1996 02 12 - NLD Attitude for Ethnic Nationalities

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1996 02 12 - NLD Attitude for Ethnic Nationalities

  1. 1. t rsdK; om; D rdk u a& pD t zGJ@ csKyf . wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; ta&;ESihfpyfvsOf;Ixm;&Sdaom om;vl xm;? o abm xm;? edgef;? 1// jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmfonf tm¶Stv,fydkif;ukef;ajrrSqif;oufaygufzGm;vm=uonfhwkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;/ rdom;pk0ifrsm;jzifhaygif;pyfzGJ@pnf;xm;aom EdkifiHwEkdifiHjzpfygonf// ucsif/ u,m;/u&if/ csif;/ Arm/ rGef/ &cdkif/ &Srf;tp&Sdonfh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;/ vlrdsK;pkrsm;. trdajronf jrefrmEkdifiHomv#ifjzpfayonf// 2// odk@jzpf&mvlrdsK;wrsdK;ESifhwrsdK;/ vlrsdK;pkwpkESifhwpkwkd@onf/ tjyeftvSef,kH=unfr_&Sd=u&efwef;wl&nfwlqufqH=u&efta&;=uD;ayonf// vlrsdK;=uD;/ vlrsdK;i,f[laomjyemrsm;/ awmifay:ESihfajrjyef@[laomtpGJtvef;rsm;udk tjyD;tykdkifazsmufzsufjyD;/ jynfaxmifpkwcktwGif;xJrS aygufzGm;vmaomnDtpfudkwdkif;&if;om;rsm;tjzpfpGJjrJpGmcH,ltyfayonf// 3// TwGiftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmif=uD;AdkfvfcsKyfatmifqef;. “vlrsdK;qkdonfrSm/ okc/ kuQ/ twlcHpm;=uI eD;eD;pyfpyftusdK;jcif;xyfjyD;v#if/ ESpfy&dap>&Snfvsm;pGm wrsdK;wpm;wnf;yif[k pdwfxm;&Sdolwdk@udk/ wpkwnf;aygif;Iac:a0:jcif;omjzpfayonf// trsdK;EG,f/ udk;uG,fonfhbmomw&m;/ ajymqkdonfhbmompum;wkd@udkta&;xm;&rnfjzpfaomfvnf;/ pifppfrSmat;twlyltr#/ aumif;wlqkd;zuf/ yl;aygif;vsufaevkdaomtpOftvmqENtay:wGif/ 0HomEk&uQdww&m;onfwnfaeay.” [laomrdef@=um;csufudk wkdif;oljynfom;tm;vkH; vrf;nGeftjzpfcH,l=u&efvGefpGmrSta&;=uD;ayonf// 4// odk@rSomv#if/ “jynfaxmifpkDrdkua&pDEkdifiHawmfopf”wenf;tm;jzifh “ppfrSefaomDrdkua&pDEkdifiHawmfopf”udkatmifjrifpGmwnfaqmufEkdifjyD; wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;/ aysmf&$ifcsrf;ajr@pGmaexkdifoGm;Ekdif=uayrnf// odk@rSomv#if jynfaxmifpk=uD;wnfwHhcdkifrmjyD; wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;t=um;wGifxm0&jidrf;csrf;om,mr_ xGef;um;Ekdifrnfjzpfygonf// 5// odk@tajrmftjrif=uD;rm;aom trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif=uD;AdkfvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhwuG/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm;onf/ udkvkdeDe,fcsJ@.xrf;ydk;atmufrSvGwfajrmufI/ tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifaom “jynfaxmifpkEkdifiHawmf”udk uspfvpfckdifrmpGmwnfaqmufEdkfif&ef yifvkHnDvmcHusif;yI ta=utvnfnd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;=uvsuf ² ² ² “ » » » awmifwef;aorsm;.e,fwGif;tkyfcsKyfa&;wGif ,ckvuf&SdcHpm;vsuf&Sdaomudk,fykdiftkyfcsKyfa&;qkH;yg;&ef rnfhaowGifrqkdvkH;0ðyrlvdrfhrnfr[kwf/ awmifwef;aorsm;twGuf e,fwGif;tkyfcsKyfa&;wGifudk,fykdifjyXmef;cGifhtjynfht0&Sda=umif; rltm;jzifhvufcHonf//” “ awmifwef;ao&Sdjynfolwdk@onf Drdkua&pDwkdif;jynfrsm;wGif tajccHtcGifhta&;ESifh&ydkifcGifhrsm;[kowfrSwfxm;onfhtcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh&ydkifcGifhrsm;udk &&SdcHpm;ap&rnf”[laomtcsufrsm;udktav;xm;um/ 1947 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv (12)&ufae@wGif/ &Srf;jynfyifvkHðrd@YoabmwlpmcsKyfcsKyfqkdjyD;/ vGwfvyfa&;udk twlwuGjyefvnft&,lcJh=uayonf// 6// Todk@tm;jzifh jynfaxmifpkzGm;wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;tm;vkkH; wef;wl&nfwl&Sdr_udkvnf;aumif;/ e,fwGif;udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfydkifcGifh&Sda&;udkvnf;aumif; rdom;pkpdwf"gwf/ odk@r[kwf/ yifvkHpdwf"gwfjzifh todtrSwfðyoabmwlcJh=uayonf// -1-
