Lecture 4 canadian soil classification


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Lecture 4 canadian soil classification

  1. 1. Introduction to Soils and Soil Resources 2001 Lecture 4 Legal Land Location, Soil Inventory, Module 1 review
  2. 2. Tonight Assignment 2 and Catena due Lab manual hand out Lab groups for Feb 10 Legal Land Survey Soil Survey Review
  3. 3. Morning Lab Section Quentin Bochar Fred Bowker Brenda Clements Matt Corrigan Lois Dvorsky Shannon Hall Junko Ishida Ivan Mazur Rory Ryder David Sidlick Warren Taylor Graham Wilson
  4. 4. Afternoon Lab Section Carlos Arregoces Barry Eastwood Jana Erickson Joyce Gould Sarah Laurence Mylo Mantai DonnaRae Paquette Howard Preston Barry Robinson Anne Sagert David Slade Dan Sliwkanich Janet Stahl Jay Wiseman
  5. 5. Reading Chapter 12 of text book Lab manual For review read chapters 1 - 5 of text book
  6. 6. Legal Land Survey Land in the Prairie Provinces is divided into parcels using a regular grid pattern. The legal location of a particular parcel of land is designated by its location within the grid.
  7. 7. Fig. 12.2. Legal land survey in Alberta Credit: Pedosphere.com
  8. 8. Legal Land Survey 49th parallel on the south 110o W longitude - fourth meridian (Alberta Saskatchewan border)
  9. 9. Legal Land Survey A township is that tract of land bounded on the east and west sides by range lines and on the north and south sides by township lines. It is a square with sides of approximately 6 miles.
  10. 10. Lines Base lines Range lines Township lines Correction lines
  11. 11. Base lines Start at 49th parallel Second baseline is 24 miles north of this Base lines every 24 miles north Drawn horizontally from East to West Divide the grid into strips
  12. 12. Range lines Start at 4th Meridian Numbered to the West of this Six miles apart from each other Projected 12 miles North Divide the grid North to South Converge to the North
  13. 13. Correction lines Due to curve of the Earth Range lines converge Correction lines used to offset the range lines
  14. 14. Ranges 30 ranges at 49th parallel 26 ranges at the latitude of Edmonton
  15. 15. Legal Land Survey Townships are divided into 36 sections. Each is approximately 1.6 km (1 mile) square and contains about 260 hectares or 640 acres.
  16. 16. Legal Land Survey Each section is divided into quarter sections designated as NE, NW, SE, and SW. The legal description or location of a quarter section includes in order from left to right the quarter designation, the section, township, and range numbers and the nearest meridian to the east.
  17. 17. 31 32 33 34 35 36 30 29 28 27 26 25 19 20 21 22 23 24 18 17 16 15 14 13 7 8 9 10 11 12 6 5 4 3 2 1 Numbering convention for sections in a township
  18. 18. Legal location Quarter: SW Section: 19 Township: 9 Range: 7 Meridian: W4 Example: SW-19-9-7-W4
  19. 19. Soil Survey Maps Hand drawn Paper reproductions Digital
  20. 20. Soil maps in Alberta Soil survey began in 1920 Intensified in 1950 Digitized 1992 Agricultural zone of Alberta now available as AGRASID CD-ROM
  21. 21. Relationships Distribution of soils linked to: climate vegetation parent material
  22. 22. Soils of Alberta South East to North West Trend dry to wetter climate short grass to forest vegetation moraine to colluvial parent material
  23. 23. Soils of Alberta Brown Chernozemic in SE Dark Brown Chernozemic Black Chernozemic Dark Gray Chernozemic Gray Luvisols Brunisols Organic Soils
  24. 24. Soil Survey Soil survey reports, including maps of the area surveyed and description of the soils, have been published for most important agriculture, forestry, and recreational regions of the region
  25. 25. Soil Survey (2) Surveyors develop mental concepts or models of how soils are distributed across the study area.
  26. 26. Soil Survey (3) During the mapping process, portions of the map area are delineated such that variability within the delineated area is less than the variability found in the entire area.
