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OH& S at Construction Sites in Australia


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  • Stephen,
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  • Hi Stephen, Thanks for the feedback.
    this work was prepared for a workshop at for OH&S at NMIT. You are right it will be boring in one sitting. I conducted this in three days session. it invoved lot of practical works, filling of templates and forms. The aim of updating this consolidate work was to offer you. Where you get maximum detail at one place.
    I am once agin thankfull to you.
    Muhammad Khan
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  • I hate to sit through 123 slides in one sitting, would have forgotten what the topic was.
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OH& S at Construction Sites in Australia

  2. 2. What can be likely results of poor OH&S measures? <ul><li>Loss of Life, injuries and Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Government fines & penalties, </li></ul><ul><li>Lawsuits </li></ul><ul><li>Negligence claims </li></ul><ul><li>Increased workers compensation premiums. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Are you at Risk in Australia? <ul><li>According to report workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injuries occur every 2.4 seconds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 12 workers are injured seriously enough to lodge workers compensation claims every year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 2500 work-related deaths annually…compared to 1, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>596 road fatalities and 300 homicides. (NOHSC, 2003). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Goal of OH& S <ul><li>The goal of all occupational health and safety programs is to foster a safe work environment. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) leads and coordinates national efforts to prevent workplace deaths, injury and disease in Australia. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Occupational Health & Safety (OHS) Related Acts and Regulations Guidance Notes Alerts Practical Guides Australian Standards Guidance Material Worksafe VIC OHS Regulations Minister OHS Act 2004 V IC Parliament Codes of Practice Compliance Codes Minister
  7. 7. OH&S Act 2004 <ul><li>Highest Level Of Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who matters </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Entitlement of Employees </li></ul>
  8. 8. OH&S Act 2004 <ul><li>Highest Level Of Protection . The employees, other persons at work and members of the public to be given highest level of protection against risk to their health and safety that is reasonably practicable in the circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who matters .Persons who control or manage matters are responsible for eliminating or reducing those risks so far as is reasonably practicable. </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Measures . Employers and self employed persons should be proactive and take all reasonable practical measures, to ensure health and safety at workplaces. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Exchange of Information . Employers and employees should exchange information and ideas about risk to health and safety and measures that can be taken to eliminate or reduce those risks </li></ul><ul><li>Entitlement of Employees . Employees are entitled, and should be encouraged, to be represented in relation to health and safety issues </li></ul>
  10. 10. Work Area Affected <ul><li>Plant/ equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Trenching </li></ul><ul><li>Roofing/perimeter protection </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical requirements and hazardous substances </li></ul>
  11. 11. Typical OH&S Items to Be Monitored <ul><li>Electrical cables carried in stirrups </li></ul><ul><li>Ladder fixed to walls </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding of the appropriate types </li></ul><ul><li>First aid provisions in the site sheds </li></ul><ul><li>A qualified First Aider at site </li></ul>
  12. 12. Induction and Likely Hazard <ul><li>All personnel visiting the site for extended periods should be inducted. </li></ul><ul><li>A simple schedule should be drawn up outlining likely hazards and risk factors on site. </li></ul><ul><li>On site personnel should be checked for their knowledge of those hazards and risks and schedule be signed off by each person </li></ul>
  13. 13. Most Common Construction Site Accidents <ul><li>Scaffolding Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Crane accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Electrocution (injury from electrical hazards) </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty or defective equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Forklift injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Machinery accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Visitor or pedestrian injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Workers falling from elevated heights </li></ul><ul><li>Workers struck by falling equipment or objects </li></ul>
  14. 14. More information <ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. Regulation and Guide Lines
  16. 23. Code of Practice - Plant
  17. 32. Plans
  18. 40. Definitions <ul><li>Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Out come </li></ul>
  19. 41. Hazards <ul><li>A hazard is something that can cause harm if not controlled. </li></ul>
  20. 42. Risk <ul><li>A risk is a combination of the probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved. </li></ul>
  21. 43. Outcome <ul><li>The outcome is the harm that results from an uncontrolled hazard. </li></ul>
  22. 44. Responsible Entities for Accidents <ul><li>Entities that maybe held liable in a construction accident lawsuit include: </li></ul><ul><li>• Property Owners • Contractors (including general contractors, prime contractors, and sub-contractors) • Construction Managers • Equipment Manufactures • Equipment Suppliers • Insurers </li></ul>
  23. 45. <ul><li>What sort of hazards we can perceive in this classroom… </li></ul>Hazard Perception <ul><li>Power-off </li></ul><ul><li>Fire (Short-circuit etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Suffocation </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic gas release </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake </li></ul>
