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Uranium Medical Research Centre         www.umrc.net
The Analysis of Uranium Isotopes Abundance and Ratios     in the Civilian Population      of Eastern Afghanistanafter Oper...
A. Durakovic, A. Gerdes,F. Klimaschewski, I. Zimmerman Uranium Medical Research Centre       Washington, DC, USA          ...
ObjectiveThe purpose of this work was to determinethe concentration and precise ratio of foururanium isotopes (234U, 235U,...
The Unique Signature        of Artificial Uranium                          U/235U Ratio                        238Natural ...
Bomb Crater, Jalalabad, Afghanistan
Subjects► Twenty-one    symptomatic subjects were  chosen from various locations of Eastern  Afghanistan by the UMRC Field...
Child Survivors of the Bombing of      Houses in Bibi Mahrow
Controls► Three subjects who were apparently healthy and reported to have been in parts of the country not effected by the...
Sample Preparation► Chemical  preparation of the uranium in each urine sample involved pre- concentration of the uranium u...
Sample Analysis► The  samples were analyzed using a  double focusing Thermo-Elemental  Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS  eq...
Analytical Methods► Analytical  blanks were negligible at less  than 50 picograms U, and chemical recovery  was > 80% in m...
Results► The    U/235U ratio was 138.15 compared        238  with 137.88 for natural uranium.► The 234U/238U ratio of 5.75...
Table 1: Isotopic RatiosSubject    238                 U/235U   2 Sigma      U/238U                                     23...
Table 2: Isotopic AbundanceSubject   %     U              238                     %     U                         235     ...
Table 3: Uranium Concentration  Subject          U ng/L     Subject            U ng/L    1              279.17       12   ...
Controls                    Table 5: Control Uranium Concentration                              Subject                  U...
Chart 1: Uranium Concentration2100180015001200900600300  0       1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17...
Conclusion► Our results confirm a significantly elevated  presence of uranium isotopes in the urine of  Afghan civilians a...
Conclusion► Possible  explanation of our findings may be  either a consequence of exposure due to  deployment of weapons c...
Uranium Medical Research Centre         www.umrc.net
The analysis of uranium isotopes abundance and ratios in the civilian population of eastern afghanistan(presentation), asa...
The analysis of uranium isotopes abundance and ratios in the civilian population of eastern afghanistan(presentation), asa...
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The analysis of uranium isotopes abundance and ratios in the civilian population of eastern afghanistan(presentation), asaf durakovic, frank klimschewski, isaac zimmerman, wfnmb, 2006

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The analysis of uranium isotopes abundance and ratios in the civilian population of eastern afghanistan(presentation), asaf durakovic, frank klimschewski, isaac zimmerman, wfnmb, 2006

  1. 1. Uranium Medical Research Centre www.umrc.net
  2. 2. The Analysis of Uranium Isotopes Abundance and Ratios in the Civilian Population of Eastern Afghanistanafter Operation Enduring Freedom
  3. 3. A. Durakovic, A. Gerdes,F. Klimaschewski, I. Zimmerman Uranium Medical Research Centre Washington, DC, USA London, UK Toronto, Ontario, Canada Institute for Mineralogy JW Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
  4. 4. ObjectiveThe purpose of this work was to determinethe concentration and precise ratio of foururanium isotopes (234U, 235U, 236U, 238U) in theurine specimens of the civilian population inEastern Afghanistan following OperationEnduring Freedom (OEF).
  5. 5. The Unique Signature of Artificial Uranium U/235U Ratio 238Natural Uranium: 137.88Depleted Uranium: 492.60Non-Depleted Uranium: 137.88 + U 236
  6. 6. Bomb Crater, Jalalabad, Afghanistan
  7. 7. Subjects► Twenty-one symptomatic subjects were chosen from various locations of Eastern Afghanistan by the UMRC Field Research Team in during two field trips in 2002.► All subjects were presenting with symptoms of fatigue, fever, musculo-skeletal and neurological alterations, headaches, and respiratory impairment after inhalation of dust during the bombing raids in June, 2002.► The subjects had their urine samples collected under controlled conditions.
