Media Analysis and Criticism


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Media Analysis and Criticism

  1. 1. Media Analysis and Criticism (moving image media)
  2. 2. What is a text ? <ul><li>A text is: any media product that we can analyze in terms of its meanings . </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., film, television show, magazine, newspaper, book, radio program, music recording, website (or a portion of these things). </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is textual analysis ? <ul><li>To analyze : to break something down into its components/parts </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze a text : to consider its parts, to ask why creators chose those parts and arrangements rather than other parts and other arrangements </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is textual analysis ? <ul><li>In an audiovisual medium, we can analyze: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangement of parts as images and sounds through audiovisual techniques= style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangement of parts into a narrative (story) or non-narrative form </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Narrative Form <ul><li>How are parts combined? </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative : representation of events linked by causality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A causes B; B causes C; C causes D, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Narrative Form <ul><li>Narrative elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning (exposition), middle and end (conclusion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plot vs. story : plot is the story as presented in the narrative (some stories begin in the middle -- in medias res </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conflict is central to most narratives, and the way the conflict is framed and resolved usually is central to a story’s meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diegesis : the story world. What is outside of the diegesis? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Non-Narrative Form <ul><li>Other ways of combining events/images </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., a series of images set to music might be non-narrative </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., commercials might be non-narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Still images are typically non-narrative (print ads, photographs, etc.) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Style <ul><li>audio-visual techniques (images & sounds) </li></ul><ul><li>All media texts have style, i.e., their distinctive way of combining elements </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3 aspects of visual style <ul><li>mise en scène </li></ul><ul><li>cinematography </li></ul><ul><li>editing </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mise en scène <ul><li>literally, “put into the scene” </li></ul><ul><li>a/k/a staging </li></ul><ul><li>sets, costumes and makeup, acting, lighting </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>e.g., high-key vs. low-key lighting </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Depth staging--shallow space </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Depth staging--deep space </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Depth staging--deep vs. shallow </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cinematography <ul><li>photographic properties of the image </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depth of field: what is in focus? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focal length: short/normal/long lens? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Cinematography <ul><li>photographic properties of the image </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depth of field: what is in focus? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focal length: short/normal/long lens? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Cinematography <ul><li>positioning of the camera, aka “framing” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shot scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>camera angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>camera movement </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Shot scale: extreme long shot (ELS)
  19. 19. Shot scale: long shot (LS)
  20. 20. Shot scale: medium shot (MS)
  21. 21. Shot scale: medium close-up (MCU)
  22. 22. Shot scale: close-up (CU)
  23. 23. Shot scale: extreme close-up (ECU)
  24. 24. Angle: Straight
  25. 25. Angle: Low
  26. 26. Angle: High
  27. 27. Angle: Canted
  28. 28. Camera movement <ul><li>Panning/tilting </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking/craning </li></ul>
  29. 29. Editing <ul><li>relations between shots </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>temporal relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spatial relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>editing may maintain spatio-temporal continuity (presenting a scene in a single space/time) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>editing may create spatio-temporal discontinuity , e.g., flashback </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Continuity Editing <ul><li>maintains spatio-temporal continuity by matching shots </li></ul><ul><li>“ transparent” or “invisible” editing--you’re not supposed to notice it </li></ul>
  31. 31. Continuity Editing <ul><li>One matching technique: shot/reverse-shot (typically used in conversation scenes, maintains continuity of screen direction) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Discontinuity Editing <ul><li>In Veronica , flashbacks. How are these shifts in time marked? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Discontinuity Editing
  34. 34. Eyeline match/POV
  35. 76. Sound <ul><li>Elements of the soundtrack: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue (includes onscreen/offscreen, voice-over) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Noise” (e.g., doors closing, cars running, footsteps) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always consider sound in relation to image </li></ul>