  2. 2. 7// Tonfwkd@udk trdsK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfutav;teufcH,lI ppfrSefaomygwDpkHDrkdua&pDEkdifiHawmfopfukd jynfoljynfom;tm;vkH;ESifhtwlwufnDvufnDwnfaqmufoGm;=u&ef tcdkiftrmoEMdXmefcsrSwfcJhayonf// qufvufIvnf; atmifjrifonftxdtaumiftxnfaz:oGm;rnfjzpfayonf// trsdK;om;Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyftaejzifhwkdif;&if;om;rsm;ta&;ESifhywfoufItpOfwpkdufcsrSwfcJhaom aejzif ywf oabmxm;rsm;// tzGJ@csKyfzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHpnf;rsOf; (,m,D) ESifhrl0goabmxm;rsm; (rl=urf;) 8// trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf.1988ckESpfatmufwkdbmvtwGif;uxkwfjyefcJhaomtrsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHpnf;rsOf;(,m,D)ESifh rl0goabmxm;rsm;(rl=urf;)yg/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;tay:xm;&Sdonfh rl0goabmxm;rsm;wGif - (u)“ » » »wkdfif;&if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;.jyemudk OD;pm;ay;tav;xm;umajz&Sif;=urnf// wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;tm;vkH;. wef;wl&nfwltcGifhta&;rsm;udktodtrSwfðyjcif;/ pdwfxm; apwemjzLpifjcif;/ cspf=unf&if;ESD;jcif;/ wOD;.t,ltqwOD;av;pm;jcif;/ tajccHvl@tcGifhta&; av;pm;,kH=unfjcif;/ wkdfif;&if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;.pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_ESifh "avhxkH;wrf;pOfvmzGH@+zdK; wnfxGef;apvkdaomqENtm;vkdufavsmjcif;wkd@udk tajcjyKvsuf/ taumif;qkH;tajzudk&&Sdonf txd}udK;yrf;rnf/ Ttcsufrsm;udktxl;tav;teufxm;I yl;aygif;ajz&Sif;=uv#if/ jynf axmifpk}uD;+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh jynfaxmifpkom;tcsif;csif; o[mZmwjzpfa&;wkd@onf/ rkcs atmifyef;qifEkdif rnfh&nfrSef;csufrsm;jzpfonf[k ,kH=unfonf// T&nfrSef;csufrsm; xajrmuf atmif }udK;yrf; vkyfaqmifoGm;rnf//” (c) zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufaomjynfaxmifpk}uD;tjzpf/ pD;yGm;a&;tiftm;ckdifrmawmifhwif;pGm&yfwnf Ekdifa&;udkvkdvm;onfhtavsmuf jynfe,ftoD;oD;wGif pD;yGm;a&;zGH@+zdK;r_vkyfief;rsm;udk vGwfvyf pGmaqmif&GufEkdifa&;twGufOD;wnfrnf// wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. arG;&mygtcGifhta&;rsm;cHpm; jynfh0a&;ESifh jynfaxmifpk}uD;wckvkH;om,m0ajyma&;wdk@ o[Zmwjzpfaprnfhrludk vufcHusifh okH;I jynfe,frsm;.udk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifhudkaz:xkwfrnf”[k twdtvif; rl0goabmxm;rsm; csrSwfcJhayonf// trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. a=unmcsuftrSwf (9)? 9// wzeftrdsK;om;Ddrdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;a:atmifqef;pk=unfonf/1989 ckESpftwGif;/ EkdifiHtESH@tjym;uGif;qif;pnf;¶kH;cJhpOf &Srf;jynfyifvkH+rdK@Y (11-2-89) &ufae@wGif tzGJ@csKyf.oabmxm;ESifha,sbk,sa¶S@vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk a=unmcsuftrSwf(9)twdkif; &Sif;vif;ajym=um;cJhygonf? &Sif;vif;ajym=um;csufrsm;rSm ² ² ² (u) “jynfaxmifpkwckvkH;. EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ u¾e,fy,ftm;vkH;Y tjynfh0qkH; aomDrdkua&pDtajctaersm;azmfxkwfa&;ESifh tppfrSefqkH;aomDrdkua&pDEkdifiHawmfopfwnf aqmufa&;udk OD;wnfa&S@&_rnf” (c)“wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH; vufwGJrjzKwfpwrf;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_jzifh jynfaxmifpk}uD; wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;/ jynfaxmifpk=uD;zGH@ðzd;wkd;wufa&;ESifh jynfaxmifpk=uD;jidrf;csrf;om,ma&;udk OD;wnfa¶S@&_rnf// (*)“jynfaxmifpkbGm;wdkif;&if;om;vlrdsK;tm;vkH;. tcGifhta&;wef;wl&nfwlr_udkvufcHvsuf/ rnfonfhvlrsdK;udkr#txl;tcGifhta&;ray;a&;ESifh vlrsdK;EG,f/ vlrsdK;pktm;vkH;.cHpm;xkdufcHpm;tyf aomrnfonfhtcGifhta&;udkr#csKyfjc,fuef@owfr_rðya&;udk OD;wnfa¶S@¶_rnf//” -2-
  3. 3. (C)“wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;tm;vkH; EdkifiHa&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ pD;yGm;a&; u¾e,fy,ftoD;oD;Y udk,fykdifjyXmef;cGifh&Sda&;udk OD;wnfa¶S@¶_rnf//” (i)“e,fy,faotoD;oD;Y wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tcsif;csif;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_/ ulnD¶dkif;yif;r_/ 0dkif;0ef;yHhydk;r_jzifh jynfaxmifpk=uD;wckvkH;ESifh jynfaxmifpk=uD;.jynfe,faotpdwftykdif; toD;oD;.pD;yGm;zGH@ðzd;wkd;wufa&;udk OD;wnfa¶S@¶_rnf//”[lonfrsm;jzpfayonf// 10// a,bk,sa&S@vkyfief;pOfrsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;I ² ² ² (u) “Drdkua&pDpepfatmifjrifpGmwnfaqmufEkdifcsddefwGif jynfaxmifpk=uD;wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;/ zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;/ +idrf;csrf;om,ma&;/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;/ wef;wl aomDrdkua&pDvl@abmifopf. tajccHtkwfjrpf=uD;rsm;udk tckdiftrmcsEkdifap&eftusdK;iSm yifvkH nDvmcH}uD;uJhodk@aomjynfaxmifpk=uD;.tem*wfc&D;vrf;nGefrsm;udkcsrSwfEkdifrnfh wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;aygif;pkHtrsdK;om;nd‡E_dif;r_nDvmcHw&yfudk ac:,lusif;yrnf//” (c) wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pkHtrsdK;om;nd‡E_dif;r_nDvmcH}uD;wGif wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;. udk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifh/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;.tcGifhta&;wef;wl&nfwlcGifh/ vlrsdK;EG,f}uD;wck .e,fy,faotwGif;rSDwif;aexkdifvsuf/ udk,fydkifpum;/ udk,fydkif,Ofaus;r_/ udk,fykdife,fajr ao&SdaomvlrsdK;i,fwkd@. oD;jcm;e,fajrqkdif&mudk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh/ ponfhta&;udpPrsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;I trsm;oabmnDr#aomjyXmef;csufrsm;udkcsrSwfrnf//” (*) wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pkHtrdsK;om;nd‡E_dif;r_nDvmcH=uD;wGif jynfaxmifpkbGm;wkdif;&if;om; tm;vkH;.aoG;pnf;ckdifrmr_udk ,ddrf;,dkifðyduGJaeapjyD;/ EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&; bufaygif; pkHwGif kuQyifv,fa0vsuf&Sdonfh jynfaxmifpkwGif;ppfrufzufðydifr_rsm; tjyD;tydkifajyaysmuf csKyfjidrf;apa&;twGufEkdifiHa&;enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh ajz&Sif;Ekdif&efnd‡E_dif;rnf//” (C) wkdfif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pkHnd‡E_dif;r_nDvmcH=uD;wGif/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;ESifh jynfe,f tm;vkH;.pD;yGm;zGH@ðzd;wkd;wufa&;/ udk,fydkifpmay/ xkH;wrf;,Ofaus;r_ESifh bmompum;rsm; pnfyifxGef;um;a&;ESihftjyeftvSefzvS,fqnf;yl;a&;wkd@twGuf ckdifrmwddusaom0dkif;0ef;yHhydk;r_/ tmrcHr_/ av;pm;apmifhxdef;r_/ &if;ESD;ðryfESHr_/ vkyfief;pOfcsrSwfr_rsm;udkaz:xkwfrnf//”[lIvnf;aumif;&Sif;vif;ajym=um;cJhayonf// txufwGifazmfjycJhonfh “ » » » yifvkHnDvmcH=uD;uJhodk@aom jynfaxmifpk=uD;.tem*wfc&D;vrf;!¸efrsm;udk csrSwfEkdifrnfh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pkHnd‡E_dif;r_nDvmcHw&yfudkac:,lusif;yrnf” [lonfESihfywfoufI tqkdygnDvmcHonf/ jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwfvkH;0vGrf;rdk;aomnDvmcHjzpf&rnf[k qkdvkdjcif;jzpfygonf// trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. ygwDpkHtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJa=unmpmwrf;// 11// xkd@aemuf trsdK;om;Ddrdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf 1990 jynfhESpf arvwGifusif;yðyvkyfcJhaomygwDpkHDrdkua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJudk 0ifa&muf,SOfðydifta&G;cHcJhonf// xkdpOfu wkdif;jynfodk@xkwfjyeftoday;cJhaom tzGJ@csKyf. “ygwDpkHtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJa=unmpmwrf;”wGif ² ² ² wkdfif;&if;om;vlrsdK;toD;oD;onf/ rdrdwkd@&ydkifcGifhrsm;ESifhwm0ef,lr_wkd@wGif wef;wl&nfwl&Sdap&rnf// xkd@tjyif ² ² ² (u) wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;tm;vkH;vufwGJrðzwfpwrf; aoG;pnf;nDnGwfr_jzifh/ jynfaxmifpk=uD; wnfwHhcdkifjrJa&;/ jynfaxmifpkzGH@ðzd;wkd;wufa&;ESifhjynfaxmifpk=uD;jidrf;csrf;om,ma&;udk OD;wnf a&S@¶_rnf// (c) jynfaxmifpkbGm;wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;. tcGihfta&;wef;wl&nfwlr_udkvufcHvsuf/ rnfonfhvlrdsK;udkr#txl;tcGifhta&;ray;a&;ESifh vlrsdK;EG,f/ vlrdsK;pktm;vkH;. cHpm;xkduf/ cHpm; tyfaomrnfonfhtcGifhta&;udkr#csKyfjc,fuef@owfr_rðya&;udk OD;wnfa&S@¶_rnf// -3-