  27. 27. Soil Survey (4) Suppose you encounter the following description for a polygon: Ar4 Fn3 On3 Letters represent map units; Digits represent proportion of the landscape
  28. 28. Soil Survey (5) Suppose you encounter the following description for a polygon: Ar4 Fn3 On3 Ar: Angus Ridge (Eluviated Black Chernozem) Fn: Falun (Orthic Dark Gray Luvisol) On: Onoway (Orthic Humic Gleysol)
  29. 29. Soil Survey (6) Recent soil survey reports contain detailed information. For example: Map symbol: Ar Map unit: Angus Ridge Soil Group: Eluviat ed Black Dominant Texture: Loam Parent Material: Till
  30. 30. Soil Survey (7) Drainage Class: Well drained Topography: Undulat ing to moderately rolling Stoniness: Slightly stony
  31. 31. Soil Survey (8) Map scale: 1:126,720 or 1 cm = 1.267 km or 1 inch = 2 miles
  32. 32. Exam hint There will not be any questions on legal land location or soil survey on the Module 1 exam Legal land location and soil survey will be used in lab 2 on March 10
  33. 33. Review of Module 1 Terminology What is soil? Soil components Horizons Texture Structure Colour
  34. 34. Review of module 1 Soil Formation Weathering Soil Development Horizon Development Soil Classification Chernozems, Luvisols and Solonetz
  35. 35. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Percentage soil air/water mineral organic Components of soil
  36. 36. Pore space “Ideal soil” 50% pore space Can be water or air, or both Optimum condition is 50:50 water:air
  37. 37. Soil horizons Mineral and organic master horizons suffixes to master horizons
  38. 38. Soil horizons Master horizons Soil profile Horizons A and B = solum C is parent material
  39. 39. Texture, Structure and Colour Texture = % sand, silt clay Texture triangle Particle size ranges Affect on soil properties
  40. 40. Structure Arrangement of primary particles into groups Types Types and horizons Importance of structure
  41. 41. Calculations Bulk density Particle Density Pore space % Pore space
  42. 42. Bulk density and porosity As Dp increases, pore space decreases Typical values for soil textural classes Importance of aggregation
  43. 43. Colour Munsell Distinguishes horizons Related to amount of organic matter Related to minerals Related to water/air in the soil
  44. 44. Parent material Types of rocks Regolith Type of parent material Features of parent material Glaciation
  45. 45. Weathering Physical and Chemical agents involved primary minerals converted to secondary
  46. 46. Chemical weathering Carbonation Hydration Hydrolysis Oxidation
  47. 47. Physical weathering Disintegration Temperature Water, Ice and Wind Plants and Animals
  48. 48. Soil Development Pedosphere Soil and Solum Soil forming factors
  49. 49. Soil forming factors Climate Vegetation Parent materials Organisms Relief
  50. 50. Horizon development Additions Removals Mixing Translocation Transformations
  51. 51. Eluviation The transportation of soil material in suspension or in solution within the soil by the downward or lateral movement of WATER
  52. 52. Eluvial horizon A soil horizon that has been formed by the process of eluviation
  53. 53. Illuviation The process of depositing soil material removed from one horizon in the soil to another, usually from an upper to a lower in the soil profile.
  54. 54. Illuvial horizon A soil horizon in which material carried from an overlying layer has been precipitated from solution or deposited from suspension as a layer of accumulation.
  55. 55. Translocation The movement of soil materials in solution or suspension from one horizon to another. Movement can be in any direction within the soil profile
  56. 56. Leaching The removal from the soil of materials in solution. The material has moved out of the soil profile, usually into the ground water.
  57. 57. Transportation The movement of materials in the soil from one horizon to another by any means such as water animals frost heave
  58. 58. Soil Classification Master horizons Suffixes Canadian System of Soil Classification
  59. 59. Classification Reflects soil moisture regimes soil temperature classes soil moisture sub classes type of vegetation parent material
  60. 60. CSSC Orders Great Groups Subgroups Family Series
  61. 61. Amount of information Less at Order level increases through the levels Most at soil series level
  62. 62. Chernozemic Soils Develop under continental climate typically grassland well to imperfectly drained OM accumulation > decomposition Must have an Ah >10 cm
  63. 63. Great Groups of Chernozems There are four Differentiated based on the colour of the A horizon Processes happening in a Chernozem
  64. 64. Solonetzic Soils Salt affected Leached saline C horizon well to imperfectly drained
  65. 65. Diagnostic horizon Bn or Bnt What does “n” tell us? What does “t” tell us? Bt at least 5 cm thick Increase in clay
  66. 66. Great Groups of Solonetz There are four Differentiated on basis of how much the B horizon has broken down Solodization breaks down the B
  67. 67. Solonetzic soils Distinct structure of the B horizon Hard B Hard peds Peds may be coated
  68. 68. Luvisol Forests LFH Mild to cold climate Eluviation and illuviation
  69. 69. Luvisol process Movement of clay from upper horizon to lower horizon Increase in clay changes texture
  70. 70. Great Groups of Luvisols There are two Differentiated based on type of vegetation under which they develop climate
  71. 71. Subgroups Differentiated on the basis of the kind and arrangement of horizons that indicate conformity to the central concept of the great group
  72. 72. Subgroups Orthic - most like the great group, no dominant processes other than those used to classify the Great Group present. Gleyed - like the great group but gleyed Eluviated - like the great group but with an eluviated horizon
  73. 73. Examples Great group : Black Chernozem Orthic Black Chernozem is not gleyed (Gleyed) not eluviated (Eluviated), not sitting on top of rock (Rego) or containing calcareous material (Calcareous)
  74. 74. Subgroups Differentiated using conformity to great group (e.g. Orthic) Differentiated on basis or intergrading towards another soil order (e.g. Gleyed) Differentiated on special features within the control section (e.g. Vertic)
  75. 75. Module 1 Examination Room 2-36 Earth Sciences Building Starts at noon I hr exam bring a calculator show all working Good luck!
  76. 76. Lab Saturday Feb 10 Group 1: 9 am to noon Group 2: 1 pm to 4 pm Lab held in 2-44 Earth Sciences Building Lab TA is Garth Wruck Have fun!
  77. 77. Good Luck!