Linking KOS Data [using SKOS and OWL2]


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  • . *Credit: references from talks and presentations by W3C leaders’ and others, see refs at end.
  • When there are lots of triples together, they are like this… The first subject here really has quite a few predicates, and the objects can be URIrefs or literals. Those objects can also be the things, so they also may be the subjects of further statements. Backgroud image borrowed from Andrea Kosavic: The Semantic Web, (some of) what you need to know . OLA Superconference 2009.01.30. Compiled by mzeng 2009-03-06.
  • This is a Wikipedia article about Antoni Gaudi. This page is also translated in over 30 languages. There are also many links on the page, which link you to other related Wikipedia pages.
  • The exposed data on the DBpedia was derived from the Wikipedia page and other related datasets. You can recognize the sense of RDF triples here. What is the THING to be described? The person whose name is Antoni Gaudi. But look on the top, he is identified by a URI, and it is a http URI. There are many properties for this thing, and each property has the value. Resources get URIs early in lifecycle Properties get URIs Vocabularies get URIs Everything is dereferenceable: Able to request meaning over http
  • This continues the same resource page. Now we see many labels of the author in other languages, and also the subject category that could link to this author’s data. Overall, there are just tremendous data that are all linked through RDF triples. You may want to go to this URL to see for yourself. The properties have different prefixes. If you remember the QName we talked about, those are the prefixes assigned to certain namespace URIs. The first one is defined by RDF, the second one is from OWL, the ontology’s encoding schema, and then all the subjects are defined by SKOS, the Simple Knowledge Organization Systems, an encoding standard for KOS. Next is the FOAF; if you remember, this is for people and the things they do. The value here is not a literal, it is an URI of the resource.
  • From subject categories provided by the previous page, we are linked to the subject category about Spanish architects. Now the subject category is as a ‘resource’. The concept presented like a typical KOS data entry, with concept, labels, broader and narrower concepts. Any of these values can be further explored through the link.
  • For institutional use of Linked Data, BBC and the New York Times set good examples. Other projects are also going on.
  • Presenting notation-building rules. Each classification implements certain rules for building notations. The following are some typical examples. 1) In current authority systems there are always records indicating how a notation should be composed or de-composed. 2) A synthesized number can be constructed by adding or appending numbers from a table or from other parts of the schedule. Instructions are provided to the classifier to construct a classification number by adding numbers from other parts of the schedule, from a table, or by basing it on a pattern defined in another part of the schedule. 3) Depending on the degree of synthesized components, some classification schemes have a variety of faceted structures for their main schedules, sub-schedules, or individual classes. Rules and instruction guidance are always included in such cases. 4) There could be full, abridged, and extended (+) notations for the derivations from a general classification system. Unlike a thesaurus, a classification system usually develops variations of a scheme with different scales. Implementers decide to which degree they want to implement it in practice. For example, in CLC's ‘062.32+6’ the number after ‘+’ is the optional, extended number with higher specificity.
  • Linking KOS Data [using SKOS and OWL2]

    1. 1. Extracted slides from a presentation at Seminar on Knowledge Organization, School of Information and Library Science University of North Carolina, 2010-03-29 Marcia Zeng Kent State University KOS = knowledge organization systems {thesaurus, classification systems, taxonomies, subject heading lists, picklists, ontologies}
    2. 2. Illustration of triples subjects predicates subjects objects predicates objects 17 3 3 1 2 1 2 Background image borrowed from Andrea Kosavic: The Semantic Web, (some of) what you need to know . OLA Superconference 2009.01.30. Compiled by mzeng 2009-03-06 .