  8. 8. Child Survivors of the Bombing of Houses in Bibi Mahrow
  9. 9. Controls► Three subjects who were apparently healthy and reported to have been in parts of the country not effected by the bombing raids had their urine collected for comparison.
  10. 10. Sample Preparation► Chemical preparation of the uranium in each urine sample involved pre- concentration of the uranium using co- precipitation, evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, and purification of uranium by ion-exchange chromatography.
  11. 11. Sample Analysis► The samples were analyzed using a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a Daly detector for ion counting and multiple faraday cups.► The analysis was done at the NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Notts, United Kingdom
  12. 12. Analytical Methods► Analytical blanks were negligible at less than 50 picograms U, and chemical recovery was > 80% in most cases.► Along with the samples, analyses were conducted of a urine internal standard (with c. 11 ng/L uranium) of natural isotopic composition (atomic ratio 137.88 for 238 U:235U) and certified isotopic standards of uranium, both of which returned the correct values for the standards.
  13. 13. Results► The U/235U ratio was 138.15 compared 238 with 137.88 for natural uranium.► The 234U/238U ratio of 5.75 x 10-5 compared with 5.54 x 10-5 for natural uranium.► The mean concentration of uranium 231.23 ng/L was considerably greater than expected for a normal population 1-20 ng/L► 236U was detected in 6 of the 21 samples with a 236U/238U ratio greater than the detection limit of 1.0 x 10-7.
  14. 14. Table 1: Isotopic RatiosSubject 238 U/235U 2 Sigma U/238U 234 2 Sigma U/238U 236 2 Sigma 1 137.65 0.15 5.53 x 10-5 1.27 x 10-6 4.61 x 10-8 2.20 x 10-9 2 138.09 0.18 5.43 x 10-5 1.22 x 10-6 6.67 x 10-8 5.60 x 10-9 3 137.55 0.19 5.55 x 10-5 1.37 x 10-6 9.60 x 10-8 8.20 x 10-9 4 137.95 0.15 5.44 x 10-5 1.19 x 10-6 8.9 x 10-9 2.60 x 10-9 5 138.08 0.15 5.45 x 10-5 1.17 x 10-6 2.2 x 10-9 1.60 x 10-9 6 137.98 0.16 5.44 x 10-5 1.31 x 10-6 2.65 x 10-8 3.60 x 10-9 7 137.82 0.14 5.62 x 10-5 1.57 x 10-6 7.79 x 10-8 5.20 x 10-9 8 137.86 0.14 5.63 x 10-5 1.54 x 10-6 7.35 x 10-8 5.00 x 10-9 9 138.52 0.69 5.40 x 10-8 5.72 x 10-9 10 138.93 0.75 5.40 x 10-8 5.72 x 10-9 11 137.72 0.96 7.20 x 10-5 4.76 x 10-5 2.30 x 10-6 3.08 x 10-7 12 137.74 0.74 1.80 x 10-7 1.76 x 10-8 13 137.91 0.06 14 137.97 0.94 5.70 x 10-5 1.70 x 10-5 9.40 x 10-7 1.15 x 10-7 15 138.26 0.94 6.20 x 10-5 5.34 x 10-6 2.50 x 10-6 9.0 x 10-8 16 138.50 0.69 9.20 x 10-7 4.60 x 10-8 17 138.47 0.75 2.70 x 10-8 4.06 x 10-9 18 138.58 0.69 19 138.68 0.69 1.50 x 10-7 1.08 x 10-8 20 138.27 0.69 4.90 x 10-8 1.00 x 10-8 21 138.70 0.72 7.10 x 10-8 3.32 x 10-8Average 138.15 5.75 x 10-5 4.02 x 10-7 STD 0.39 5.29 x 10-6 7.56 x 10-7 SE 0.08 1.53 x 10-6 1.69 x 10-7
