud Protons 2e – Nucleus Electrons Mass number = 4 Neutrons 2 2 2
  13. 13. Fig. 2-4b Electron cloud Protons 6e – Nucleus Electrons Mass number = 12 Neutrons 6 6 6
  14. 14. Table 2-4
  15. 15. Fig. 2-5a
  16. 16. Fig. 2-5b Healthy brain Alzheimer’s patient
  17. 17. Fig. 2-6 Magnesium Lithium Hydrogen Third shell First shell Second shell Sodium Beryllium Aluminum Boron Silicon Carbon Phosphorus Nitrogen Sulfur Oxygen Chlorine Fluorine Argon Neon Helium
  18. 18. Fig. 2-7a-1 Na Sodium atom Transfer of electron Cl Chlorine atom
  19. 19. Fig. 2-7a-2 Na Sodium atom Transfer of electron Cl Chlorine atom Na + Sodium ion Cl – Chloride ion Sodium chloride (NaCl) + –
  20. 20. Fig. 2-7b Na + Cl –
  21. 21. Fig. 2-8
  22. 22. Fig. 2-8a
  23. 23. Fig. 2-8b
  24. 24. Fig. 2-9 (–) (–) O H H (+) (+)
  25. 25. Fig. 2-10 Hydrogen bond
  26. 26. Fig. 2-11
  27. 27. Fig. 2-12
  28. 28. Fig. 2-13a Liquid water Hydrogen bonds constantly break and re-form Ice Hydrogen bonds are stable Hydrogen bond
  29. 29. Fig. 2-13b
  30. 30. Fig. 2-14 Ion in solution Salt crystal
  31. 31. Fig. 2-15 Acidic solution pH scale Battery acid 0 1 2 3 4 5 Lemon juice, gastric juice Grapefruit juice, soft drink, vinegar, beer Tomato juice Rain water Human urine Saliva Pure water 6 7 Human blood, tears Seawater 8 9 10 11 12 13 Milk of magnesia Household ammonia Household bleach Oven cleaner Neutral solution Basic solution NEUTRAL [H + ]=OH – ] Increasingly ACIDIC (Higher concentration of H + ) 14 Increasingly BASIC (Lower concentration of H + )
  32. 32. Fig. 2-15a Acidic solution Neutral solution Basic solution
  33. 33. Fig. 2-16
  34. 34. Fig. 2-17 August 1999 September 2005 New deposit
  35. 35. Fig. 2-18 2 H 2 O 2 2 H 2 O
  36. 36. Fig. 2-UN1
  37. 37. Fig. 2-UN2 electron transfer between atoms creates electron sharing between atoms creates Chemical Bonds atomic number of each element water nonpolar covalent bonds (e) ions (f) (g) (h) attraction between ions creates unequal sharing creates can lead to example is equal sharing creates has important qualities due to polarity and have positively charged have neutral have negatively charged number in outer shell determines formation of number may differ in number present equals (a) Atoms (b) (c) (d)
  38. 38. Fig. 2-UN2a atomic number of each element have positively charged have neutral have negatively charged number in outer shell determines formation of number may differ in number present equals (a) Atoms (b) (c) (d)
  39. 39. Fig. 2-UN2b electron transfer between atoms creates electron sharing between atoms creates Chemical Bonds water nonpolar covalent bonds (e) ions (f) (g) (h) attraction between ions creates unequal sharing creates can lead to example is equal sharing creates has important qualities due to polarity and
  40. 40. Fig. 2-UN3 Potassium atom Fluorine atom

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