Evolution of Next Generation IP
Transport
Wei Yin Tay
Consulting Systems Engineer,
Cisco Systems APJC
Dec 2012

© 2012 Cis...
At the end of the session, the participants should be able to:
•  Understand the technical details of the Unified MPLS for...
•  Next Generation Internet Drivers
•  Unified MPLS Transport
•  Unified MPLS Functional Considerations
Resiliency
OAM and...
Next Generation
Internet Drivers
© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

5
More Devices
Nearly 15B Connections

More Internet Users
3 Billion Internet Users

Key
Growth
Factors

Faster Broadband Sp...
MPLS as Network Convergence Technology
Optimizing Service Delivery

Access

Aggregation

Edge

Cross-Domain Convergence

C...
Aggregation Node

Aggregation Node

Core

Core

~45
RAN
MPLS/IP
IGP
Routes
IGP Area/Process

Aggregation Domain
~ 2,500
MP...
Unified MPLS
Transport
Problem Statement
How to simplify MPLS operations in increasingly larger networks
with more complex application requiremen...
Classical MPLS network with few additions
§  Common MPLS technology from Core, Aggregation, Pre-agg and

potentially in t...
Reduction in BGP routes towards Access
Aggregation Node

Aggregation Node

Core

Core

~45
~45
RAN
MPLS/IP
IGP
IGP
Routes
...
•  The network is organized in distinct IGP/LDP domains
Domains defined via multi-area IGP, different autonomous systems o...
Operational Points
LER
Access

AGG

LSR

AGG

MPLS

LER
AGG

MPLS
MPLS

AGG

Access

MPLS

•  In general transport platfor...
•  Disconnect & Isolate IGP domains
No more end-to-end IGP view
•  Leverage BGP for infrastructure (i.e. PE) routes
Also f...
1. 

BGP advertises labeled routes.
• 
When advertising routes R2/R7 set Next Hop to self, just like R3/R8, R5/R10
and pos...
1. 

Distribute the service label from R2 to R5
•  In this case, prefix 172.1.1.0/24 has the label “50”
Use that label tog...
Core Node

Mobile
Transport GW

Core Node
Aggregation Node

Aggregation Node

CSG

IP/Ethernet

Core and Aggregation
IP/MP...
Aggregation Node

Aggregation Node
Core Node

Mobile
Transport GW

Core Node
CSG

CSG
RAN
IP/MPLS Domain

Core and Aggrega...
Aggregation Node

Aggregation Node
Mobile
Transport GW
Aggregation Network
IP/MPLS
Domain
Aggregation
Node

TDM and Packet...
Aggregation Node

Aggregation Node

Core Node

CSG
Aggregation Network
IP/MPLS
Domain

RAN
IP/MPLS
domain

Pre-Aggregation...
Aggregation Node

Aggregation Node

CSG

MPC iBGP community"
into RAN IGP"

RAN
MPLS/IP
IGP Area/Process

CSG

Core Node
C...
1.1.1.1
PE11
0/0

D1
0/0

PE12
Default Static Route

IP/MPLS control plane

•  Access node remains extremely simple
no IGP...
Service Provisioning
Service Provisioning
Port P xconnect 1.1.1.1
LDP

1.1.1.1

quest
DoD Re

(1.1.1.1

) PE11

D1
LDP D

...
1.1.1.1
Reply
LDP DoD

(L=21) PE11

D1
LDP D

oD Rep

ly (L=3

1)PE12

IP/MPLS control plane

•  PE replies with label val...
1.1.1.1
PE11
D1

PE12
IP/MPLS control plane

•  End to end service is now created for both primary and backup

path

© 201...
•  Access node is extremely simple
no IGP, no BGP
•  Access node may have an LSP towards any other node
•  Access node onl...
•  Extend MPLS to the Access without the need for much intelligence or

memory on these boxes

2 route entries, MPLS DoD a...
Unified MPLS
Resiliency
•  Unified MPLS Transport:
•  Core, Aggregation, Pre-Aggregation baseline using BGP PIC Core/Edge
• 

