What are GMOs?
“Any organism in which the genetic material has been modified, using modern biotechnology, in a way
that does not occur naturally, either through mating or natural recombination”
-transfer of recombinant DNA that was created outside the organism by laboratory techniques
-procedures used for cell fusion
-How are GMOs represented by different social groups in Europe?
(scientists, consumers, government officials, biotechnology companies, environmental and religious
-Which meanings and concerns became dominant, and became stabilized in the form of regulations on
labelling of GMOs?
---methodology: SCOT, interviews
Timeline for Genetic Modification
1971: Stanford scientist Paul Berg, designs experiment to insert DNA from an animal tumor virus into
January 1973: First Asilomar Conference, Pacific Grove, California
1975: Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA Molecules
Late 1980's – early 1990's: Emergence of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 164 deaths
1997: EU Regulation on Novel Foods
2001: Directive on the Deliberate Release into the Environment of Genetically Modified Organisms
2003: EU Regulation on Genetically Modified Food and Feed
EU officials and regulatory agencies in Europe (COGEM and VROM..)
slide 4] stabilization of meanings in laws and policies
Two sets of rules governing the authorisation of GMO's in the EU
-April 2001) Directive on the Deliberate Release into the Environment of Genetically Modified
-April 2004) Regulation on Genetically Modified Food and Feed
slide 5] which of the social groups could be called relevant social group? [consumers, scientists,
slide 6] solidity of stabilization?
-decentralization in 2010
-world food shortage
-initiatives by biotechnology companies