Unit Five A Valentine Story
Valentine's Day   There are varying opinions as to the origin of  Valentine's Day . Some experts state that it originated ...
<ul><li>valentine-- </li></ul><ul><li>1. someone you love or think is attractive, that you send a card to on St Valentine'...
<ul><li>… but by the notes penciled in the margin. </li></ul><ul><li>-- but by the notes written in the margin with a pen....
<ul><li>The soft handwriting reflected a thoughtful soul and insightful mind. </li></ul><ul><li>-- the soft handwriting sh...
<ul><li>reflect that </li></ul><ul><li>More reflected that he had never seen Sherry so happy. </li></ul><ul><li>reflect on...
<ul><li>With time and effort he located her address. </li></ul><ul><li>-- He spent great time and efforts finding out her ...
<ul><li>Each letter was a seed falling on a fertile heart. A romance was budding. </li></ul><ul><li>--each letter will res...
<ul><li>I’d always be haunted by the feeling that you had been taking a chance on just that, … </li></ul><ul><li>--I would...
<ul><li>… a girl he had never seen, yet whose written words had been with him and sustained him unfailingly. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>… a small, provocative smile curved her lips. </li></ul><ul><li>-- a small and seductive smile appeared on her lip...
<ul><li>She had graying hair pinned up under a worn hat. </li></ul><ul><li>--Her hair was turning gray and was fixed by a ...
<ul><li>… so keen was my desire to follow her, and yet so deep was my longing for the woman whose spirit had truly compani...
<ul><li>grip —1. to hold something very tightly </li></ul><ul><li>I gripped the rail and tried not to look down.  </li></u...
<ul><li>square–  </li></ul><ul><li>1. square your shoulders--to stand straight and push your shoulders back, usually to sh...
The true nature of a heart is seen in its response to the unattractive. -- A person’s response to something unattractive c...
Text B The Wallet
<ul><li>come across —1.to meet, find, or discover someone or something by chance </li></ul><ul><li>I came across an old di...
<ul><li>make out—1. ▶SEE/HEAR◀  to be just able to see or hear something </li></ul><ul><li>He could just make out a dark s...
<ul><li>hope for --to want something to happen or be true and to believe that it is possible or likely  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>call--▶VISIT◀ </li></ul><ul><li>[intransitive] also call round </li></ul><ul><li>(British English) to stop at a ho...
<ul><li>… arriving to find him chatting to the door guard. </li></ul><ul><li>-- I arrived there and to my disappointment, ...
<ul><li>… no one ever matched up to Michael --No one could ever to up to Michael’s standard./No one could ever be as good ...
<ul><li>… she had given me a lead </li></ul><ul><li>— She had shown me what to do next. </li></ul><ul><li>lead —N. [singul...
<ul><li>press --[intransitive and transitive] to try hard to persuade someone to do something, especially by asking them m...
<ul><li>They had some sixty years’ worth to catch up on. </li></ul><ul><li>--They had not seen each other for about sixty ...
Michael and Hannah are finally going to tie the  knot-- Michael and Hannah will finally get married. tie the knot--(inform...
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Valentine Day

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Valentine Day

  1. 1. Unit Five A Valentine Story
  2. 2. Valentine's Day There are varying opinions as to the origin of Valentine's Day . Some experts state that it originated from St. Valentine, a Roman who was martyred for refusing to give up Christianity. He died on February 14, 269 A.D., the same day that had been devoted to love lotteries. Legend also says that St. Valentine left a farewell note for the jailer's daughter, who had become his friend, and signed it &quot;From Your Valentine&quot;. Other aspects of the story say that Saint Valentine served as a priest at the temple during the reign of Emperor Claudius. Claudius then had Valentine jailed for defying him. In 496 A.D. Pope Gelasius set aside February 14 to honor St. Valentine. Gradually, February 14 became the date for exchanging love messages and St. Valentine became the patron saint of lovers . The date was marked by sending poems and simple gifts such as flowers. There was often a social gathering or a ball.
