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Sensation and Perception


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For Miss Joy Lim’s General Psychology class

First Term | SY 2010-2011
De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde

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Sensation and Perception

  1. 3. <ul><li>Sensation- awareness or mental process which is aroused due to stimulation of a sense organ. </li></ul><ul><li>ACQUIRING SENSORY AWARENESS </li></ul><ul><li>1 ST CONDITION: </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation – anything which rouses a sense organ to activity. </li></ul><ul><li>2 types of stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>1. physical energy </li></ul><ul><li>2. chemical form energy </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>Receptor Organ – highly specialized part of the body and selecting sensitive to a definite stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>- doorway of the body responsible for all the sensation we experience. </li></ul><ul><li>- “sense organ” </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>2 nd Condition: </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Receptor Cell </li></ul><ul><li>- the sense organ detect stimuli from the environment and transmit information to the appropriate areas of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Condition: </li></ul><ul><li>Sense Receptor is stimulated by certain “stimulus”. </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Stimulus must be transferred into a code of electrochemical impulses which is travel to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Transduction – process of converting physical energy into activity in the nervous system which takes place in the receptor. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>QUESTION: When a stimulus is said to be detected? </li></ul><ul><li>ANSWER: Stimulus to be detected must be strong enough and to produce sensation. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Absolute threshold – stimulus is in the inner limit or does not go or reach beyond the threshold. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Subliminal threshold – stimuli are way above the threshold. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Terminal threshold – stimuli reach an increased intensity it produces pain and individual uncomfortable. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Sensory Adaptation : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sense Receptor – ability to make adaptation to changes/ adjust to a particular stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sense Organ: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Distal senses – sensitive to stimuli coming from a distance in the outside environment. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Proximal senses – bring information when we come direct contact with the objects that stimulates them. </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>A. DISTAL SENSES </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vision </li></ul><ul><li>- utilize the physical characteristic of light. </li></ul><ul><li>EYE (receptor organ of Vision). </li></ul><ul><li>Light Waves ( stimuli for seeing) </li></ul><ul><li>waves of radiant energy coming from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Eye utilizes 2 basic properties of light: </li></ul><ul><li>1. brightness – intensity of light (the amount of radiant energy coming from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>2. color – wave length or frequency </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Parts of the Eye: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sclerotic coat (SCLERA) – hard and outer most covering , it protects the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Choroid coat – full of bloody tissues, gives nourishment to the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Retina – inner most covering of the eye. Photosensitive plate of the eye. Regarded as the true organ of vision. </li></ul><ul><li>RODS and CONS (receptors cells) embedded on in the coat. </li></ul>
  9. 12. cornea Aqueous humor pupil
  10. 13. IRIS lens retina
  11. 14. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>connects light energy to nerve impulse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Receptor cells Nerve impulse Optic nerve BRAIN
  12. 15. <ul><li>Receptor cells of the eye: </li></ul><ul><li>RODS - slender nerve cells ( 100 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Function: used for twilight vision or low light intensity, enable one to make colorless discrimination, sensitive to tiny amount of lights ( dim light ), color blind (they see the world in black and white). </li></ul><ul><li>Cones – thicker / cone shape ; interprets color. ( 6 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Daytime vision , enable one to discriminate brightness , hue or color. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See the color of the spectrum ( 3 types of cones) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. red </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. green </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C. blue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>3 dimension of colors </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hue - name of colors </li></ul><ul><li>red- longest wave length. </li></ul><ul><li>violet – shortest wave length. </li></ul><ul><li>blue , green , yellow – intermediate wave length. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Brightness – energy of the source of light </li></ul><ul><li>coloring range from bright to dim. </li></ul><ul><li>intensity of the stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Saturation – purity or richness of color. </li></ul><ul><li>highly saturated color – pure hues ( no tint of gray added) </li></ul><ul><li>low saturation – close to gray </li></ul><ul><li>note: Saturation of any color is reduced by mixing it with white. </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Visual defects </li></ul><ul><li>1. myopia </li></ul><ul><li>2.Hyperopia </li></ul><ul><li>3.Presbyopia </li></ul><ul><li>4. Astigmatism </li></ul><ul><li>5. Diplopia </li></ul><ul><li>6. Scotoma </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Parts of the retina: </li></ul><ul><li>Fovea – in the central region, the point of clearest and sharpest vision </li></ul><ul><li>Blind spot – are where all the nerve </li></ul><ul><li>fibers converge to form optic nerve which carries impulse to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>2 kinds of Blind spot </li></ul><ul><li>Dichromatic – 2 or 3 primary colors </li></ul><ul><li>Achromatic – no cones in the retina </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>2. AUDITION </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sound Waves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. pitch – highness or lowness of a sound. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. loudness – intensity sound pursue that activates the eardrum. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. timbre – quality of musical tone . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>Mechanism of the hearing </li></ul><ul><li>3 major parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. outer / external serves to collect sound waves. </li></ul><ul><li>2. middle ear – transmit the sound waves. </li></ul><ul><li>3. inner ear – has sensitive receptors for hearing. </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>How do we hear? </li></ul><ul><li>Sound waves travel and collected by </li></ul>pinna Funneled by the auditory canal Ear drum
  19. 25. <ul><li>Changes in air pressure </li></ul>Middle ear Tiny bones hammer anvil
  20. 26. Stirrup ( to vibrate) 3 tiny bones conduct the sound impulse inward to the inner ear: Hammer – eardrum- stirrup Oval windows
  21. 27. cochlea Auditory portion of the inner ear ( pressure Changes , fluid displace Receptor cells
  22. 28. Hair cells (receptor cells of organ of corti) Auditory nerve Brain
  23. 29. <ul><li>II. Proximal Distance: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Olfaction – sense of smell </li></ul><ul><li>stimulus substance : gaseous substance( must be dissolved in the air “ vaporous form. </li></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>Mechanism of Smell: </li></ul><ul><li>RECEPTOR – Olfactory receptor – long thread like nerve tissue from </li></ul>Olfactory bulb Nasal cavity
  25. 32. <ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Anything that is sniffed must best dissolved in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Receptor cells detect the molecules dissolved in the air that is sucked up in the nasal cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Move up to the olfactory bulbs of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Physical Energy is transduced in the olfactory epithelium to be able to reach the brain. </li></ul>
  26. 33. <ul><li>2. Gustation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tongue” organ for the sense of taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus – chemicals – must transform into soluble substance to penetrate into the taste cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor – taste receptor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papillae – tongue elevation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste buds – lie between the papillae ( taste receptor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pore – opening of the taste buds. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>Mechanism of taste: </li></ul><ul><li>The food is transformed into soluble form . Depolarized liquid substance can penetrate into the taste cells: </li></ul>depolarized Will incite the nerve fiber
  28. 36. Give rise to nerve impulse Gustatory nerve Brain