Can benefit from LFA...
Access
Network
OPSF 0 / IS-IS L2

Aggregation
Network
IS-IS L1

PAN
Inline RR
 next-hop-self 

Core
Network
IS-IS L2

Ag...
Failure Scenario

IGP Availability Function BGP Availability Function

CSG Uplink

LFA FRR

Transient CSG link/node

LFA F...
•  What is LFA FRR?
Well known (RFC 5286) basic fast re-route mechanism to provide
local protection for unicast traffic in...
http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-shand-remote-lfa
•  Remote LFA uses automated IGP/LDP behavior to extend

basic LFA FRR t...
•  C2’s LIB
C1’s label for FEC A1 = 20
Backbone

C3’s label for FEC C5 = 99
C5’s label for FEC A1 = 21

A1

•  On failure,...
Odd Ring

•  MPLS-TE FRR 1-hop Link

AG1-2

AG1-1

14 primary TE tunnels to operate
14 backup TE tunnels to operate

CSS-1...
http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-shand-remote-lfa
•  Simple operation with minimal configuration
•  No need to run an addi...
•  BGP Fast Reroute (BGP FRR)—enables

BGP to use alternate paths within subseconds after a failure of the primary or
acti...
PIC Edge

PIC Core

100000

100000

250k PIC

10000

10000

250k no PIC

PIC
1000

no PIC

100

500k PIC

1000

500k no PI...
Unified MPLS
Functional Aspects
OAM and PM
•  OAM benchmarks
Set by TDM and existing WAN technologies
•  Operational efficiency
Reduce OPEX, avoid truck-rolls
Downti...
LTE,
3G IP UMTS,
Transport

IPSLA PM

IPSLA
Probe

IPSLA
Probe
VRF

Service OAM

VRF

MPLS VRF OAM

3G ATM UMTS,
2G TDM,
T...
Fixed Mobile Convergence	
  

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

43
Expand into CE services
Leveraging Unified RAN

Mobile
Operators

Value

•  Mobile Internet
•  Wholesale RAN Backhaul

© 2...
§ 

Types of network

•  Network architecture options

‒  Mobile backhaul only
‒  Converged with other services
§ 

Type...
Mobile Backhaul Bandwidth - Radio Behavior
§ BW is designed on per cell/sector, including each radio type
§ Busy time – ...
Mobile Backhaul Transport Architecture
E-UTRAN
Cell
Site

Access
Layer
Ethern

et uW

Aggregation
Layer
Aggregation
node

...
No longer Pt-to-Pt relationship with
S1-c Base Station to MME
multipoint requirements
interface
Multi-homed to multiple MM...
Converged Transport	
  

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

49
© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

50

5
0
© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

51

5
1
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Cisco Confidential

52

5
2
Connection via External TXP	

Packet	

FEC	

Packet	

OTN	

IPoDWDM	

DWDM controller	
Packet	
Data controller	

FEC	

Pac...
Summary
Unified MPLS simplifies the transport and service architecture
•  Unified MPLS LSPs across network layers to any location ...
Thank you.
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Next Generation IP Transport

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Next Generation IP Transport

