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Generations of computers.15


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Generations of computers.15

  1. 1. Generations of computers. 1
  2. 2. Objective:On completion of this period, you would beable to know: The generations of computers. 2
  3. 3. Generations of computers The first generation computers The second generation computers The third generation computers The fourth generation computers The fifth generation computers 3
  4. 4. The First Generation Computers. The digital computer using electronic device (vacuum tubes) is known as the first generation computer. The first generation computer used vacuum tube as a CPU component. 4
  5. 5. The first generation computers (contd): Vacuum Tube is the main technology Acoustic delay lines were used for memory These are costly but slower devices Larger in size Produced more heat Maintenance was needed Highly unreliable. 5
  6. 6. The first generation computers (contd): They used fixed-point arithmetic Examples : IBM 700 series – IBM 701, IBM 704, IBM 709, EDVAC and UNIVAC. 6
  7. 7. The second generation computers The second generation computers used transistors as CPU components Ferrite cores for main memory and magnetic disks and tapes for secondary memory. 7
  8. 8. The third generation computers The third generation computers used ICs (SSI and MSI) as CPU components. These used magnetic core memory, but later on semiconductor memories. 8
  9. 9. The third generation computers (contd) Semiconductor memories were LSI chips. Concept of Cache memory was introduced. 9
  10. 10. The third generation computers (contd) Micro programming, parallel processing, multi processing, multi user system and time sharing system etc were introduced. Examples:IBM/370 series (1970),CDC 7600 (1969), CDC’s CYBER-175 and STAR-100,etc 10
  11. 11. The fourth generation computers Fourth generation computers use VLSI chips for CPU, memory and supporting chips. They use microprocessor as CPU (32 bit or 64 bit). 11
  12. 12. The fourth generation computers (contd) They also contain many other essential components such as FPU (Floating Point Unit), MMU (Memory Management Unit), first level and second level cache memory etc. Examples of latest microprocessors :Pentium II and Pentium III, Power PC ,DEC’s Alpha, SUN’s ULTRASPARC ,AMD’s K-6,K-7,etc 12
  13. 13. The fifth generation computers (contd) : The fifth generation computers are under development stage. These computers will use ULSI (ultra large scale integration) chips. 13
  14. 14. The fifth generation computers (contd) : ULSI chips contain millions of components into a single IC. The input and output information for these computers will be in the form of speech and graphic images 14
  15. 15. The fifth generation computers (contd) : The computer will understand natural languages like English , Japanese , etc. The programmers will not have to learn programming languages. 15
  16. 16. The fifth generation computers (contd) : They will be able to speak commands or key information in their mother tongue Vision system will also be incorporated. 16
  17. 17. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERSGenerations Components Advantages Disadvantages Examples usedFirst (1946- Vacuum tubes Machine Language Costlier, more IBM700,ENIAC,1954) space, excess EDVAC powerSecond(1955- Transistors Less expensive, less Used Assembly IBM7090,1964) power, Language IBM7094 I, Cheaper & small in IBM9094 II sizeThird(1965- Integrated circuits, Smaller, Faster, IBM/370 series,1974) Semi conductor Cheaper - Cyber175 memoryFourth(1975- VLSI chips Faster, Less power Uses one or more CRAY Y_MPC,1984) consumption microprocessors WIPRO LANDMARK 860Fifth(1985- ULSI Very high - Windows 2000,present) performance, Easy Xp, Linux access, Multiprocessing 17
  18. 18. SummaryIn this class, we have learnt about Generations of computers 18
  19. 19. Frequently Asked Questions Explain different generations of computers? 19
  20. 20. Quiz1. The third generation computers used a. vacuum tubes b. transistors c. ICs d. LSIAnswer: c 20
  21. 21. Quiz2. The second generation computers used a. vacuum tubes b. transistors c. ICs d. LSIAnswer: b 21
  22. 22. Quiz3. The first generation computers used a. vacuum tubes b. transistors c. ICs d. LSIAnswer: a 22