  4. 4. (*) wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;onf/ EkdifiHa&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ pD;yGg;a&;u¾paom e,ftoD;oD;Y udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&Sda&;udk zGJ@pnf;tkyfcskyfykHtajccHOyaESihftnD OD;wnfa&S@¶_rnf// (C) zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOyaopfray:aygufrD =um;umvtpDtpOfjzifh jynfol@v$wfawmf uOyajyXmef;I &SdjyD;jynfe,frsm;twGuf tm%mydkfiftzGJ@rsm;zGJ@pnf;ay;rnf// (i) e,fy,ftoD;oD;Y wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tcsif;csif;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_/ ulnD¶dkif;yif;r_/ 0dkif;0ef; yHhykd;r_jzifh jynfaxmifpk=uD;wckvkH;ESihf jynfaxmifpk=uD;.jynfe,faotpdwftydkif;toD;oD;. zGH@ðzd;wkd;wufa&;udkOD;wnfa&S;¶_rnf// (p) Drdkua&pDpepfatmifjrifpGmwnfaqmufEkdifcsdefwGif/ jynfaxmifpk=uD;wnfwHhckdifjrJa&;/ zGH@ðzd; wkd;wufa&;/ jidrf;csrf;om,ma&;/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;wnf;[laom Drdkua&pDvl@abmif. tajccHtkwfjrpf=uD;rsm;udktckdiftrmcsEkdifap&eftvkd@iSg/ yifvkHnDfvmcH uJhokd@aomjynfaxmifpk=uD;. tem*wfc&D;vrf;nGefrsm;udkcsrSwfEkdifrnfh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK; aygif;pkHtrsdK;om;nd‡E_dif;r_nDvmcHw&yfudk ac:,lusif;yrnf// (q) wkdfif;&if;om;vlrsdK;wkdif;onf rdrdwkd@pmay/ bmompum;/ ,Ofaus;r_"avhxkH;wrf;pOfvm rsm;udkxdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufcGifh/ zGH@ðzd;wkd;wufapcGifh&Sdap&rnf// (Z) wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;onf/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH. tcsKyftjcmtm%mwnfwHhcdkifjrJa&;/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;tm;vkH;pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;/ Drdkua&pDxGef;um;a&;/ EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ ynma&;/ usef;rma&;/ aozGH@ðzd;a&;udpPtp&Sdonfrsm;udk jynfaxmifpkwckvkH;twkdif; twmjzifh yg0ifaqmif&Gufap&rnf[kuwdu0wfjyKcJhayonf// jynfaxmifpkwkdfif;&if;om;vlrdsK;rsm; Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifhnd‡Ed_if;jcif;// 12// Todk@tm;jzifh trdsK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf/ rJqEN&Sifjynfolwkd@.wcJeufaxmufcHr_jzifh/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJwGifatmifyef;qGwfcl;tEkdif&&SdcJhonf// xkdodk@atmifEkdifjyD;aemuf/ wkdfif;&if;om;jynfolw&yfvkH;vkdvm;ar#mfrSef;ae=uonfh “ppfrSefaomygwDpkHDrkdua&pDEkdifiHawmfopf”wnfaqmufEkdifa&;twGuf wkdfif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;.oabmxm;qENrsm;udk&,l&ef OD;pm;ay;aqmif&GufcJhonf//wkdfif;&if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;. EkdifiHa&;ygwD(21)ygwDaygif;pyfzGJ@pnf;xm;tyfaom “jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf”ESifhnd‡E_dif;jyD;/ 29-8-90 &ufae@wGif oabmxm;a=unmcsufudk xkwfjyefcJhygonf// tqkdyga=unmcsufrStcsuftvufrsm;rSm - (u) “jynfol@v$wfawmfay:aygufvmjyD;v#if jynfol@v$wfawmfuwifajr‡mufaom Drdk ua&pD tpdk;&zGJ@pnf;jyD;/ tjrefqkH;aomumvtwGif;/ jynfol@v$wfawmf.OD;aqmifr_jzifh wkfdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ESihf yg0ifoifhyg0ifxkdufaomtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ vlyk*~dKvfrsm; yg0ifonfh trsdK;om;nd‡E_dif;r_nDvmcH=uD;w&yfusif;yI/ jynfaxmifpkxlaxmifa&;twGuf vrf;nGefr_ rsm;csrSwfrnf// ,if;vrf;nGefr_rsm;ESifhtnDjynfol@v$wfawmfu a&&SnfwnfwHhckdifjrJrnfh zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOyaopfw&yfudk a&;qGJjyXmef;twnfðy&rnf » » »” (c) “wkdkif;&if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;onf vlrsdK;a&;wef;wlnDr#r_/ EkdifiHa&;wef;wlnDr#ESifh udk,fydkif jyÏmef;cGifhtjynfht0&&Sdap&rnfhtjyif/ Drdkua&pDESifhvl@tcGifhta&;rsm;udktmrcHcsuf&Sdaom jynfaxmifpkudk wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;aoG;pD;nD!GwfpGmxlaxmif&efvdktyfa=umif; [lonf rsm;jzpfygonf?” 13 “udk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifhtjynfht0&&Sdap&rnf” [laomoabmonf/ 1947 ckESpf/ yifvHkpmcsKyftydkf-5yg/ “awmifwef;aorsm;.e,fwGif;tkyfcsKyfa&;wGif,ck&&SdcHpm;v#uf&Sdaom udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;qHk;yg;&ef rnfonfhaowGifrqdkvHk;0jyKvkyfvdrfhrnfr[kwf? awmifwef;aorsm;twGuf e,fwGif;tkyfcsKyfa&;wGifudk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifhtjynfht0&Sda=umif; rltm;jzifhvufcHonf?” qdkonfhoabmw&m;udk -4-
