Commercial Data Processing Intro


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Commercial Data Processing Intro

  1. 1. Commercial Data Processing Sometimes known as CDP
  2. 2. What is CDP? <ul><li>It is the use of computers by business to do the work that is normally handled by clerical staff. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Data Processing cycle <ul><li>There are several steps to CDP </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection and preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Data input </li></ul><ul><li>Data storage and manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Information output </li></ul>
  4. 4. Collecting and preparing <ul><li>Tags on clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Helps the store keep control of their stock </li></ul><ul><li>Can change the price once centrally </li></ul>P
  5. 5. Bar Codes This is a series of vertical lines of varying thickness. These are read by a laser pen or laser which converts it to binary code
  6. 6. Magnetic Strip <ul><li>Similar to bar codes only the binary information is contained in a magnetic strip </li></ul><ul><li>Bank cards are a good example of this form of input </li></ul>
  7. 7. Optical Character recognition <ul><li>Used in gas and electricity bills where the customer returns the ocr printed invoice with the payment. </li></ul><ul><li>The characters are read directly from the documents </li></ul><ul><li>This is called a turnaround document.same doc sent back as was sent out +payment. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Magnetic Ink Character recognition <ul><li>MICR </li></ul><ul><li>Uses magnetic ink to print info on cheques. </li></ul><ul><li>Banks can speed up their processing </li></ul><ul><li>Cheque forgery more difficult </li></ul>
  9. 9. Smart Cards <ul><li>Hold info on a chip instead of magnetic stripe. </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult to forge </li></ul><ul><li>Hold a lot of data </li></ul><ul><li>Chip and pin now in shops </li></ul>
  10. 10. Point of Sales Terminals <ul><li>POS: Shops use these to enter data about goods being purchased. </li></ul><ul><li>It reads in the data using barcodes. </li></ul><ul><li>It totals the cost before printing the receipt </li></ul><ul><li>Info about the purchase sent to stock control that monitors stock levels. Automatically generates orders to keep stock levels up. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: Stock control carried out by computer rather than staff </li></ul><ul><li>Customer bills calculated accurately </li></ul><ul><li>Bar codes means goods are processed quicker </li></ul><ul><li>Prices can be adjustesd using the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Sjelves always stocked! </li></ul>
  11. 11. How is data input checked? <ul><li>When lot of data input it is easy to make mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Most input mentioned is key to disc which means that there is less likelihood of human error </li></ul><ul><li>Verification: operator at keyboard asked to confirm details Y/N? </li></ul><ul><li>Validation:checks made by computer </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Validation <ul><li>Eg. Range check.. Checking within certain boundaries age can’t be less than 1 or greater than 150. </li></ul><ul><li>Length.. If account no 10 numbers long then less than 10 or more than 10 input would be invalid </li></ul><ul><li>Type of data.. If text expected then numbers would not be allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Presence check: checks to make sure data not been completely left out </li></ul><ul><li>Check digits:a number calculated by computer to ensure other numbers in sequence entered correctly. PIN that’s used wuth credit cards </li></ul>
  13. 13. Electronic funds Transfer <ul><li>EFT:Transfers money directly between bank and accounts using computer systems. Bank debit cards used </li></ul><ul><li>Card is passed through a reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticates card </li></ul><ul><li>Customers bank then contacted to see if enough funds available </li></ul><ul><li>If enough funds, transaction carried out </li></ul><ul><li>Receipt printed and funds electronically transferred to shops account </li></ul>
  14. 14. Who Benefits? <ul><li>Customers need not carry large amounts of cash around </li></ul><ul><li>Companies get payments for their products transferred straight into their accounts </li></ul>
  15. 15. Processing and Storing Data <ul><li>There are 2 types of processing </li></ul><ul><li>INTERACTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>BATCH </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interactive Processing <ul><li>Relies on REAL TIME processing </li></ul><ul><li>The computer system processes the data immediately data entered. User has immediate feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Booking cinema theatre, flight tickets </li></ul>
  17. 17. Batch processing <ul><li>All the jobs that come in during the day are saved up and then processed all at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>This is usually done at night when computer processor not being used for other things. User input not generally needed once initial input started. </li></ul><ul><li>Bank statements, gas and electricity bills and salary lsips are all batch processed </li></ul>
  18. 18. File Storage <ul><li>Held on Hard drives </li></ul><ul><li>Backing storage would have employee information, customer information… </li></ul><ul><li>The data in files is constantly updated to make sure files are accurate. </li></ul><ul><li>Files are backed up regularly incase data needs to be recovered immediatley </li></ul>
  19. 19. Multi-user Database <ul><li>A database that allows many users to access at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>If authorised user can update data for other users </li></ul><ul><li>E-booking: can book self in on a flight. Passenger info held on multiuser database updated as passengers check in. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sequential and Random Access to Files <ul><li>Sequential access: goes to each record in file one after other. </li></ul><ul><li>Used mostly for backup as slow to access the data. ( Tapes) </li></ul><ul><li>Random or Direct access: System goes directly to data it requires. Essential for interactive processing where data processed immediately. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Output of Information <ul><li>Computer Data Processing systems use very powerful systems known as mainframe computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Large internal memory </li></ul><ul><li>High capacity of backing storage </li></ul><ul><li>Terminals are usually attached to them ( monitor, keyboard ) </li></ul><ul><li>Output usually via Monitors or printers </li></ul>
  22. 22. CDP Jobs <ul><li>Systems Analyst: decides what computer hardware and software needed to do the job.Oversees the installation and testing of the entire system </li></ul><ul><li>Programmers: take the software design that system analyst produces, writes and tests the programs </li></ul>
  23. 23. Jobs contd <ul><li>Engineers: install the hardware and cabelling and called in to carry out maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Network Manager: controls who gets access to system. User id codes, level of priority permission </li></ul><ul><li>Controls installation of hardware and software </li></ul>
  24. 24. E-Commerce <ul><li>This is the use of networks to allow people to buy and sell goods </li></ul><ul><li>Travel: People can now book their train seats, flights, hotel rooms by using an on-line booking system.People can not only book seats but check themselves in at airport </li></ul>
  25. 25. Costs <ul><li>Initial costs of system </li></ul><ul><li>Buying hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Installing the cabels </li></ul><ul><li>Employing system analysts and programmers </li></ul><ul><li>Training courses </li></ul>
  26. 26. Costs : running <ul><li>Wages of ICT staff, maintenance, instalation of new hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Consumables:paper, toner backup tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity and communication bills </li></ul>
  27. 27. Crime and data security <ul><li>Hacking: stealing ID and passwords to access system </li></ul><ul><li>Copying sensitive data </li></ul><ul><li>Installing viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Stealing money from accounts </li></ul>
  28. 28. Security <ul><li>Data Protection Act : companies must have security measures in place to keep personal info safe </li></ul><ul><li>Passwords, locked safes, keypad access. Virus protection and disinfectants </li></ul><ul><li>Only relevent staff get access to certain info </li></ul><ul><li>Smartcards that hold eye scan info </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption: data encoded so hackers cannot understand it. </li></ul>