  15. 15. Table 2: Isotopic AbundanceSubject % U 238 % U 235 % 234 U % 236 U 1 99.2733 0.7212 5.49 x 10-3 3.67 x 10-6 2 99.2757 0.7189 5.38 x 10-3 6.63 x 10-6 3 99.2727 0.7217 5.51 x 10-3 9.53 x 10-6 4 99.2750 0.7196 5.40 x 10-3 8.84 x 10-7 5 99.2756 0.7190 5.41 x 10-3 2.16 x 10-7 6 99.2751 0.7195 5.40 x 10-3 2.63 x 10-6 7 99.2741 0.7203 5.58 x 10-3 7.73 x 10-6 8 99.2743 0.7201 5.58 x 10-3 7.30 x 10-6 9 99.2833 0.7167 5.36 x 10-6 10 99.2853 0.7147 5.36 x 10-6 11 99.2718 0.7208 7.15 x 10-3 2.28 x 10-4 12 99.2792 0.7208 5.66 x 10-3 1.79 x 10-5 13 99.2801 0.7199 6.16 x 10-3 14 99.2747 0.7195 9.33 x 10-5 15 99.2755 0.7181 2.48 x 10-4 16 99.2831 0.7168 9.13 x 10-5 17 99.2830 0.7170 2.68 x 10-6 18 99.2836 0.7164 19 99.2841 0.7159 1.49 x 10-5 20 99.2820 0.7180 4.86 x 10-6 21 99.2842 0.7158 7.05 x 10-6Average 99.2784 0.7186 5.70 x 10-3 3.99 x 10-5 STD 0.0046 0.0020 5.27 x 10-4 7.51 x 10-5 SE 0.0010 0.0004 1.52 x 10-4 1.68 x 10-5
  16. 16. Table 3: Uranium Concentration Subject U ng/L Subject U ng/L 1 279.17 12 40.19 2 245.27 13 2031.63 3 128.03 14 29.92 4 449.97 15 99.62 5 474.42 16 57.51 6 296.48 17 74.84 7 87.88 18 44.32 8 223.18 19 90.04 9 94.07 20 39.58 10 25.78 21 33.14 11 10.88 U ng/L Average 231.23 STD 434.50 SE 92.64
  17. 17. Controls Table 5: Control Uranium Concentration Subject U ng/L 1 59.93 2 26.79 3 9.47 Average 32.06 STD 25.64 SE 14.80 Table 6: Control Isotopic RatiosSubject 238 U/235U 2 Sigma U/238U 234 2 Sigma U/238U 236 2 Sigma 1 138.97 0.94 6.30 x 10-5 8.56 x 10-6 5.90 x 10-6 1.30 x 10-8 2 139.10 0.72 2.60 x 10-7 2.60 x 10-8 3 137.44 0.96 6.30 x 10-5 5.42 x 10-5 2.20 x 10-7 1.69 x 10-7Average 138.50 6.30 x 10-5 2.13 x 10-6 STD 0.92 3.27 x 10-6 SE 0.53 1.89 x 10-6
  18. 18. Chart 1: Uranium Concentration2100180015001200900600300 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 C1 C2 C3
  19. 19. Conclusion► Our results confirm a significantly elevated presence of uranium isotopes in the urine of Afghan civilians after Operation Enduring Freedom.► This demonstrates contamination from a source consistent with natural uranium (NU), resulting in total uranium concentration levels of up to 100 times higher than the normal range of various worldwide geographic and environmental areas.
  20. 20. Conclusion► Possible explanation of our findings may be either a consequence of exposure due to deployment of weapons containing non- depleted uranium (NDU) or unusually high levels of natural uranium (NU) in drinking water or soil in the particular geographic areas.► The cause of the urinary presence of natural and non-depleted uranium may be consistent with our previously reported findings of contamination by inhalation of uranium containing aerosols.
  21. 21. Uranium Medical Research Centre www.umrc.net

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