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Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D.
Stevens Institute of Technology
Howe School of Technology Management
Center for Business Proces...
Learning Objectives
At the end of this module you will know
The core components of BPMN 2.0
Activities
Sequence Flow
Gatew...
3
Background
BPMN stands for Business Process Model & Notation
Developed by Object Management Group (OMG)
BPMN 1.0 specifi...
What does BPMN do?
BPMN specifies a Business Process Diagram (BPD)
Requirements:
Easy to model BPDs and easy to understand...
A BPMN Model
5
Loan	
  
Application

approved
Loan	
  
Application

rejected
Tasks
Ac#vi#es	
  /	
  Steps	
  /	
  Tasks	
  
Tasks are units of work that are
performed within a process.
The same task ...
BPMN Elements – Gateways
Exclusive OR Split/Merge
Indicates locations within a business process where the
sequence flow ca...
Core BPMN Elements (ctd.)
Events
Events are used to link otherwise unrelated activities and
processes with each other.
Eve...
BPMN Elements - Pools
Pools represent business process par#cipants. They are used to partition a set of activities from
ot...
BPMN Elements - Lanes
Lanes represent sub-partitions within a pool. They are used to organize and
categorize activities.
L...
Now let’s start modeling…
The Order Management process is triggered by the receipt of a
purchase order from a customer.
Th...
A Potential Solution
12
Order

fulfilled
Order

rejected
Loan Example
The Loan Request process starts when the customer submits a
loan application. The bank then reviews the appli...
Loan Example – Simple Sequence
The customer applies for a loan, the bank reviews the
application, notifies the customer, t...
Loan Example – Split
The customer applies for a loan, then the bank reviews the
application. If the loan is approved, an a...
No Branching without Decisions
Gateways do not make decisions -
they just evaluate the results of
decision-making activiti...
Loan Example – Parallel Activities
While the applicant’s employment records are verified, a credit report is requested
and...
Modeling Error – Parallel Activities
An XOR join after an AND split will
result in duplicate tokens
downstream. Everything...
Loan Example
The complete process
19
Loan	
  
Application

approved
Loan	
  
Application

rejected
BPMN Elements – Artifacts
Text Annotations are a mechanism for the modeler
to provide additional text information to the
d...
Summary
BPMN has four main classes of symbols:
Activities
Sequence Flow
Gateways
Events
Avoid modeling mistakes, in partic...
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BPMN 2.0 Tutorial 01 - Basic Constructs

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Fundamental modeling constructs of BPMN 2.0 - Activity, Gateway, Sequence Flow, Pool and Lane. Part of the Business Process Management coursework at Stevens Institute of Technology.

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BPMN 2.0 Tutorial 01 - Basic Constructs