  3. 3. <ul><li>valentine-- </li></ul><ul><li>1. someone you love or think is attractive, that you send a card to on St Valentine's Day </li></ul><ul><li>Be my valentine. </li></ul><ul><li>2. a card you send to someone on St Valentine's Day </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>… but by the notes penciled in the margin. </li></ul><ul><li>-- but by the notes written in the margin with a pen. </li></ul><ul><li>pencil --to write something or make a mark with a pencil </li></ul><ul><li>a name pencilled on the envelope </li></ul><ul><li>pencil somebody/something ↔ in phrasal verb </li></ul><ul><li>to make an arrangement for a meeting or other event, knowing that it might have to be changed later </li></ul><ul><li>Pickford has been pencilled in as Robson's replacement. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The soft handwriting reflected a thoughtful soul and insightful mind. </li></ul><ul><li>-- the soft handwriting showed an inquiring mind and unique perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>reflect --▶BE A SIGN OF SOMETHING◀ </li></ul><ul><li>to show or be a sign of a particular situation or feeling </li></ul><ul><li>The drop in consumer spending reflects concern about the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing racial diversity of the US is reflected in the latest census statistics. </li></ul><ul><li>How much you're paid reflects how important you are to the company you work for. </li></ul><ul><li>--▶THINK ABOUT SOMETHING◀ </li></ul><ul><li>to think carefully about something, or to say something that you have been thinking about </li></ul><ul><li>reflect on </li></ul><ul><li>He had time to reflect on his successes and failures. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>reflect that </li></ul><ul><li>More reflected that he had never seen Sherry so happy. </li></ul><ul><li>reflect on/upon somebody/something </li></ul><ul><li>-- to influence people's opinion of someone or something, especially in a bad way </li></ul><ul><li>If my children are rude, that reflects on me as a parent. </li></ul><ul><li>insightful -- able to understand or showing that you understand what a situation or person is really like </li></ul><ul><li>Synonym: perceptive </li></ul><ul><li>an insightful analysis </li></ul>The soft handwriting reflected a thoughtful soul and insightful mind. -- the soft handwriting showed an inquiring mind and unique perspectives.
  7. 7. <ul><li>With time and effort he located her address. </li></ul><ul><li>-- He spent great time and efforts finding out her address. </li></ul><ul><li>locate --to find the exact position of something </li></ul><ul><li>We couldn't locate the source of the radio signal. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Each letter was a seed falling on a fertile heart. A romance was budding. </li></ul><ul><li>--each letter will result in more affection in each other’s hearts as a seed which falls on a fertile land will soon grow into a plant. Love was brought about and growing. </li></ul><ul><li>bud --to put forth or produce buds </li></ul><ul><li>a plant that buds in early spring. </li></ul><ul><li>--to develop or grow from or as if from a bud </li></ul><ul><li>He listened sympathetically for a moment, a bemused smile budding forth. </li></ul><ul><li>come into bud </li></ul><ul><li>in bud </li></ul><ul><li>nip sth in the bud </li></ul><ul><li>taste bud </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>I’d always be haunted by the feeling that you had been taking a chance on just that, … </li></ul><ul><li>--I would always be troubled by the feeling that you had been taking a risk on my appearance only… </li></ul><ul><li>1. if the soul of a dead person haunts a place, it appears there often </li></ul><ul><li>The pub is said to be haunted by the ghost of a former landlord. </li></ul><ul><li>2. to make someone worry or make them sad </li></ul><ul><li>Clare was haunted by the fear that her husband was having an affair. </li></ul><ul><li>3. to cause problems for someone over a long period of time </li></ul><ul><li>an error that would come back to haunt them for years to come </li></ul><ul><li>take a chance on --to do something that involves risks </li></ul><ul><li>He was taking a chance on a relatively new young actor. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>… a girl he had never seen, yet whose written words had been with him and sustained him unfailingly. </li></ul><ul><li>-- …a girl who he had never seen, but what she had written had never failed to give him strength and make him feel hopeful. </li></ul><ul><li>sustain --▶GIVE STRENGTH◀ </li></ul><ul><li>(formal) to make someone feel strong and hopeful </li></ul><ul><li>The thought of seeing her again was all that sustained me. </li></ul><ul><li>--▶MAKE SOMETHING CONTINUE◀to make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>She found it difficult to sustain the children's interest. </li></ul><ul><li>He was incapable of sustaining close relationships with women. </li></ul><ul><li>--▶FOOD/DRINK◀formal if food or drink sustains a person, animal, or plant, it makes them able to continue living </li></ul><ul><li>They gave me barely enough food to sustain me. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>… a small, provocative smile curved her lips. </li></ul><ul><li>-- a small and seductive smile appeared on her lips. </li></ul><ul><li>provocative —1. provocative clothes, movements, pictures etc are intended to make someone sexually excited </li></ul><ul><li>provocative images of young girls </li></ul><ul><li>--2. provocative behaviour, remarks etc are intended to make people angry or upset, or to cause a lot of discussion </li></ul><ul><li>provocative comment/remark/statement </li></ul><ul><li>The minister's provocative remarks were widely reported in the press. </li></ul><ul><li>She was accused of being deliberately provocative . </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>She had graying hair pinned up under a worn hat. </li></ul><ul><li>--Her hair was turning gray and was fixed by a pin under an old hat. </li></ul><ul><li>pin —1. to fasten something somewhere, or to join two things together, using a pin </li></ul><ul><li>pin something to/on something / pin something up </li></ul><ul><li>Can you pin this to the notice board? </li></ul><ul><li>He pinned the name tag on his jacket. </li></ul><ul><li>She had photos of her kids pinned up next to her desk. </li></ul><ul><li>2. to make someone unable to move by putting a lot of pressure or weight on them </li></ul><ul><li>Albert got him pinned against the wall. </li></ul><ul><li>They managed to pin him down until the police arrived. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>… so keen was my desire to follow her, and yet so deep was my longing for the woman whose spirit had truly companioned me and upheld my own. </li></ul><ul><li>-- I had such strong desire to follow the girl, however, I was greatly attracted by the woman whose spirit had been my company and had supported my spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>keen--▶WANT SOMETHING◀ wanting to do something or wanting something to happen very much </li></ul><ul><li>Synonym: eager </li></ul><ul><li>He told Hayling that he was keen to help. </li></ul><ul><li>I wasn't keen on going there on my own. </li></ul><ul><li>The government is keen for peace talks to start again soon. </li></ul><ul><li>The chairman is keen that the company should expand its product range. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>grip —1. to hold something very tightly </li></ul><ul><li>I gripped the rail and tried not to look down. </li></ul><ul><li>The woman moved closer to Beth, gripping her arm tightly. </li></ul><ul><li>2. to have a strong effect on someone or something </li></ul><ul><li>a country gripped by economic problems </li></ul><ul><li>Panic suddenly gripped me when it was my turn to speak. </li></ul><ul><li>3. to hold someone's attention and interest </li></ul><ul><li>a story that really grips you </li></ul><ul><li>4. if something grips a surface, it stays on it without slipping </li></ul><ul><li>Radial tires grip the road well. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>square– </li></ul><ul><li>1. square your shoulders--to stand straight and push your shoulders back, usually to show your determination </li></ul><ul><li>2. to win a point or game so that you have now won the same number of points or games as the other team or player </li></ul><ul><li>India won the second match to square the series at one each. </li></ul><ul><li>square the circle-- to attempt something impossible </li></ul><ul><li>square something --to finish something, especially by putting the last details in order </li></ul><ul><li>Get your work squared away before you leave. </li></ul><ul><li>square something with somebody --to persuade someone to agree to something </li></ul><ul><li>I'll take the day off if I can square it with my boss. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The true nature of a heart is seen in its response to the unattractive. -- A person’s response to something unattractive can reveal the true nature of a heart.