  1. 1. Evolution of Next Generation IP Transport Wei Yin Tay Consulting Systems Engineer, Cisco Systems APJC Dec 2012 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
  2. 2. At the end of the session, the participants should be able to: •  Understand the technical details of the Unified MPLS for Large Scare IP Transport system design •  Explain the scale and operational advantages of the Unified MPLS approach over an IGP/LDP design •  Understand the key enabling technologies for Unified MPLS, MPLS DoD, RFC3701, BGP PIC, LFA FRR etc. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
  3. 3. •  Next Generation Internet Drivers •  Unified MPLS Transport •  Unified MPLS Functional Considerations Resiliency OAM and PM •  Summary and Key Takeaways •  FMC Backup © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
  4. 4. Next Generation Internet Drivers
  5. 5. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
  6. 6. More Devices Nearly 15B Connections More Internet Users 3 Billion Internet Users Key Growth Factors Faster Broadband Speeds 4-Fold Speed Increase More Rich Media Content 1M Video Minutes per Second Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global IP Traffic Forecast, 2010–2015 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
  7. 7. MPLS as Network Convergence Technology Optimizing Service Delivery Access Aggregation Edge Cross-Domain Convergence Core IP/MPLS MPLS §  MPLS does already satisfy number of NGN convergence requirements Full breadth of services enabling per domain convergence Compatible with heterogeneous network domains and their properties Proven by widespread adoption in Core, Edge and Aggregation §  Latest MPLS developments address Transport Applications and scaling into the Access MPLS-TP for Static Provisioning, Transport Path performance monitoring and diagnostics* Scaling to 100,000s MPLS devices without any compromise in performance and operations** Low-end (access) devices support at scale*** §  MPLS – Proven Standards Based Convergence Technology * MPLS-TP – MPLS Transport Profile and MPLS-TP OAM ** MPLS Enhancements for extra large scale – BGP-4 + label (RFC3107) or multiple static MPLS-TP and dynamic IP/MPLS areas *** Achieved with MPLS-TP or MPLS LDP © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
  8. 8. Aggregation Node Aggregation Node Core Core ~45 RAN MPLS/IP IGP Routes IGP Area/Process Aggregation Domain ~ 2,500 MPLS/IP IGPIGP Area/Process Routes! Aggregation ~ 67,000 IGP Routes! ~ 2,500 Aggregation Domain MPLS/IP IGPIGP Area/Process Routes! Core Domain MPLS/IP IGP Area Aggregation Node Node Core ~45 ~45 RAN IGP IGP MPLS/IP IGP Routes Area/Process Routes Core Aggregation Node Aggregation Node LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! Node Access Domain LDP LSP ! Aggregation Domain Network Wide Cell Site Gateways 20 2,400 60,000 Pre-Aggregation Nodes 2 240 6,000 Aggregation Nodes NA 12 300 Core ABRs NA 2 50 Mobile transport Gateways NA NA 20 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
  9. 9. Unified MPLS Transport
  10. 10. Problem Statement How to simplify MPLS operations in increasingly larger networks with more complex application requirements •  Modern Network Requirements: Increase bandwidth demand (Video) Increase application complexity (Cloud and virtualization) Increase need for convergence (Mobility) •  Traditional MPLS Challenges with differing Access technologies Complexity of achieving 50 millisecond convergence with TE-FRR Need for sophisticated routing protocols & interaction with Layer 2 Protocols Splitting large networks in to domains while still delivering services end-to-end Common end-to-end convergence and resiliency mechanisms End-to-end Provisioning and troubleshooting across multiple domains Unified MPLS addresses these challenges with elegant simplicity © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
