Nicolas Maisonneuve
speech at Design School ENSAD 2012
The territory of expertise:
machine vs. human expert vs. group of
a...
The raise of machines
CERN- the Large Hadron Collider
Computer Room (2008)
8,000 servers housing 40,000 processor
Experiments produce about 15 petabytes of data per year (= 1.5...
First computer in CERN ?
Wim Klein 

first computer in action at CERN

(when machine was slower than human)
Wim Klein worked at CERN from 1958 to 1...
First computer in CERN (Wim Klein)

When machine was slower than human
CERN -Farewell Party -
http://www.youtube.com/watch...
Wait a minute.. 

48 x 65 x 37 x 84 = ?
(yes.. I checked all the results of the
video)
Wait a minute.. 

48 x 65 x 37 x 84 = 9696960
In Science repeatability >> speed:
• Human experts make sometime mistakes
• ...
Intelligence: Human expertise/capability vs. machine
• Yes but computation is a “stupid” activity, humans
are more “intell...
Moravec Paradox & The nature of intelligence
“The main lesson of thirty-five years of AI
research is that. the hard proble...
1969 by neuroscientist
Paul Bach-y-Rita et al.
SIDE NOTE:
Cognition and intelligence development
sensorimotor skills and i...
Turing Test
Modern example, the captcha
Recognizing words is too
hard for machines, but easy
for people.
= Testing the mac...
!
!
The raise of crowdsourcing
and the decentralization of expertise
Crowdsourcing not a new practice: 

distributed computing in the old days
 a computer at work 1940.
(Human) Computer < 195...
Modern examples
[1]- Jim Giles, « Special Report Internet encyclopaedias go head to head » Nature 438, 900-901
(Dec 2005)
...
Expert vs amateurs, another kind of Turing
Test..
Croatia's Ruđer Bošković Institute website
• Against spammer and beginne...
micro-task economy
• Amazon Mechanical Turk (2005 – present)
>80.000 HITs (Human Intelligence Tasks)
(Science: low cost li...
and what about school? 

Change in teaching expertise/skill)
Victor Papanek, Design pour un monde réel, 1971
Khan Academy
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gM95HHI4gLk
"23
"24
Human Expert
Machine Crowd
How to make them
collaborate and not
only compete?
Open General Question
The territory of expertise: machine vs. human expert vs. group of amateurs.
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The territory of expertise: machine vs. human expert vs. group of amateurs.

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The territory of expertise: machine vs. human expert vs. group of amateurs. Discovering the rise of machine and amateurs in the realm of expertise.

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The territory of expertise: machine vs. human expert vs. group of amateurs.

  1. 1. Nicolas Maisonneuve speech at Design School ENSAD 2012 The territory of expertise: machine vs. human expert vs. group of amateurs
  2. 2. The raise of machines
  3. 3. CERN- the Large Hadron Collider
  4. 4. Computer Room (2008) 8,000 servers housing 40,000 processor Experiments produce about 15 petabytes of data per year (= 1.500.000 giga) – 5% of internet in 2001
  5. 5. First computer in CERN ?
  6. 6. Wim Klein 
 first computer in action at CERN
 (when machine was slower than human) Wim Klein worked at CERN from 1958 to 1976
  7. 7. First computer in CERN (Wim Klein)
 When machine was slower than human CERN -Farewell Party - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=urFiv_PQ2FQ
  8. 8. Wait a minute.. 
 48 x 65 x 37 x 84 = ? (yes.. I checked all the results of the video)
  9. 9. Wait a minute.. 
 48 x 65 x 37 x 84 = 9696960 In Science repeatability >> speed: • Human experts make sometime mistakes • Machine repeat a mistake forever => much better In 1973 the CERN started to use machines. Klein retired in 1976 (HP vs Klein) ! Expertise in computation: Machine, winner since the 70s (don’t trust experts)
  10. 10. Intelligence: Human expertise/capability vs. machine • Yes but computation is a “stupid” activity, humans are more “intelligent” than machine. • Fair enough, what about Chess? Chess = Traditional challenge in Artificial Intelligence ! Expertise in Chess: Machine, winner since 2003 ! But is it a real victory for the A.I field?Kasparov vs. machine (Deep blue)
  11. 11. Moravec Paradox & The nature of intelligence “The main lesson of thirty-five years of AI research is that. the hard problems are easy and the easy problems are hard” Linguist and cognitive scientist Steven Pinker  Kasparov vs. machine (2003) Fake victory of AI (brut force computation) “It is easy to make computers exhibit adult level performance on intelligence tests or playing checkers, and difficult or impossible to give them the skills of a one- year-old when it comes to perception and mobility” - 1988 Moravec
  12. 12. 1969 by neuroscientist Paul Bach-y-Rita et al. SIDE NOTE: Cognition and intelligence development sensorimotor skills and instincts that we share with the animals require enormous computational resources compared to symbolic thinking
  13. 13. Turing Test Modern example, the captcha Recognizing words is too hard for machines, but easy for people. = Testing the machine's ability to exhibit intelligence human expertise. Traditional Turing Test: a conversion. ! If, during a conversation, machine can fool the interrogator into thinking that it is human, then it pass the test
  14. 14. ! ! The raise of crowdsourcing and the decentralization of expertise
  15. 15. Crowdsourcing not a new practice: 
 distributed computing in the old days  a computer at work 1940. (Human) Computer < 1950 The First World War required large numbers of human computers. The Mathematical Tables Project • 450 'human computers' mostly people with low incomes • Worker  split up according to arithmetic function (+, -,* , if skilled /)
  16. 16. Modern examples [1]- Jim Giles, « Special Report Internet encyclopaedias go head to head » Nature 438, 900-901 (Dec 2005) Encyclopaedia expertise: Amateurs winner since 2005 vs. professionals (Wikipedia vs Encyclopaedia Britannica - [1]) Image interpretation expertise: amateurs still winner vs. machine (e.g. Galaxy zoo’s project: 60M of images of galaxies classified in few months by 80.000 amateurs with high accuracy, too hard for the machines (and the amateurs teached the machine [2]) [2] The output data was used to improve the algorithm
  17. 17. Expert vs amateurs, another kind of Turing Test.. Croatia's Ruđer Bošković Institute website • Against spammer and beginners… • Extra-hard version of a regular CAPTCHA-type
  18. 18. micro-task economy • Amazon Mechanical Turk (2005 – present) >80.000 HITs (Human Intelligence Tasks) (Science: low cost living lab for social/behavior research)
  19. 19. and what about school? 
 Change in teaching expertise/skill)
  20. 20. Victor Papanek, Design pour un monde réel, 1971
  21. 21. Khan Academy • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gM95HHI4gLk
  22. 22. "23
  23. 23. "24 Human Expert Machine Crowd How to make them collaborate and not only compete? Open General Question

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