  17. 17. Text B The Wallet
  18. 18. <ul><li>come across —1.to meet, find, or discover someone or something by chance </li></ul><ul><li>I came across an old diary in her desk. </li></ul><ul><li>I've never come across anyone quite like her before. </li></ul><ul><li>2. if an idea comes across well, it is easy for people to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Your point really came across at the meeting. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>make out—1. ▶SEE/HEAR◀ to be just able to see or hear something </li></ul><ul><li>He could just make out a dark shape moving towards him. </li></ul><ul><li>make out who/what etc </li></ul><ul><li>I couldn't make out what he was saying. </li></ul><ul><li>2.▶UNDERSTAND SOMETHING◀ </li></ul><ul><li>make something ↔ out --to understand something, especially the reason why something has happened </li></ul><ul><li>make out what/how/why etc </li></ul><ul><li>I couldn't make out what I had done to annoy her. </li></ul><ul><li>As far as I can make out , he has never been married. </li></ul><ul><li>3. ▶UNDERSTAND SOMEBODY◀ </li></ul><ul><li>make somebody ↔ out [usually in questions and negatives] to understand someone's character and the way they behave </li></ul><ul><li>Stuart's a strange guy - I can't make him out at all. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>hope for --to want something to happen or be true and to believe that it is possible or likely </li></ul><ul><li>We were hoping for good weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Liam decided to ignore the warning and just hope for the best (=hope that a situation will end well when there is a risk of things going wrong) . </li></ul><ul><li>hoped-for --used to describe something that you want to happen and think is possible or likely </li></ul><ul><li>I was at home when the desperately hoped-for call came through. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, fears were unfounded and the hoped-for benefit was achieved. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>call--▶VISIT◀ </li></ul><ul><li>[intransitive] also call round </li></ul><ul><li>(British English) to stop at a house or other place for a short time to see someone or do something </li></ul><ul><li>She called round for a chat. </li></ul><ul><li>call on somebody </li></ul><ul><li>We thought we'd call on James on the way home. </li></ul><ul><li>call (in) at something </li></ul><ul><li>I regularly called in at his office for news. </li></ul><ul><li>call into something </li></ul><ul><li>People often call into the library while they're out shopping. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>… arriving to find him chatting to the door guard. </li></ul><ul><li>-- I arrived there and to my disappointment, I found him chatting with the door guard. </li></ul><ul><li>to --used to say what someone discovers or experiences when they do something </li></ul><ul><li>He arrived there to find that the last train had already left. </li></ul><ul><li>The princess stepped ashore to be greeted by an enthusiastic crowd of admirers. </li></ul><ul><li>She woke to see Ben standing by the window. </li></ul><ul><li>to (only to) --used to say that someone did something, with a disappointing or surprising result </li></ul><ul><li>I arrived only to find that the others had already left. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>… no one ever matched up to Michael --No one could ever to up to Michael’s standard./No one could ever be as good as Michael. </li></ul><ul><li>match up— 1.match up to somebody's hopes/expectations/ideals etc </li></ul><ul><li>to be as good as you hoped, expected etc </li></ul><ul><li>Synonym: measure up to </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, the product's performance did not match up to the manufacturer's promise. </li></ul><ul><li>2. match somebody/something ↔ up --to put two people or things together that are related to or suitable for each other </li></ul><ul><li>The employment agency exists to match up graduates and IT companies. </li></ul><ul><li>match somebody/something ↔ up with </li></ul><ul><li>My mother spent her life trying to match me up with various women. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>… she had given me a lead </li></ul><ul><li>— She had shown me what to do next. </li></ul><ul><li>lead —N. [singular] if someone follows someone else's lead, they do the same as the other person has done </li></ul><ul><li>Other countries are likely to follow the U.S.'s lead . </li></ul><ul><li>The Government should give industry a lead in tackling racism (=show what other people should do) . </li></ul><ul><li>The black population in the 1960s looked to Ali for a lead (=looked to him to show them what they should do) . </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>press --[intransitive and transitive] to try hard to persuade someone to do something, especially by asking them many times </li></ul><ul><li>I felt that if I had pressed him he would have lent me the money. </li></ul><ul><li>press somebody to do something </li></ul><ul><li>The police pressed her to remember all the details. </li></ul><ul><li>press somebody for something </li></ul><ul><li>The manufacturers are pressing the government for action. </li></ul><ul><li>press for </li></ul><ul><li>We must continue to press for full equality. </li></ul><ul><li>I was pressing my claim for custody of the child. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>They had some sixty years’ worth to catch up on. </li></ul><ul><li>--They had not seen each other for about sixty years and there was a lot for them to find out about each other. </li></ul><ul><li>catch up on --to spend time finding out what has been happening while you have been away or during the time you have not seen someone </li></ul><ul><li>The first thing I did when I got home was to phone up Jo and catch up on all the gossip. </li></ul><ul><li>I'll leave you two alone - I'm sure you've got a lot of catching up to do. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Michael and Hannah are finally going to tie the knot-- Michael and Hannah will finally get married. tie the knot--(informal) to get married &quot; tie the knot &quot; When two people get married, they &quot;tie the knot.&quot; Example: &quot;After dating for five years, we finally decided to tie the knot.&quot; When you tie &quot;a&quot; knot you wrap two pieces of rope around each other in a certain way so that they will not come apart. When you tie &quot;the&quot; knot you make a promise that you will stay together with one person whom you love. Example: &quot;Did you hear about Dan and Jenny? They finally decided to tie the knot.&quot; Two people are like two ropes and they get married to tie &quot;the knot&quot; which keeps them together. Example: &quot;So, when are you two going to tie the knot?&quot;

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