  5. 5. tajccHIoufqdkif&m jynfe,f§wdkif;ESiudk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&tm%mydkiftzGJ@rsm;odk@ fh vHkavmufaomtkyfcsKyfr_tm%mrsm;udknd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;I cGJa0ay;tyf&rnfjzpfayonf? tajccHOyaa&;qGJ&mwGifwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ta&;ESifhpyfv#Of;I wd om;vl trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfu xm;&Sdaomoabmxm;rsm;? 14? ppfrSefaomygwDpHkDrdkua&pDEdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOyaudk yDjyifpGma&;qGJ=urnfqdkygu/Drdkua&pDtajccHrlrsm;udkvnf;aumif;/ vl@tcGifhta&;ESifhtajccH&ydkifcGifhrsm;udkvnf;aumif;/ rvGJraoGtajccH&ayrnf/ trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJwGifyg0if,SOfòydifcJhpOfujynfolwdk@tm;ay;xm;cJh+yD;aom uwdu0wfrsm;udkowd&Sd&Sd/ vufudkifðyI ,if;tajccHrlrsm;tay: pGJ+rJpGm&yfwnfonf? jynfolwdk@tm;ay;xm;cJh+yD;aomuwdu0wfrsm;udk ‚if;wdk@xHjyefvnfIwifjyjcif;rðybJ/rnfonfhtcgr# rnfonfhta=umif;a=umifhr# aoGzDcsKd;azgufjcif;ðyvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg? 15? tajccHOyaa&;qGJ&eftwGuftrsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfuxm;&Sdaom tajccHoabmxm; rsm;rSm ² ² ² (u) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@bdk;pOfabmifquf&yfwnfcJhaomvlrsdK;tpOftquf udk raysmufrysufxdef;odrf;vkd=uonf? ( c) rdrdwdk@. "avhxHk;wrf;,Ofaus;r_/ tEkynm/ pmay/ bmompum;/ bmomw&m;/ p&dkufvuQ%mrsm;udk tvGefwefzdk;xm;xdef;odrf;jr‡ifhwifvdk=uonf? ( *) e,fajraoudk jrwfEdk;wefzdk;xm;=uonf? (C) tpOftquf&yfwnfaexdkifcJhaom tpOftvmESifhvGwfvyfcGifhwdk@udkvnf;/ quf vufcH,lvdk=uonf? (i) wef;wl&nfwlESifh r&Sdtwl/ &Sdtwl/ at;twlrltr#/ rcGJpwrf;aexkdifoGm;a&;ESifh wrdom;pk0ifrsm;tjzpf/ r#wonfhvl@abmifb0udk wnfaqmufvkd=uonf// ( p) udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifhudkvdkvm;=uonf?ponfwdk@jzpfygonf? 16? Ttcsufrsm;udktodtrSwfðyI w&m;r#wpGmpDrHjznfhqnf;ay;&efvdktyfonf[ktrsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfucH,lxm;ygonf/ EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGg;a&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ vlr_a&; ponfhta&;rsm;udktajctaetcsdeftcgESifhvdkufav#mnD!$wfap&efvnf;aumif;/ Drdkua&pDa&;/ wkdif;&if;om;aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;/ jynfaxmifpk}uD;ròyduGJa&;/ wrdom;pktjzpfvufawG@cH,lusifhoHk;az:aqmifEdkifa&;rsm; &&Sdap&efvnf;aumif;/ oabmxm;}uD;pGmxm;+yD; ta=utvnf!d‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;=u&efvkdtyfygonf? 17? jynfe,fESifhwdkif;twGif;&SdvlrsdK;pkrsm;taejzifh udk,fydkife,fajr/ udk,fydkifpum;ESifh oifhwifhaomvlOD;a&&Sd+yD;/ ‚if;wdk@.oabmqENtavsmuf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&aorsm;tjzpfaevdkaomqEN&Sdygu/ owfrSwfay;&efjzpfayonf? TonfESifhywfoufI jynfaxmifpkjynfe,f/ udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&jynfe,f/ vlrdsK;pkjynfe,f[k wdkif;jynftajctaersm;t&vnf;aumif;/ EkdifiHa&;tajctaersm;t&vnf;aumif;owfrSwfay;&ef vdkaumif;vdkvmvdrfhrnf? xdkodk@tajctaeay:aygufvmv#if trsdK;om;tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; 1947 ckESpf tajccHOya=urf;a&;qGJ&eftwGuf/ zqyvy%mrnDvmcHodk@wifoGif;onfh t*Fg&yfrsm;[lonfhtcsufrsm;t&aqmif&Gufay;&ef oifhavsmfonf[koabm&onf? t*Fgrsm;rSm - (u) yx0Dtaetxm;t&/ e,fedrdwftxift&Sm;&dSjcif;? ( c) jrefrmpum;ESifhrwlaombmompum;wrsdK;wnf;&Sdjcif;? ( *) ,Ofaus;r_wrsdK;wnf;&Sdjcif;? -5-
  6. 6. (C) &mZ0iftpOftvmwrsdK;wnf;&Sdaomvlpk&Sdjcif;? ( i) pD;yGg;a&;qdkif&mtusdK;aus;Zl;ESifhpD;yGg;a&;vHkavmufr_wdk@&Sdaomvlpk&Sdjcif;? ( p) vlOD;a&twmftwef&Sdjcif;? (q) oD;jcm;jynfaxmifpkaowcktjzpfjzifhrdrdukd,fydkifxif;&Sm;csuftwdkif; aevdkaomqEN &Sdjcif;?wdk@jzpf=uonf? 18? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;EG,fpktm;vHk;onf/ jynfaxmifpkbGm;rdom;pkrsm;jzpf=u+yD;/ wajrwnf;aewa&wnf;aomufI wef;wl&nfwlat;twlyltr#/ OruGJodkufrysuf/ oHo,uif;&Sif;pGm xm0pOfaoG;onf;nDnGwfpGmrcGJpwrf;aexdkifoGm;=u&rnf? jynfaxmifpktwGif;&Sdjynfe,ftm;vHk;onf/ tajccHOyaESifhtnD - (u) udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&Sdap&rnf? ( c) jynfe,frsm;ujyXmef;aomOyarSefor#onf/ EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOyaESifhtnDjzpf& rnf? tu,fIjynfe,frsm;ujyXmef;vdkufaom Oyaw&yf&yfonf/ jynfaxmifpktusdK; xdcdkufrnfqdkygu vGwfawmfujyefvnfpDppfydkifcGifh&Sd&rnf?