  11. 11. Classical MPLS network with few additions §  Common MPLS technology from Core, Aggregation, Pre-agg and potentially in the access §  RFC 3107 label allocation to introduce hierarchy for scale §  BGP Filtering Mechanisms to help the network learn what is needed, where is needed and when is needed in a secure manner §  Loop Free Alternates FRR for 50 msec convergence with no configuration required §  BGP Prefix Independence Convergence to make the 3107 hierarchy converge quickly §  Contiguous and consistent Transport and Service OAM and Performance Monitoring based on RFC-6374 §  Support Virtualized L2/L3 Services Edge using MPLS VPN, VPWS, VPLS © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
  12. 12. Reduction in BGP routes towards Access Aggregation Node Aggregation Node Core Core ~45 ~45 RAN MPLS/IP IGP IGP Routes Routes IGP Area/Process Aggregation Domain ~ 2,500 ~254 IGP Routes MPLS/IP ~ 6,020IGP Area/Process BGP Routes IGP Routes! Core Domain ~MPLS/IP 67,000 ~70 IGP Routes ~ 67,000 Routes! IGP BGP Routes IGP Area Aggregation Node ~IGP Routes 2,500 ~254Aggregation Domain MPLS/IP ~ 6,020IGP Area/Process IGP BGP Routes Routes! Aggregation Node Core Core Aggregation Node Aggregation Node iBGP Hierarchical LSP! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! ~45 ~45 RAN IGP IGP MPLS/IP IGP Routes Area/Process Routes Node Access Domain LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! Aggregation Domain LDP LSP ! Network Wide Cell Site Gateways 20 2,400 60,000 Pre-Aggregation Nodes 2 240 6,000 Aggregation Nodes NA 12 300 Core ABRs NA 2 50 Mobile transport Gateways NA NA 20 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
  13. 13. •  The network is organized in distinct IGP/LDP domains Domains defined via multi-area IGP, different autonomous systems or different IGP processes. No redistribution between domains Intra-domain communication based on IGP/LDP LSPs. •  The network is integrated with a hierarchical MPLS control and data plane based on RFC-3107: BGP IPv4 unicast +label (AFI/SAFI=1/4) Inter-domain communication based on labeled BGP LSPs initiated/terminated by the Unified MPLS PEs. LSPs are switched by Unified MPLS ABRs or ASBRs interconnecting the domains, configured as labeled iBGP RRs with Next Hop Self © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
  14. 14. Operational Points LER Access AGG LSR AGG MPLS LER AGG MPLS MPLS AGG Access MPLS •  In general transport platforms, a service has to be configured on every network element via operational points. The management system has to know the topology. •  Goal is to minimize the number of operational points •  With the introduction of MPLS within the aggregation, some static configuration is avoided. •  Only with the integration of all MPLS islands, the minimum number of operational points is possible. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
  15. 15. •  Disconnect & Isolate IGP domains No more end-to-end IGP view •  Leverage BGP for infrastructure (i.e. PE) routes Also for infrastructure (i.e. PE) labels BGP for Services BGP for Infrastructure Isolated IGP & LDP Isolated IGP & LDP Access Aggregation Backbone Region1 . Isolated IGP & LDP Region 2 Aggregation Access . . ISIS Level 2 Or OSPF Area 0 ISIS Level 1 Or OSPF Area Y . ISIS Level 1 Or OSPF Area X R PE21 PE21 PE31 PE11 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
  16. 16. 1.  BGP advertises labeled routes. •  When advertising routes R2/R7 set Next Hop to self, just like R3/R8, R5/R10 and possibly (R4/R9) Access nodes only need 2 routes and only a few 100 LSPs •  When R4/R9 do NHS, no route export necessary between IGP hierarchies 2.  Destination Best next hop 0.0.0.0/0 R5 0.0.0.0/0 R10 Route Table size for Access Nodes: 2 BGP+label R5 BGP+label R4 L3 BGP+label R3 L2 R2 L1 L2 L4 L1 L3 L7 R9 In Label Out Label Next Hop Outgoing IF Any DoD R5 S0 Any DoD R10 L6 R8 L5 172.2.1.0/24 L5 L7 L8 A1 R10 172.1.1.0/24 Ak L6 An R7 Note: Label distribution over diagonal links not shown LFIB size for Access Nodes: O(# active LSPs * # Paths) ≈ 200 S1 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
