Physiological Basis of Behavior


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For Miss Joy Lim's General Psychology class

First Term | SY 2010-2011
De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde

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Physiological Basis of Behavior

  1. 1. Physiological Basis of Behavior <ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Left Brain – Right Brain Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence and its assessment </li></ul>
  2. 2. Look at the chart and say the color not the word YELLOW BLUE ORANGE BLACK RED GREEN PURPLE YELLOW RED ORANGE GREEN BLACK BLUE RED PURPLE GREEN BLUE ORANGE Left – Right Conflict Your right brain tries to say the color but your left brain insists on reading the word
  4. 4. <ul><li>Nervous system – complex network of nerve cells that regulates our bodily functions and permits us to reach the external world. </li></ul><ul><li>II central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>1. causes sensory information to the brain via: affarent nerves and efferent nreves). </li></ul><ul><li>2. it plays a key role in various reflexes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>P. N. system – consist of nerves, bundles of axons from many neurons connects C.N.S with sense organs and muscles and glands throughout the body. Nerves are attached to the spinal cord (spinal nerve) to serve all of the body below the neck. </li></ul><ul><li>cranial nerve – extends from the brain and carry information from receptor in the eyes, ears and other sense organs. Carry information from C.N.S , muscles in head and neck. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Division of P.N.S. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Somatic Nervous System – connect the Nervous system to voluntary muscle throughout the body. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Autonomic Nervous system – connects the C.N.S to internal organs and glands and to muscles over which we have little voluntary center. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Division of Autonomic Nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sympathetic - stimulates the body only for using energy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Parasympathetic – stimulate the body processes that conserve energy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. three basic functions of nervous system: <ul><li>Receiving sensory input can be manifested in various forms, including pressure, taste, sound, light, or hormone levels, which are converted to a signal and then sent to the brain or spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating the input through the sensory centers of the brain or in the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to stimuli then converted to action. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Basic Structural Unit: The Neuron
  10. 10. 3 main parts of a neuron: <ul><li>Dendrites - receive the information from another cell and are the one to transmit the message to the cell body. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell body - serves as the center of nourishment </li></ul><ul><li>Axon - conducts messages away from the cell body. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3 types of neuron <ul><li>Sensory neurons as classified into its appearance typically possess a long dendrite and short axon, and its role is that they carry messages from sensory receptors to the central nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor neurons based into appearance, have a long axon and short dendrites and responsible to transmit messages from the central nervous system to the muscles or even to the glands. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3 types of neuron <ul><li>3 . Interneurons are located only in the central nervous system where there is a connection of neuron-to-neuron. </li></ul>
  13. 13. SYNAPTIC VESSICLES CONTAIN NEUROTRANSMITTER SUBSTANCES <ul><li>Acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma-aminobutyric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul><ul><li>Endorphin </li></ul>
  14. 14. Different Neurotransmitter Substances and their Effects on Behavior Neurotransmitter Effects on Behavior <ul><li>Acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates learning and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency of ACH disrupts learning and memory </li></ul>2. Norepinephrine <ul><li>Too little may lead to depression </li></ul><ul><li>Too much causes hyperactivity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Different Neurotransmitter Substances and their Effects on Behavior Neurotransmitter Effects on Behavior 3. Dopamine <ul><li>Over supply may lead to </li></ul><ul><li>schizophrenic reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Under supply causes Parkinson’s </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases (a neurological disorder disrupting coordinated movement) </li></ul>4. Serotonin <ul><li>Lack of serotonin produces anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents dreaming in the waking state </li></ul><ul><li>Considered as the “worry” chemical </li></ul><ul><li>in the brain </li></ul>
  16. 16. Different Neurotransmitter Substances and their Effects on Behavior Neurotransmitter Effects on Behavior 5. GABA (gamma acid aminobutyric acid) 6. Endorphins <ul><li>Decreases the activity of the neuron </li></ul><ul><li>May decrease levels of anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Pain relieving effect; a neuropeptide </li></ul>
  18. 18. Central Nervous System (CNS) <ul><li>BRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>the largest part of the nervous system that is protected by the skull. </li></ul><ul><li>It weighs 3 pounds and contains 90% of the body neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord runs along the dorsal side of the body and links the brain to the rest of the body. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>4 lobes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Parietal lobe located in in the central fissure from the frontal lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>function: information to the skin senses (touch, temperature and pressure). </li></ul><ul><li>If left hemisphere is damage may lose ability to read/ write and difficulty of knowing the parts of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>If right hemisphere : difficulty of recognizing the left part of the body. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>2. Frontal lobe – nearest to the face ( motor cortex) Function: controls the body movement. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Occipital lobe – near the back of the head. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: sensory area for awareness ( visual) </li></ul><ul><li>Damage in the right hemisphere – loss of vision in the left. </li></ul><ul><li>If in the left – loss vision ion the right. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Temporal lobe - along the side of each hemisphere. Function: concern with hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Damage in left hemisphere – inability to understand spoken words. </li></ul><ul><li>If in the right – can recognize speech but unable to recognize other organizations of sounds. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The major brain areas and lobes.
