Occupational safety and health zaf


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Occupational safety and health zaf

  1. 1. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Engr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Khan E mail: zafarkn@yahoo.co
  2. 2. Reasons for health and safety  Moral - An employee should not have to risk injury or death at work, nor should others associated with the work environment.  Economic - many governments realize that poor occupational health and safety performance results in cost to the State (e.g. through social security payments to the incapacitated, costs for medical treatment, and the loss of the "employability" of the worker). Employing organizations also sustain costs in the event of an incident at work (such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages, investigation time, lost production, lost goodwill from the workforce, from customers and from the wider community).  Legal - Occupational requirements may be reinforced in civil law and/or criminal law; it is accepted that without the extra "encouragement" of potential regulatory action or litigation, many organisations would not act upon their implied moral obligations.
  3. 3. Hazards, risks, outcomes  A hazard is something that can cause harm if not controlled.  The outcome is the harm that results from an uncontrolled hazard.  A risk is a combination of the probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved.
  4. 4. Hazard Assessment  Hazard analysis or hazard assessment is a process in which individual hazards of the workplace are identified, assessed and controlled/eliminated as close to source (location of the hazard) as reasonable and possible. As technology, resources, social expectation or regulatory requirements change, hazard analysis focuses controls more closely toward the source of the hazard. Thus hazard control is a dynamic program of prevention. Hazard-based programs also have the advantage of not assigning or impling there are "acceptable risks" in the workplace. A hazard-based program may not be able to eliminate all risks, but neither does it accept "satisfactory" -- but still risky—outcomes. And as those who calculate and manage the risk are usually managers while those exposed to the risks are a different group, workers, a hazard-based approach can by- pass conflict inherent in a risk-based approach.
  5. 5. Risk assessment  Modern occupational safety and health legislation usually demands that a risk assessment be carried out prior to making an intervention. It should be kept in mind that risk management requires risk to be managed to a level which is as low as is reasonably practical.  This assessment should:  Identify the hazards  Identify all affected by the hazard and how  Evaluate the risk  Identify and prioritize appropriate control measures
  6. 6. Occupational Health and Safety  OH&S is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment.
  7. 7. Goal of OH& S  The goal of all occupational health and safety programs is to foster a safe work environment.
  8. 8. Definition – ILO& WHO (Adopted in 1950, Revised in 1995)  "Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention amongst workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological capabilities; and, to summarize, the adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job."
  10. 10.  The National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) leads and coordinates national efforts to prevent workplace deaths, injury and disease in Australia.  Through the quality and relevance of the information it provides, the NOHSC seeks to influence the awareness and activities of every person and organisation with a role in improving Australia’s occupational health and safety (OHS) performance
  11. 11. Aim's OF NOHSC  Support and enhance the efforts of the Commonwealth, state and territory governments to improve the prevention of workplace deaths, injury and disease;  Work in alliances with others to facilitate the development and implementation of better preventative approaches; and  Ensure the needs of small business are integrated into these approaches.