INTRODUCTION• Air pollution is defined as the release of harmful amounts of natural or synthetic materials into the atmosphere as direct or indirect result of human activity
• The severity of air pollution in a given area depends on several factors includingi. climate,ii. topography,iii. population density andiv. the number and type of industrial activities.
• Air pollution may be broken down into four categories:i. Ambient or outdoor air pollutionii. Indoor air pollutioniii. Occupational air pollutioniv. Personal air pollution
• In this experiment we will use a high volume air sampler to measure TSP. The 24 hour air quality standard established for TSP is 260µg/m3. The size range of particles trapped on the filter is typically less than 25-50µm but greater than 10µm.
Calculation• TSP concentration = 10^6 (Wf - Wi ) g/m^3• Where; RD• Wi = 2.63g• Wf = 2.76 g• R = average flow rate = (0.85-0.57)/5 =0.056x4 =0.224CMM + 0.57 = 0.794CMM x 60 3 =47.64 m / hr
• D = duration of exposure (hour) = 1530 hr until 0900 hr = 17.30 hr• RD = total volume of air passing through• TSP concentration 10 ( 2 . 76 2 . 63 ) g / m 6 3 3 47 . 64 m / hr (17 . 30 hr ) 157 . 73 g
Question 1: How would your filter look like if it were placed alongside a road? Next to the factory? Why is the location of the filter important? The filter look same at the two areas as the particulate pollutants in these two area are almost the same. But, variation may occur due to presence of chimney air filter, automotive cabin air filters and others. The location of the filter is important because the amount of total particulate pollutants (TSP) is vary from location to location as the TSP in rural area less than the urban area, TSP near factory more compared to inside a forest.
Question 2: Do you consider the air pollution in your area to be dangerous? If so, what are the contributors to the air pollution in your area? If air pollution is not a problem now, do you think it will be in the future if nothing is done to protect air quality? The air pollution in this new campus is still not consider to be dangerous, however there still have some particulate pollutants present in this area as the contribution from vehicles and building construction. Actually air pollution is consider as a problem now and it will become worse in the future if nothing is done to protect air quality.
• “Particulate pollutants" also known as particulate matter or PM, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. Particulate pollution is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles.• The size of particles is directly linked to their potential for causing health problems. Particles that are 10 micrometers in diameter or smaller are the particles that generally pass through the throat and nose and enter the lungs. Once inhaled, these particles can affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects.
Particulate pollutants can grouped into two categories:• "Inhalable coarse particles" such as those found near roadways and dusty industries, are larger than 2.5 micrometers and smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter.• "Fine particles," such as those found in smoke and haze, are 2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller. These particles can be directly emitted from sources such as forest fires, or they can form when gases emitted from power plants, industries and automobiles react in the air.
Levels of Cautionary StatementsEPA Air Quality Health PM2.5 PM10 Index Concern 0 - 50 Good None None 51 - 100 Moderate None None Unhealthy for People with respiratory or heart People with respiratory disease, 101 - 150 Sensitive disease, the elderly, and children such as asthma, should limit Groups should limit prolonged exertion. outdoor exertion. People with respiratory disease, People with respiratory or heart such as asthma, should avoid disease, the elderly, and children outdoor exertion; everyone else, 151 - 200 Unhealthy should avoid prolonged exertion; especially the elderly and children, everyone else should limit should limit prolonged outdoor prolonged exertion. exertion. People with respiratory or heart People with respiratory disease, disease, the elderly, and children such as asthma, should avoid any Very 201 - 300 should avoid any outdoor activity; outdoor activity; everyone else, Unhealthy everyone else should avoid especially the elderly and children, prolonged exertion. should limit outdoor exertion. Everyone should avoid any outdoor Everyone should avoid any outdoor exertion; people with respiratory or exertion; people with respiratory 301 - 500 Hazardous heart disease, the elderly, and disease, such as asthma, should children should remain indoors. remain indoors.
What are the health effects of particle pollution? Short-term increases (over hours to days) in particle pollution have been linked to:• death from respiratory and cardiovascular causes, including strokes• increased numbers of heart attacks, especially among the elderly and in people with heart conditions• inflammation of lung tissue in young, healthy adults• increased hospitalization for cardiovascular disease, including strokes;• hospitalization for asthma among children• aggravated asthma attacks in children.
Year-round exposure to particle pollution has also been linked to:• increased hospitalization for asthma attacks in children living near roads with heavy truck or trailer traffic• stunted lung function growth in children and teenagers• significant damage to the small airways of the lungs• increased risk of heart attacks and strokes in older women• increased risk of dying from lung cancer• greater risk of death from cardiovascular disease
Who is at risk? Anyone may be affected by particle pollution, but several groups are most at risk:• Children under 18• Adults 65 and older• Anyone with chronic lung disease, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema• Anyone with a cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, coronary artery• disease, or congestive heart failure• Anyone with diabetes.
CONCLUSIONAt the end of this experiment, we are ableto : understand the significant of particulatepollutants. Become familiar with air samplingtechnique for total suspended particulates(TSP). Determine whether our environment isfree of air pollutants.