  1. 1. Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D. Stevens Institute of Technology Howe School of Technology Management Center for Business Process Innovation Hoboken, New Jersey Michael.zurMuehlen@stevens.edu Introduction to BPMN 2.0 Part 1: Basic Constructs 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives At the end of this module you will know The core components of BPMN 2.0 Activities Sequence Flow Gateways Start and End Events Strategies for model layout Common modeling pitfalls 2
  3. 3. 3 Background BPMN stands for Business Process Model & Notation Developed by Object Management Group (OMG) BPMN 1.0 specification released in May, 2004 BPMN 2.0 specification released in January 2011 Based on the leading graphical flowcharting techniques e.g., UML, IDEF, Flowcharts, EPCs … 3
  4. 4. What does BPMN do? BPMN specifies a Business Process Diagram (BPD) Requirements: Easy to model BPDs and easy to understand the result
 (must be understandable to non-technical audiences) Able to depict complex business processes 
 (must be translatable to process execution languages) Approach BPMN uses shapes that are familiar to most modelers 
 (e.g., rectangles for functions, diamonds for gateways). Each of the shapes can be used in a simplistic manner or can be embellished to refine its semantics 
 (e.g., further subtypes of events, activities, gateways). 4
  5. 5. A BPMN Model 5 Loan   Application
 approved Loan   Application
 rejected
  6. 6. Tasks Ac#vi#es  /  Steps  /  Tasks   Tasks are units of work that are performed within a process. The same task may be enacted in different processes and on different objects. Thus, tasks should be designed in a reusable fashion. Tasks are depicted by rounded rectangles and represent any work performed in a process. Task vs. Sub-Processes Tasks  should  be  named  in  Verb-­‐ Object  style,  with  the  Object   represen#ng  the  piece  of  data  being   inspected  or  transformed  in  the  task 6
  7. 7. BPMN Elements – Gateways Exclusive OR Split/Merge Indicates locations within a business process where the sequence flow can take two or more alternative paths and only one of the paths can be taken. In a merge, the first path to arrive at the gateway triggers the gateway, all other incoming paths are ignored. Parallel Split/Merge Provides a mechanism to synchronize parallel flow and to create parallel flow. All outgoing paths must be taken and all incoming paths must be merged. Inclusive Split/Merge Provides a mechanism to model situations in which one or more alternatives can be taken or where one or more alternatives can trigger subsequent action. 7
  8. 8. Core BPMN Elements (ctd.) Events Events are used to link otherwise unrelated activities and processes with each other. Events are especially useful to model the behavior of external entities Events should be thought of as interfaces to the process context Events are depicted by circles and represent something that “happens” during the course of a process. Events depict the cause (trigger) and impact (result) of business processes. Start, Intermediate, End Different types of Events 8
  9. 9. BPMN Elements - Pools Pools represent business process par#cipants. They are used to partition a set of activities from other pools. Pools can be a system, a business entity or a business role Each process diagram contains at least one pool (even if it is not shown) A Pool can be labeled with the name  of  the  process  contained therein or the name  of  the   par#cipant it represents A Pool acts as the container for the sequence flow between activities. 
 Sequence flow must  not  cross the boundaries of a Pool. The interaction between Pools, e.g., between two collaborating organizations, is shown through Message  Flow. 9
  10. 10. BPMN Elements - Lanes Lanes represent sub-partitions within a pool. They are used to organize and categorize activities. Lanes can be nested (common) Example: An outer set of Lanes for Business Units and then an inner set of Lanes for roles within each Business Unit. Lanes can be used to represent participant roles (e.g., Manager, Associate), systems (e.g., SAP), business units (e.g., Marketing, Sales), etc. Both sequence flow and message flow can cross the boundaries of Lanes. 10
  11. 11. Now let’s start modeling… The Order Management process is triggered by the receipt of a purchase order from a customer. The purchase order is checked against inventory levels for the product(s) requested. Depending on inventory availability the purchase order may be confirmed or rejected. If the purchase order is confirmed, the goods requested are shipped and an invoice is sent to the customer. 11
  12. 12. A Potential Solution 12 Order
 fulfilled Order
 rejected
  13. 13. Loan Example The Loan Request process starts when the customer submits a loan application. The bank then reviews the application. Whether the loan request is approved or not, a letter is sent to inform the customer of the decision. If the request is approved, the loan is underwritten. Hint: Keep it simple, and focus on the “happy path” of loan approval. 13
  14. 14. Loan Example – Simple Sequence The customer applies for a loan, the bank reviews the application, notifies the customer, then underwrites the loan. 14 Loan
 Underwritten
  15. 15. Loan Example – Split The customer applies for a loan, then the bank reviews the application. If the loan is approved, an acceptance letter is sent and the loan is underwritten, otherwise a rejection letter is sent. 15 Note: A Gateway does not actively decide anything. It evaluates the outcome of the preceding review activity. Gateways are passive elements that just route the flow. Loan
 Underwritten Application
 Rejected
  16. 16. No Branching without Decisions Gateways do not make decisions - they just evaluate the results of decision-making activities to route the flow of work Always model the decision-making task before you split the sequence flow with an XOR or OR gateway 16
  17. 17. Loan Example – Parallel Activities While the applicant’s employment records are verified, a credit report is requested and then reviewed, and the property title is obtained and evaluated. Once these activities have been completed, the final review is performed and the loan application is eventually approved or rejected. 17 ... ...
  18. 18. Modeling Error – Parallel Activities An XOR join after an AND split will result in duplicate tokens downstream. Everything after the XOR join will be executed twice. An AND join after an XOR split will result in a deadlock. The process cannot progress beyond the merging gateway 18
  19. 19. Loan Example The complete process 19 Loan   Application
 approved Loan   Application
 rejected
  20. 20. BPMN Elements – Artifacts Text Annotations are a mechanism for the modeler to provide additional text information to the diagram reader. Text annotations do not affect the flow of the process. Groups are a visual mechanism to logically group diagram elements informally. The grouping does not affect the sequence flow and does not change the meaning of the elements contained within the group. 20
  21. 21. Summary BPMN has four main classes of symbols: Activities Sequence Flow Gateways Events Avoid modeling mistakes, in particular with gateways Artifacts are used for embellishing the model 21

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