  24. 46. HAZARD ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Hazard analysis or hazard assessment is a process in which individual hazards of the workplace are identified, assessed and controlled/eliminated as close to source (location of the hazard) as reasonable and possible . </li></ul>
  25. 47. RISK ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Modern occupational safety and health legislation usually demands that a risk assessment be carried out prior to making an intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be kept in mind that risk management requires risk to be managed to a level which is as low as is reasonably practical. </li></ul><ul><li>This assessment should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify all affected by the hazard and how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and prioritize appropriate control measures </li></ul></ul>
  26. 49. Duty of Care <ul><li>Duty of care outlines the basic responsibilities of employers. </li></ul><ul><li>These include: </li></ul><ul><li>Provision and maintenance of safe plant and work systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of a safe working environment and monitoring of safety conditions in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring that employees are given adequate information and instructions for maintaining work safety. </li></ul>
  27. 50. If you are an Employer… <ul><li>Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Contractors </li></ul><ul><li>Customers / Visitors </li></ul>As an Employer your duty of care obligations require: To provide a safe workplace for…
  28. 51. What you MUST have…
  29. 52. HEALTH AND SAFETY TOPICS.. <ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul><ul><li>Building and Structure Design </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying and Occupational Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Confined Spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Cranes and Lifting Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous Goods </li></ul><ul><li>Falls Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Forklifts </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Substances </li></ul><ul><li>Incident Notification </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Manual Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Material Safety Data Sheets </li></ul>
  30. 53. Health and Safety Topics.. <ul><li>No Go Zones </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Office Work </li></ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Map / Evacuation Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Management Roadside Worksites </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid </li></ul>
  31. 54. Alcohol
  32. 55. Alcohol <ul><li>Initial stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment of co-ordination, judgment, intellectual capacity and ability to act quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul><ul><li>Slurred speech </li></ul><ul><li>Headache, shakiness, nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>In longer term, toxic to the brain, liver, heart and stomach </li></ul>Possible effects of alcohol on performance include:
  33. 56. Alcohol The highest rate of drinking is among administrative and executive staff. Other heavy drinking occupations include mine workers, salespersons, clerical staff, professionals, transport workers, trades people and labourers.
  34. 57. Workplace Alcohol Policy Alcohol in the workplace, alcohol policy and program development, information and training, employee assistance programs (EAPs), approaching a worker under the influence, counseling and discipline procedure, how alcohol and chemicals affect performance and tips for setting out a workplace alcohol policy.
  35. 58. Asbestos
  36. 59. Asbestos <ul><li>Australia has the highest incidence of asbestos-related cancer in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to asbestos fibres in the air can cause a range of lung diseases and diseases of related tissue, including mesothelioma, a form of cancer which is usually fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the danger that it poses, asbestos has been banned. </li></ul><ul><li>However, a large amount of asbestos-containing material is still present in the community and there is a significant risk, particularly for workers carrying out asbestos removal as well as refurbishment and demolition work. </li></ul>
  37. 60. Building & Structure Design Designers of buildings and structures which are going to be workplaces must make sure that the design does not pose risks to people when using the workplace for a purpose for which it was intended.
  38. 61. <ul><li>The likelihood of a person being exposed to harm </li></ul><ul><li>The potential seriousness of injury or harm </li></ul><ul><li>What the person concerned knows, or ought to be known about the risk and any ways of eliminating or reducing the hazard or risk </li></ul><ul><li>The availability and suitability to eliminate or reduce the hazard or risk </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of eliminating or reducing the hazard or risk </li></ul>The Designer MUST consider:
  40. 63. Limited means of entry and exit, poor ventilation and the presence of toxic gases and vapours in confined spaces pose serious risks to workers. CONFINED SPACES
  41. 64. <ul><li>Examples of potential confined spaces can include: </li></ul><ul><li>Tanks and silos </li></ul><ul><li>Pipes and ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Ovens and chimneys </li></ul><ul><li>Underground sewers/stormwater pipes/pits </li></ul><ul><li>Underground wells </li></ul><ul><li>Shafts, trenches, tunnels and pits </li></ul>CONFINED SPACES
  42. 65. Some of the risks include: <ul><li>Loss of consciousness, injury or death due to contaminants in the air </li></ul><ul><li>Fire or explosion from the ignition of flammable contaminants </li></ul><ul><li>Suffocation caused by a lack of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced combustibility and spontaneous combustion </li></ul><ul><li>Suffocation or crushing after being engulfed by loose materials stored in the space, such as sand, grain, fertiliser, coal or woodchips. </li></ul>CONFINED SPACES
  43. 66. Cranes and Lifting You must hold a Certificate of Competency to operate any of the cranes or hoists defined in the following list, unless you are working under the direct supervision of a competent person (someone with a Certificate of Competency or equivalent qualification). There are 14 certificate classes for crane and hoist operation .