[koabmxm;onf? 19? EdkifiHawmfonf/ wef;wl&nfwljzpf=uaom ucsif/ u,m;/ u&if/ csif;/ Arm/ rGef/ &cdkif/ &Srf;tp&Sdaom wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;EG,fpkrsm;ESihfaygif;pyfzGJ@pnf;xm;aomEdkifiHjzpfonf? vlrsdK;wrsdK;u vlrsdK;wrsdK;udkvnf;aumif;/ vlrsdK;EG,fpktcsif;csif;onfvnf;aumif;/ vGrf;rdk;jcif;/ t=uyfudkifjcif;/ csdK;ESdrfjcif;/w&m;rJhðyjcif;/ acgif;yHkjzwfjcif;tvsOf;r&Sdap&? EdkifiHawmf.toD;tyGifhrsm;udk rdrdwdk@um,/ Om%/ ZGJ/0d&d,pGrf;tm;tvdkuftusdK;cHpm;cGifh&Sdap&rnf[k oabmxm;onf? 20? wdkif;&if;om;rsm;tvdkuf tajccHOyaESifhtnD rdrdwdk@udk;uG,fonfhbmom jrwfEdk;wefzdk;xm;onfhpum;/ pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ "avhxHk;wrf;rsm;udk tajccHOyaESifhtnD vGwfvyfpGmudk;uG,fcGifh/ðypkysdK;axmifcGifh/ xdef;odrf;cGifh/ ajymqdka&;om;usifhoHk;cGifh&Sdonf? odk@aomf olwyg;tm;xdcdkufepfemr_r&Sdap&[koabmxm;ayonf? 21? ppfrSefaomygwDpHkDrdkua&pDEdkifiHawmfudkyDjyifpGmwnfaqmufrnfqdkygu EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkpepfonf Drdkua&pDudktajccHaomtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpf&ayrnf? xdk@a=umifh jynfol@vGwfawmfrStp tqifhqifhaomtm%mydkiftzGJ@rsm;udk Ddrdkua&pDusifhpOfESifhtnD jynfolvlxkua&G;aumufwifajr‡mufay;vdkufaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifhzGJ@pnf;aomtm%mydkiftzGJ@rsm;omjzpf&rnf[k oabmxm;ygonf? 22? v$wfawmfrsm;zGJ@pnf;a&;udpPESifhpyfvsOf;I trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;a:atmifqef;pkk=unfonf/ 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (15)&ufuwnf;uyif/ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifh!d‡E_dif;cJhonf? xdkpOfuyif zuf&,f(jynfaxmifpk)[laomudpPudk pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;&mY jynfaxmifpkzGJ@jcif;onfcGJxGuf&efr[kwfbJ/ A[kdESifhjynfe,ftpdk;&rsm;odk@ tm%mrsm;cGJa0ay;a&;ESifh tpOfajypGmyl;aygif;aexdkifoGm;a&;onfom t"dujzpfa=umif; oabmxm;cJh=uonf? txl;ojzifh jynfaxmifpktpdk;&ESifh jynfe,ftpdk;&rsm;t=um; tm%mrsm;rnfuJhodk@cGJa0+yD;/ wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk rnfuJhodk@ydkif;jcm;owfrSwf&rnfudk aqG;aEG;nd‡E_dif;=u+yD;/ aqmif&Guf&rnfjzpfa=umif;/ r[mvlrsdK;}uD;0gESifh usOf;ajrmif;aomtrdsK;om;0grsm;udkqef@usif+yD;/ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vHk; cspf=unfaoG;pnf;a&;udk tpGrf;ukefyl;aygif;aqmif&Guf=u&efESifh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;.,Ofaus;r_rsm;/ "avhxHk;wrf; -6-
  7. 7. rsm;/ bmom&;udk;uG,fr_ponfrsm;udk xdef;odrf;oGm;Edkif=ua&;twGuf nd‡E_dif;aqmif&GufoGm;=u&rnfjzpfa=umif; oabmxm;cJh=uayonf? 23? xdk@a=umifh jynfaxmifpkDrdkua&pDEdkifiHawmftjzpf zGJ@pnf;=uonfhtcg jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfudk ² ² ² (u) rJqENe,fajrtvdkuf vlOD;a&udktajccHa&G;aumufwifajr‡mufaom v$wfawmfudkf,fpm; vS,frsm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;rnfh v$wfawmfw&yfESifh (c) jynfe,fESifhwdkif;rsm;rS vlOD;a&wlnDpGma&G;aumufwifajr‡mufvdkufaom v$wfawmfudk,f pm;vS,frsm;ESifh zGJ@pnf;onfh v$wfawmfw&yfaygif; (2)&yfwdk@jzifhzGJ@pnf;&rnfjzpfa=umif;/ jynfe,fESifhwdkif;rsm;wGifvnf;/ wckwnf;aomv$wfawmfrsm;udkzGJ@pnf;=u&efjzpfa=umif;/ tcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfolvlxkrSqif;oufonf[laom/ Drdkua&pDrl0gt&/ tqdkygv$wfawmfrsm;odk@ jynfolrsm;u rdrdwdk@ydkifonfhtcsKyftjcmtm%mudktoHk;jyKIDrdkua&pDusifhpOfESifhtnDrdrdwdk@udk,fpm; jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkifa&G;aumufwm0eftyfESif;&efjzpfonf[k oabmxm;onf? 24? v$wfawmf(2)&yf.wm0efydkif;ESifhpyfvsOf;I Oya=urf;rsm;ðypkwifoGif;EdkifcGifh/ wifjyvmaomOya=urf;rsm;udk pDppfa0zeft}uHðyydkifcGifh/ vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;wlnDpGm&Sdoifh=uonf? odk@aomf aiGa=u;qdkif&mOya=urf;rsm;udkrl jynfolv$wfawmfuom pwifðypkoifha=umif;oabmxm;onf? 25? tm%mrsm;cGJa0a&;udpPESifhpyfvsOf;I jynfaxmifpkqdkif&mudpP&yfrsm;ESifh jynfe,f§wdkif; qdkif&mudpP&yfrsm;udkyDjyifpGmaqmif&Gufedkif&ef ta=utvnfaqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;+yD;/ tm%mrsm;udkcGJa0owfrSwfay;&efvdktyfonf[koabmxm;onf? xdk@a=umifh jynfaxmifpkOyajyKZ,m;/ jynfe,f§wdkif;ESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&aotm%mydkiftzGJ@rsm;OyaðyZ,m;ESifh wlnDOyajyKZ,m;rsm;udk wduspGmcGJa0owfrSwfoGm;=u&rnf[ktav;teufcH,layonf? 