Published on

  • Be the first to comment


  2. 2. <ul><li>I. NATURE / MEANING OF MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>A. Motivation vs. Motive: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation – refers to the aspect of behavior that deals with understanding why human beings behave the way they do. </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with the identification and direction of goals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Motive </li></ul><ul><li>Latin word – movere- to move. </li></ul><ul><li>The expected value of an outcome – the motion concept is incorporated. </li></ul><ul><li>We are moved into action toward a certain goal or direction. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>B. Role of Motives in our everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>We are moved into action because of certain motives. Therefore: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Motives influence behavior in many ways. They help people to choose one stimulus over competing ones. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Motives may also make you do things with greater energy and enthusiasm because of a pressing particular need. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Motives also help you organize your life activities so that you can attain your goals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>II. The motivational Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow expressed this increasing need of human being in hierarchical order. The needs of an Individual in a ladderlike sequence where one leads to another until the goal is attained </li></ul><ul><li>Self Actualization </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem needs </li></ul><ul><li>Love and Belongingness </li></ul><ul><li>Safety needs </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological needs </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Kinds of Motives or Drives </li></ul><ul><li>2 kinds of Drives: </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological and Social </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological Drives or motives – these are inborn and present at birth. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hunger drive 9. Maternal drive </li></ul><ul><li>2. Thirst 10. Warmth and cold </li></ul><ul><li>3. Oxygen need or air hunger </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fatique </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rest and sleep </li></ul><ul><li>6. Avoidance of Pain </li></ul><ul><li>7. Elimination drive </li></ul><ul><li>8. Sex drive </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Psychological and Social drives </li></ul><ul><li>1. Parent – child motives: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Peer group relations </li></ul><ul><li>3. Motives related to competence and self. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Development of Motives </li></ul><ul><li>1. Punishment and reward in development </li></ul><ul><li>2. Secondary reinforcement and development </li></ul><ul><li>3. Timing of reinforcement and distant goals </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ways of motivating others </li></ul><ul><li>1. Motivating by force. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Motivating by enticement </li></ul><ul><li>3. Motivating by identification or ego-involvement. </li></ul>