  45. 68. Analysis has shown that the risk of injury from a fall increases significantly for falls from two metres or more. Falls Prevention
  46. 69. <ul><li>Even from a relatively low height, a fall can cause very serious injuries, including fractures, spinal cord injury, concussions and brain damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical falls that cause death and injury include those resulting from: </li></ul><ul><li>Using unsafe or incomplete scaffolds </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate ladders/ladder use </li></ul><ul><li>Falling from or through roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Falls from trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Falls into holes, pits or shafts </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing shelving </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing mezzanine areas . </li></ul>Falls Prevention
  47. 70. FIRE <ul><li>Heating equipment is the leading cause of home fires during the winter months. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking equipment; cooking is the number one cause of home fires. </li></ul>
  48. 71. FIRE <ul><li>Electrical Distribution Equipment; wiring, outlets, switches, circuit breakers and other electrical devices are the third leading cause of home fires and the second leading cause of fire deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking is the leading cause of home fire deaths in the United States. </li></ul>
  49. 72. Fire Classification Type A Ordinary Combustibles (Wood & Paper) Type B Flammable Liquids (Paint & Petrol) Type C Flammable Gases (LPG & Natural Gas)
  50. 73. Fire Classification Type D Combustible Metals (Magnesium & Lithium based metals) Type E Electrical Equipment (Computers & Toasters) Type F Oil & Fats (Vegetable oils & animal fats)
  51. 75. Hazardous Chemicals
  52. 76. Hazardous Chemicals 3 W E 1 Water Jet 2 Water Fog/Fine Water 3 Water based Foam 4 Dry Chemical Powder
  53. 77. Fire- Terminologies <ul><li>V : Can be violently or explosively reactive </li></ul><ul><li>BA : Breathing Apparatus plus protective gloves </li></ul><ul><li>FULL : Full body protective clothing with BA </li></ul><ul><li>BA for FIRE only : If no fire BA not essential </li></ul><ul><li>DILUTE : May be diluted with water and washed to drain </li></ul><ul><li>CONTAIN : Prevent entering into drains/water courses </li></ul>
  54. 78. Manual Handling <ul><li>Manual handling means using your body to exert force to handle, support or restrain any object, including people or animals. </li></ul>
  55. 79. Manual Handling <ul><li>Manual handling means using your body to exert force to handle, support or restrain any object, including people or animals. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not just lifting or carrying heavy objects; it includes: lifting, pushing, pulling, holding, lowering, throwing, carrying, packing, typing, assembling, cleaning, sorting and using tools. </li></ul>
  56. 80. Manual Handling <ul><li>Muscle fatigue or stress on joints and nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Sprains and strains of muscles, tendons and other soft tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Broken bones, bruising and arthritis </li></ul>Potential Health and Safety Effects:
  57. 81. Manual Handling <ul><li>Lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling or carrying </li></ul><ul><li>Twisting, reaching, bending </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive activity or movement </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent manual handling or extended duration </li></ul><ul><li>Location of loads and distances </li></ul><ul><li>Shape, weight, size and other characteristics of the load </li></ul>Risk Factors: Cont--
  58. 82. Manual Handling <ul><li>Handling large, unusual, unstable or unpredictable objects </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing, age, skills and experience or other special needs </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted work areas or unsuitable workplace layout </li></ul><ul><li>Awkward postures or working positions </li></ul><ul><li>Handling people or animals </li></ul>Risk Factors:
  59. 86. No Go Zones <ul><li>Above Ground </li></ul><ul><li>Underground </li></ul>
  60. 87. No Go Zones
  61. 88. No Go Zones
  62. 89. Underground Assets <ul><li>Primary step before design </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can apply through website/fax/phone </li></ul><ul><li>No fee required </li></ul><ul><li>All the design plans should include the logo </li></ul>
  63. 90. Telstra Plan
  64. 91. Sewer and Water Plan
  65. 92. Noise
  66. 93. Noise What is noise ? All sound in the workplace whether wanted or unwanted. Maximum noise levels are set out in the regulation because people react or perceive noise differently.