  17. 17. 1.  Distribute the service label from R2 to R5 •  In this case, prefix 172.1.1.0/24 has the label “50” Use that label together with the BGP Next Hop to forward the packet •  R5 will advertise 50 to A1 when a label for 172.1.1.0/24 is requested. R3 and R2 set BGP Next Hop to self. 2.  Destination Best next hop Destination Best next hop Destination Best next hop 172.1.1.0/24 R3(or R4) 172.1.1.0/24 R2 172.1.1.0/24 An 172.2.1.0/24 R3(or R4) 172.1.2.0/24 R2 172.1.2.0/24 Ak BGP+label R5 BGP+label R4 LR4 BGP+label R3 LR3 R2 LR2 LR2 LR3 LR4 50 LR2 50 LR7 LR3 LR8 50 LR9 LR4 In Label 50 Out Label LR9 LR8 R9 R8 LR7 172.2.1.0/24 50 A1 R10 172.1.1.0/24 Ak LR10 50 LR5 An R7 In Label Out Label In Label Out Label In Label Out Label LR4 LR3 LR3 LR2 LR2 50 LR3/50 Note: PHP operation not shown in these tables. R5 in this case would not push two labels but just one. Just like R4, R3 and R2 would actually only see the service label 50 on ingress. For clarity this explicit form was chosen. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
  18. 18. Core Node Mobile Transport GW Core Node Aggregation Node Aggregation Node CSG IP/Ethernet Core and Aggregation IP/MPLS Domain Aggregation Node CSG Distributio n Node Aggregation Node Core Node Mobile Transport GW Aggregation Node Pre-Aggregation Node Core Node TDM and Packet Microwave, 2G/3G/LTE Fiber and Microwave 3G/LTE IGP/LDP domain! •  Core and Aggregation Networks form one IGP and LDP domain. •  With small aggregation platforms the scale recommendation is less than 1000 IGP/LDP nodes. •  All Mobile (and Wireline) services are enabled by the Aggregation Nodes. The Mobile Access is based on TDM and Packet Microwave links aggregated in Aggregation Nodes enabling TDM/ATM/ Ethernet VPWS and MPLS VPN transport © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
  19. 19. Aggregation Node Aggregation Node Core Node Mobile Transport GW Core Node CSG CSG RAN IP/MPLS Domain Core and Aggregation IP/MPLS domain IGP Area RAN IP/MPLS Domain Pre-Aggregation Node CSG Core Node CSG CSG Pre-Aggregation Node Mobile Transport GW Aggregation Node Core Node CSG Aggregation Node iBGP Hierarchical LSP! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! •  The Core and Aggregation form a relatively small IGP/LDP domain (1000 nodes) •  The RAN is MPLS enabled. Each RAN network forms a different IGP/LDP domain •  The Core/Aggregation and RAN Access Networks are integrated with labelled BGP LSP •  The Access Network Nodes learn only the MPC labelled BGP prefixes and selectively and optionally the neighbouring RAN networks labelled BGP prefixes. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
  20. 20. Aggregation Node Aggregation Node Mobile Transport GW Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain Aggregation Node TDM and Packet Microwave, 2G/3G/LTE Core Node Core Node Core Network IP/MPLS Domain Mobile Transport GW CSG Core Node Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain Pre-Aggregation Node Core Node Aggregation Node Aggregation Node IP/Ethernet CSG Fiber and Microwave 3G/LTE iBGP (eBGP across ASes) Hierarchical LSP! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! •  The Core and Aggregation Networks enable Unified MPLS Transport •  The Core and Aggregation Networks are organized as independent IGP/LDP domains •  Core and Aggregation Networks may be in different Autonomous Systems, in which case the interdomain LSP is enabled by labeled eBGP in between ASes •  The network domains are interconnected with hierarchical LSPs based on RFC 3107, BGP IPv4+labels. Intra domain connectivity is based on LDP LSPs •  The Aggregation Node enable Mobile and Wireline Services. The Mobile RAN Access is based on TDM and Packet Microwave. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