    3. 3. From Wikepedia to dbpedia, a linked data example
    4. 4.í 4. Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things <ul><li>Use URIs as names for things </li></ul><ul><li>Use http URIs </li></ul>3. When someone looks up a name, provide useful [RDF] information 1 2 3
    5. 5. [related subject categories, for further exploration] [labels for this person] See next
    6. 6. Wikipedia’s classification Has broader concepts Concept’s label Has narrower concept Subject category as ‘resource’ Any of these resources will bring to other linked data
    7. 7. Back to the triples: dc.language en skos:subject Health care (conceptID) properties & values Metadata Schemas KOS Vocabularies supporting sharable data 1 1 2 2 3 3 …
    8. 8. <ul><li>bibo -- Bibilographic ontology </li></ul><ul><li>cc -- Creative Commons ontology </li></ul><ul><li>damltime -- Time Zone ontology </li></ul><ul><li>doap -- Description of a Project ontology </li></ul><ul><li>event -- Event ontology </li></ul><ul><li>foaf -- Friend-of-a-Friend ontology </li></ul><ul><li>frbr -- Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records </li></ul><ul><li>geo -- Geo wgs84 ontology </li></ul><ul><li>geonames -- GeoNames ontology </li></ul><ul><li>mo -- Music Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>opencyc -- OpenCyc knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>owl -- Web Ontology Language </li></ul><ul><li>pim_contact -- PIM (personal information management) Contacts ontology </li></ul><ul><li>po -- Programmes Ontology (BBC) </li></ul><ul><li>rss -- Really Simple Syndicate (1.0) ontology </li></ul><ul><li>sioc -- Socially Interlinked Online Communities ontology </li></ul><ul><li>sioc_types -- SIOC extension </li></ul><ul><li>skos -- Simple Knowledge Organization System </li></ul><ul><li>umbel -- Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer ontology </li></ul><ul><li>wordnet -- WordNet lexical ontology </li></ul><ul><li>yandex_foaf – FOAF extension ontology </li></ul>Linked Data -- class diagram
    9. 9. <ul><li>LCSH: </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey Decimal Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>The New York Times Thesaurus: </li></ul><ul><li>Other LC vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Many other thesauri </li></ul>
    10. 10. Has alternative labels has broader concepts has narrower concepts has related concept has similar concept in another scheme 1 has preferred label 1 LCSH: human-readable
    11. 11. 1 2 has alternative labels Has these broader concepts 3 Has these narrower concepts machine-processable
    12. 12. human-readable
    13. 13. 1 has notation has preferred label has narrower concept/class 2 3
    14. 14. has caption ddc22 Class 641 641 has notation 食品 & 饮料 食品 & 饮料 食品 & 饮料
    15. 15. <ul><li>-- [With Michael Panther, Dewey Decimal Classification, OCLC] </li></ul><ul><li>1. Extension of SKOS (papers and presentations at pre-ISKO2008 and DC2009) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Using OWL 2 to express complex classes and relationships (paper at ISKO 2010) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Complex class expressions are needed for synthesized classes <ul><li>by adding numbers from other parts of the schedule, </li></ul><ul><li>by adding numbers from a table, or </li></ul><ul><li>by basing it on a pattern defined in another part of the schedule. </li></ul>Auxiliary tables rules combine add Subject schedule A Subject schedule B 1 2 2 follow 3 To accommodate new subjects and reflect the nature of interdisciplinary, instructions are provided to the classifier to construct a number in practice:
    17. 17. <ul><li>Classification numbers may be built according to rules </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretically unlimited classes can be built </li></ul><ul><li>Example from DDC: </li></ul>821.008 Collections of English poetry is built with 82 (following the instruction at 820.1-828 Subdivisions of English literature ) plus 100 (following the instruction at T3B--1001-T3B--1009 Standard subdivisions; collections; history, description, critical appraisal ) plus 8 Collections of literary texts from the add table at T3B--1-T3B--8 Specific forms .  821   English poetry  821.008   English poetry--collections  821.00803543   Love--poetry--English literature--collections, . . .  821.0080355   English poetry--social themes--collections, . . .  821.008036   English poetry--nature--collections, . . .  821.0080382   English poetry--religious themes--collections, . . .  821.00 9    English poetry--history and criticism  821.04   English poetry--lyric poetry, . . .  821.0708   Humorous poetry--English literature--collections, . . . Source: One Zero or Two? Dewey Blog. September 28, 2006 rules
    18. 18. Example from DDC 025.04 Information Storage and Retrieval Systems
    19. 19. <ul><li>Special types of concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-assignable concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts in auxiliary tables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Index terms </li></ul><ul><li>Class–topic relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Internal structure of notes </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative classification notations </li></ul><ul><li>Orders/sequences of coordinate classes </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Class expression </li></ul><ul><li>Built classes </li></ul><ul><li>Classes to be built according to rules and instructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class : Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class + Auxiliary Table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class + Added Table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class + implied example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical Class-to-class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SubClassOf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DisjointClasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EquivelantClasses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More complicated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class-to-class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class-to-topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Index terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Class-here’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Class-elsewhere’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ See’ reference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Summers, E. and Guenther R. (2009). SKOS, and the World of Linked Data. NKOS/CENDI Workshop 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Kobilarov , G. et al. (2009). Media Meets Semantic Web – How the BBC Uses DBpedia and Linked Data to Make Connections . L. Aroyo et al. (Eds.): ESWC 2009, LNCS 5554, pp. 723–737, 2009. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009 . </li></ul><ul><li>Linking Open Data on the Semantic Web. W3C. </li></ul><ul><li>Panzer, M. and Zeng, M. (2009) Modeling Classification Systems in SKOS: Some Challenges and Best-Practice Recommendations. Proceedings of DC2009, Oct. 2009, Seoul, Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Zeng, M., Panzer, M. and Salaba, A. (2010). Expressing Classification Schemes with OWL 2 Web Ontology Language--Issues and Opportunities. Proceedings of the International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) 2010 Conference, Feb., 2010, Rome. </li></ul>