26? w&m;pD&if&mY xl;jcm;aomtajctaet&/ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pkrsm;tvdkuf usifhoHk;=uonfh ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m"avhxHk;wrf;Oyarsm;udk zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOyaESifhtnD/ ay;xm;oifhonf[koabmxm;onf? odk@aomf acwfpepfrsm;ESifhvdkufavsmnDaxGr_r&Sdv#ifjzpfap/ OyajyXmef;csuft&/vlrsdK;pkwrsdK;u/ tjcm;vlrsdK;pkwrsdK;udk xdcdkufepfemr_&Sdv#ifjzpfap/ jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfupDppfðyjyifydkifcGifh&Sdoifhayonf? trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. oabmxm;tESpfcsKyf? 27? trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ta&;ESifhpyfvsOf;I xm;&Sdonfhoabmxm;tESpfcsKyfrsm;rSm ² ² ² (u) trdjrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk“jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf”tjzpf zGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufoifhonf/ (c) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ESifhaygif;pyfzGJ@pnf;xm;tyfaom trdEdkifiHawmf. +idrf;csrf;a&;/ wnf +idrfa&;/ bufaygif;pHkzG@Hòzd;wdk;wufa&;/ om,m0ajyma&;ESifh wnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;wdk@twGuf/ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;tm;vHk;. aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;onf tajccHtusqHk;aom vdktyf csufjzpfonf? (*) jynfaxmifpk. tusdK;/ wdkif;&if;om;jynfolwdk@.tusdK;udkaz:aqmif=u&mY wdkif;&if;om; vlrsdK;tcsif;csif; wef;wl&nfwlr_jzifh oHo,pdwfuif;pifpGm/ tjyeftvSef,Hk=unf=u&ef/ tjyeftvSef&dkif;yif;=u&ef/twlwuGwufnDvufnDvkyfudkifaz:aqmif=u&efESifhEdkifiHawmf -7-
  8. 8. .toD;tyGifhrsm;udk rdrdwdk@. um,/ Om%/ 0d&d,pGrf;tm;tvdkuf tusdK;cHpm;cGifh&Sd=u&ef vdktyfonf? (C) wEdkifiHvHk;ESifhqdkifaomudpP&yfrsm;udk pkaygif;taumiftxnfaz:=uI/ xl;jcm;aomtajc taet&/ vlrsdK;pkrsm;qdkif&m rdrdwdk@jrwfEdk;wefzdk;xm;onfhbmompum;/ pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ udk;uG,fonfhbmom/ apmifhxdef;tyfonfh"avhxHk;wrf;rsm;udk odD;jcm; vGwfvyfpGm aqmif&GufEdkifcGifh&Sd=u&efvdktyfonf?[lonfrsm;jzpfygonf? 28? txufygoabmxm;rsm;ESifhtnD ppfrSefaomygwDpHkDrdkua&pDEdkifiHawmftjzpf ² ² ² (u) trdjrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk “jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmf”tjzpfwnfaqmuf&ef? (c) jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmfudkzGJ@pnf;onfhtcg A[dkwGifjynfol@vGwfawmfESifhtrsdK;om;vGwfawmf wdk@yg0ifaom jynfaxmifpkvGwfawmfudkzGJ@pnf;&ef? (*) wef;wl&nfwljzpf=uaom jynfe,fESifhwdkif;rsm;wGif oufqdkif&mjynfe,fodk@r[kwf/ wdkif; vGwfawmfw&yfpDzGJ@pnf;&ef? (C) ukd,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&aorsm;wGif udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifhtm%mrsm;&Sdonfh tm%mydkiftzGJ@ rsm; zGJ@pnf;xm;&Sd&ef? (i) tqifhqifhaomtm%mydkiftzGJ@rsm;udk jynfolu vGwfvyfIw&m;r#waom a&G;aumuf yGJrsm;wGif rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkifa&G;aumufwifajr‡muftm%mtyfESif;vdkufaom jynfol@udk,f pm;vS,frsm;jzifhzGJ@pnf;&ef? (p) tqifhqifhaomv$wfawmfrsm;ESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&aotm%mydkiftzGJ@rsm;odk@ vdktyf aomOyaðytm%m / tkyfcsKyfr_tm%m ESifh w&m;pD&ifr_tm%mrsm;udk !d‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;I cGJa0ay;tyf&ef? (q) tm%mrsm;cGJa0owfrSwf&mwGif jynfaxmifpkqdkif&mudpP&yfrsm;ESifh jynfe,f§wdkif;qdkif&m udpP&yfrsm;udk vHkavmufpGmaqmif&GufEdkif&ef ta=utvnf!d‡E_dif;+yD;owfrSwf&ef/ txl; ojzifhjynfaxmifpkOyaðyZ,m;/ jynfe,f§wdkif;ESifhudk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&ao Oyaðy Z,m;rsm;ESifh wlnDOyaðyZ,m;rsm;udk wduspGmcGJa0owfrSwf&ef? ( Z) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdk;rsm;tvdkufusifhoHk;=uonfh ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m"avhxHk;wrf;Oyarsm;udk zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOyaESifhtnD oufqdkif&maotm%mydkiftzGJ@rsm;rS vkyfydkifcGifh&Sdap&ef? (ps) udk;uG,fonfhbmomESifhywfoufIrdrdjrwfEdk;=unf!dkonfhrnfonfhbmomudkrqdkvGwfvyf pGmudk;uG,fEdkifcGifh&Sdap&ef?ponfwdk@jzpfygonf? 29? trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. tajccHoabmxm;rSm +idrf;csrf;wnf+idrf+yD;/ vlwOD;csif;.tcGifhta&;rsm;/ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;qdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;/ cHpm;ydkifcGifh&Sdaom pD;yGg;a&;b0cdkifcef@r_ponfwdk@udkatmifjrifpGm wnfaqmufEkifa&;wdk@jzpfygonf? 30? trsdK;om;&if;=um;apha&;udkOD;wnfonfhtcg ppfa&;enf;vrf;tm;jzifhwnfaqmufI r&Edkfifacs/ EkdifiHa&;enf;vrf;tm;jzifhomwnfaqmufoGm;=utyfonf[k ¶dk;om;pGm,kH=unfonf? urBmhEkdifiHtoD;oD;wGifvnf;/ rdrdwdk@EkdifiHtwGif;jyemrsm;udk EkdifiHa&;enf;jzifhomatmifjrifpGmajz&Sif;=uonfcsnf;jzpfygonf? 31? xkdokd@trsdK;om;&if=um;apha&;udk OD;wnfonfhtcg/ oufqdkif&mrsm;taejzifh rdrdwdk@.qENpGJrsm;udk w&m;aoqkwfudkifIrxm;bJ/ rdrdtygt0iftrsm;tm;vkH;. tusdK;pD;yGm;udkapwemrSefuefpGmjzifhjzpfay:cJhaom/ jzpfay:vsuf&Sdaom cdsK,Gif;csuf/ tm;enf;csufrsm;udkoifcef;pm,lvsuf/ trSefw&m; -8-
  9. 9. udk&SmazG=u&ayvdrfhrnf? vlwOD;csif;.tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh wkdfif;&if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;qkdif&m&ydkifcGifhrsm;udkw&m;r#wpGmtajz&SmjyD;/ trsm;pk=uD;.tudsK;udkOD;xdyfyefqif&rnf[kvnf; tckdiftrmoabmxm;ayonf? 32? odk@ygI tajccHOyaudka&;qGJjyXmef;=uonfhtcgwGifvnf;/ tcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfolvlxkxHrSqif;oufonf[laom Drdkua&pD.t"durlt&/ jynfolwkd@onfrdrdwkd@. udk,fykdifqENt&/vGwfvyfpGma&G;cs,f=u+yD;/ trsm;pkvufcHEkdif=uaom Drdkua&pDtmrcHcsufrsm;yg&Sd&rnfjzpfayonf? odk@rSomv#if wkdfif;jynf. +idrf;csrf;a&;/ wnf+idrf;a&;/ om,ma&;/ zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;rsm;rkcs jzpfxGef;cHpm;Ekdif=urnf[ktav;teufoabmxm;ayonf? ed*kH;? txufyg trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ESifhywfoufIxm;&Sdaomoabmxm;onf tzGJ@csKyfpwifzGJ@pnf;onfhtcdsefrSpI pGJjrJpGmcH,lcJhonfh rl0goabmxm;rsm;tay:tajccHI ckdifrmpGm&yfwnfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? qufvuffIvnf;&yfwnfazmfaqmifoGm;rnfomjzpfayonf?jynfaxmifpkzGm;wkdif;&if;om;rsm;aoG;pnf;nDnGwfr_udk cdkif+rJpGmwnfaqmufjcif;rðyEdkifygu ppfrSefaomDrdkua&pDEdkifiHawmfudkwnfaqmufEdkifrnfr[kwf[k oabmxm;onf? txufygoabmxm;rsm;tay:tajccHI EdkifiHawmfESifhwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. tusdK;pD;yGm;udkyDjyifpGmaz:aqmifEdkif&eftwGuf/ EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOyawGif cdkifrmpGmxnfhoGif;jyÏmef;xm;&Sd&ayrnf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya[lonf/ EdkifiHawmftpdk;&ESifhjynfolwdk@t=um; csKyfqdkonfh yËdnmOfpmwrf;jzpfaoma=umifhjzpfayonf? txl;ojzifh wdkif;&if;om;jynfoltrsm;pku,Hk=unfvufcHEdkifaomzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOyajzpfrSomv#if wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vHk; jyefvnf&if=um;apha&;udk taumiftxnfaz:Edkif&ef wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;acgif;aqmifrsm;/ tm%mydkiftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rSacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;ygwDtzG@Jtpnf;rsm;rSacgif;aqmifrsm;/ rsufESmcsif;qdkifawG@qHkaqG;aEG; !d‡Ed_if;=u&efjzpfonf? odk@rSomv#if wdkif;&if;om;jynfolrsm;ar#mfrSef;xm;aom “ppfrSefonfhygwDpHkDrdkua&pDEdkifiH” odk@r[kwf “jynfaxmifpkDrdkua&pDEdkifiHawmf” yDjyifpGmay:xGef;vmrnfjzpfa=umif; tav;teufcH,ltyfygonf? trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf &efukef+rdK@1357 ckESpf/ wydk@wGJvjynfhausmf (9)&uf?1996 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv (12)&uf? trsdK;om;Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf ,m,Dpmul;puftrSwf - 393 - jzifhul;,lonf? (tzGJ@csKyftzGJ@0ifrsm;twGufom) -9-

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