  22. 22. Hindbrain - includes <ul><li>Medulla </li></ul><ul><li>controls respiration, digestion, and circulation; </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Governs body balance, posture and muscular coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Contain nerve fibers from both sides of the cerebellum as well as the tracts of sensory and motor nerve fibers that connect upper brain to the spinal cord </li></ul>
  23. 23. Midbrain <ul><li>Tracts between the cerebrum and the spinal cord and functions as part of the overall impulse conduction system. </li></ul><ul><li>It also controls some auditory and visual responses such as regulation of the size of the pupil of the eye. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Forebrain <ul><li>Occupies the largest of the three divisions of the brain and occupies the entire upper portion of the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>The main area of the forebrain, governs emotion, learning, thinking, remembering and sense perception. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>The outer layer of the cerebrum, directs the activities directs the activities of the entire nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Interprets and sorts the sensory and motor impulses that travel to and from the cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Controls body temperature, metabolism, hunger and thirsts </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reticular activating system <ul><li>A group of neurons that occupy a portion of the hindbrain and midbrain that serves as an arousal system </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus Callosum </li></ul><ul><li>Connects two brain hemisphere </li></ul>
  27. 28. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Autonomic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>It connects the glands and organs of your body that are involuntary in nature. It has two subsystems: </li></ul><ul><li>the sympathetic nervous system and </li></ul><ul><li>the parasympathetic nervous system </li></ul>
  28. 29. Sympathetic Nervous System vs. Parasympathetic Nervous System <ul><li>Sympathetic Nervous </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><li>involved in the “fight or flight” response during emergency situation or in high emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>It increases alertness, stimulates tissue, and prepares the body for quick responses to unusual situations. activities, such as digestion. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>that is involved in “rest or repose” system as it quiets the body and returns it to a lower intensity of arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>It is involved in relaxation. It conserves energy and controls sedentary </li></ul>
  29. 30. HOMEOSTASIS <ul><li>Tendency of the body to maintain a balance among internal physiological conditions. </li></ul>
  30. 31. The Endocrine System: Glandular activities of the system <ul><li>ENDOCRINE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones. These hormones regulate the body’s growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function. </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONES </li></ul><ul><li>Directly released on the bloodstream because they have no ducts or structured passageways to the organs that they serve. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Endocrine Glands
  32. 34. Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Secrete special messengers known as hormones that are directly released into bloodstream because they have no ducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Has been called the “master gland”, influences growth, metabolism and regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul><ul><li>Influence the contraction of the uterus during childbirth and the reflexive reaction of milk from the mammary glands. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Vasopressin <ul><li>Regulates the amount of water in the body cells and thus directly controls blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary hormones – include control of timings and amount of body growth </li></ul><ul><li>Too little can lead to condition called DWARFISM </li></ul><ul><li>Over secretion can produce GIANTISM </li></ul>
  34. 36. Giantism
  35. 37. Dwarfism He Pingping and Svetlana Pankratova
  36. 38. He Pingping stands precisely 2 feet 5.37 inches tall. Pankratova's legs are nearly 52 inches long.
  37. 39. Adrenal glands <ul><li>Located just above the kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Important in neural functioning and in the ability to cope with stress </li></ul><ul><li>The inner core of the adrenal gland secretes EPINEPHRINE also called ADRENALIN and NOREPINEPHRINE (NORADRENALIN) </li></ul>
  38. 40. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Located in the neck in front of the windpipe and weighs less than ounce </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone produced by this gland is IODINE, THYROXIN </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>The result of underactivity of the thyroid gland, which characterized by laziness and dullness on the part of the organism </li></ul><ul><li>When this occurs in infancy the condition is known as CRETINISM </li></ul>
  39. 41. GOITER <ul><li>The swelling of the thyroid gland brought about by the glands overworking, hence the inability to secrete enough hormones </li></ul>
  40. 43. Parathyroid Glands <ul><li>These are two small pea-shaped glands close to the thyroid glands </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones called PARATHORMONE </li></ul><ul><li>PARATHORMONE </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates utilization of calcium and phosphorous in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Undersecretion of this hormone results in condition known as tetany </li></ul>
  41. 44. Pancreas <ul><li>Located near the stomach secretes two hormones which control the level of blood sugar or glucose in the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Glucogon </li></ul><ul><li>Releases glucose into the bloodstream from the glycogen stored in the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Enables glucose to move out of the blood into the cells of muscles and tissues </li></ul>
  42. 45. Gonads <ul><li>The sex or puberty glands which produce the sperm and egg cells for reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>TESTES – testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>OVARIES – estrogen and progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>ESTROGEN – stimulates development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics and behavior </li></ul>
  43. 46. PROGESTERONE <ul><li>Stimulates female secondary sex characteristics and behavior and maintains pregnancy </li></ul>