  67. 94. Noise <ul><li>Fatigue, stress and headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Ringing or buzzing in the ear </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of hearing (temporary and permanent) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication difficulties i.e. unable to hear warning alarms, instructions, normal conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Social isolation </li></ul>Potential Health and Safety Effects:
  68. 95. Noise <ul><li>Loudness </li></ul><ul><li>Very high or very low frequency sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Constant noise </li></ul><ul><li>Duration and frequency of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Noise reflecting off surfaces causing echo resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Distances from the noise source </li></ul><ul><li>Type, size, working condition, location and number of noisy machines or other equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Type, number and location of work processes that create noise </li></ul>Risk Factors:
  69. 96. Noise <ul><li>Substitution --- Purchase quieter plant </li></ul><ul><li>Modify existing plant to reduce noise </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation --- Enclose noise sources </li></ul><ul><li>Noise absorbent materials and surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate noisy equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Mufflers and noise dampening equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Increase separation between noise source and people </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce metal to metal impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce vibrations </li></ul>Controlling the Risk: Eliminate the Hazard
  70. 97. Noise <ul><li>Administrative Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Regular maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize frequency and/or duration of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Safety signs </li></ul><ul><li>Warning labels </li></ul><ul><li>Training and information </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Earplugs or earmuffs </li></ul>Controlling the Risk: Eliminate the Hazard
  71. 98. Sun Protection
  72. 99. Sun Protection <ul><li>Australia has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world with more than 380,000 people treated for the disease every year . </li></ul><ul><li>Construction workers have a higher risk of skin cancer than many other workers due to long periods exposed to UV radiation from direct sunlight and UV rays reflected from nearby surfaces such as concrete. Studies have shown that construction workers can be exposed to 10 times the recommended daily exposure levels for UV radiation. </li></ul>
  73. 101. Sun Protection <ul><li>Employers should conduct a risk assessment on outdoor work scheduled for the period from September to April, when UV radiation levels peak, to assist in developing appropriate sun protection measures. Employers need to ensure protection measures are implemented. The most effective way of reducing UV exposure is to use a combination of protection methods such as : </li></ul><ul><li>Re-organising work to avoid the UV peak of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing natural or artificial shade. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing appropriate protective clothing, hats and sunglasses. </li></ul><ul><li>Applying sunscreen </li></ul>
  74. 102. Traffic Management - Roadside Worksites <ul><li>Major issues for roadside activities: </li></ul><ul><li>  Advance warning for motorists </li></ul><ul><li>  Sufficient and suitable signage </li></ul><ul><li>  High visibility clothing </li></ul><ul><li>   Pathways for road users and workzone delineation </li></ul><ul><li>  Work zone separation from passing traffic. </li></ul>Roadside worksites is not just road construction and maintenance, rather any activity being undertaken on, or beside a road.
  75. 103. Safety Signs – Color and Symbol Codes
  76. 104. Safety Signs – Color and Symbol Codes
  77. 105. Electricity What is electricity ? Electricity is potential energy that provides power to run or use various plant and equipment
  78. 106. Electricity <ul><li>Electric shock, temporary tingling or numbness </li></ul><ul><li>Electrocution leading to death, burns or brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Fire or explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to property </li></ul>Potential Health and Safety Effects:
  79. 107. Electricity <ul><li>Overheating or fusion of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Sparks or short-circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Excess current and excess voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning strike </li></ul><ul><li>Static electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Overcharging of batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty or dusty work environments </li></ul>Risk Factors:
  80. 108. <ul><li>Contact with overhead power lines </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with flammable substances (gases or liquids) </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous areas </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with water </li></ul><ul><li>Current storing devices (capacitors, batteries) </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed conductors, cables and terminals </li></ul>Risk Factors:
  81. 109. Electricity <ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation -- Insulating materials (mats, covers) </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage limitation devices (transformers) </li></ul><ul><li>Current limiting devices (fuses and circuit breakers) </li></ul><ul><li>Earth leakage protection and residual current devices </li></ul>Controlling the Risk: Eliminate the Hazard
  82. 110. Electricity <ul><li>Administrative Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of underground and overhead services </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation, lockout and permit to work systems </li></ul><ul><li>Test circuits before commencing works </li></ul><ul><li>Competent electrical tradesperson </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency stops </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and inspection of electrical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency equipment and first aid </li></ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Insulating gloves and footwear </li></ul>Controlling the Risk
  83. 111. Emergency Response
  84. 113. First aid Response
  85. 114. Personal Protective Equipment
  86. 115. Incidence Response
  87. 116. Emergency Notification
  88. 122. Thanks
  89. 123. <ul><li>Have a wonderful evening </li></ul>