  21. 21. Aggregation Node Aggregation Node Core Node CSG Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain RAN IP/MPLS domain Pre-Aggregation Node CSG Core Node Core Node Core Node CSG Mobile Transport GW Core Network IP/MPLS Domain Mobile Transport GW CSG Core Node Core Node Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain RAN IP/MPLS domain CSG Pre-Aggregation Node Core Node Core Node CSG Aggregation Node Aggregation Node iBGP (eBGP across ASes) Hierarchical LSP! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! •  The Core, Aggregation, Access Network enable Unified MPLS Transport •  The Core, Aggregation, Access are organized as independent IGP/LDP domains •  Core and Aggregation Networks may be in different Autonomous Systems, in which case the interdomain LSP is enabled by labeled eBGP in between ASes •  The network domains are interconnected with hierarchical LSPs based on RFC 3107, BGP IPv4+labels. Intra domain connectivity is based on LDP LSPs •  The Access Network Nodes learn only the required labelled BGP FECs, with selective distribution of the MPC and RAN neighbouring labelled BGP communities © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
  22. 22. Aggregation Node Aggregation Node CSG MPC iBGP community" into RAN IGP" RAN MPLS/IP IGP Area/Process CSG Core Node Core Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain Pre-Aggregation Node Core Node Core Core Node RAN IGP CSN Loopbacks " into iBGP" CSG Core Node Mobile Transport GW Core Network IP/MPLS Domain Mobile Transport GW Core Node Core Core Node Core Node CSG MPC iBGP community" into RAN IGP" Aggregation Network IP/MPLS Domain Pre-Aggregation Node RAN MPLS/IP CSG IGP Area/Process RAN IGP CSN Loopbacks " into iBGP" Core Node Core CSG Aggregation Node Aggregation Node i/eBGP Hierarchical LSP! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! • The Core and Aggregation are organized as distinct IGP/LDP domains that enable inter domain hierarchical LSPs based on RFC 3107, BGP IPv4+labels and intra domain LSPs based on LDP •  Core and Aggregation Networks may be in different Autonomous Systems, in which case the interdomain LSP is enabled by labeled eBGP in between ASes •  The inter domain Core/Aggregation LSPs are extended in the Access Networks by distributing the RAN IGP in the AggregationIPV4 unicast + label iBGP and the Mobile Transport Gateways labeled iBGP prefixes into RAN IGP. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
  23. 23. 1.1.1.1 PE11 0/0 D1 0/0 PE12 Default Static Route IP/MPLS control plane •  Access node remains extremely simple no IGP, no BGP, static default routes only to PE © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
  24. 24. Service Provisioning Service Provisioning Port P xconnect 1.1.1.1 LDP 1.1.1.1 quest DoD Re (1.1.1.1 ) PE11 D1 LDP D oD Req uest (1 .1.1.1) PE12 IP/MPLS control plane •  Service provisioning only on access node •  Configuration of xconnect triggers LDP request for label to use for remote destination © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
  25. 25. 1.1.1.1 Reply LDP DoD (L=21) PE11 D1 LDP D oD Rep ly (L=3 1)PE12 IP/MPLS control plane •  PE replies with label value to use for remote location based off full network knowledge © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
  26. 26. 1.1.1.1 PE11 D1 PE12 IP/MPLS control plane •  End to end service is now created for both primary and backup path © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
  27. 27. •  Access node is extremely simple no IGP, no BGP •  Access node may have an LSP towards any other node •  Access node only knows the labels it needs •  Simple and Scaleable •  Leverage existing technology (simplicity) © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
  28. 28. •  Extend MPLS to the Access without the need for much intelligence or memory on these boxes 2 route entries, MPLS DoD and an LFIB the size of the established LSPs are sufficient •  End-to-End reachability information kept at nodes that scale well (ABRs) •  Minimize the size of the IGP Clear separation of routing domains, improved convergence in the access & aggregation domains. With NHS on all ABRs, no core routes are leaked into access & aggregation, and no access & aggregation routes into the core. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
  29. 29. Unified MPLS Resiliency
  30. 30. •  Unified MPLS Transport: •  Core, Aggregation, Pre-Aggregation baseline using BGP PIC Core/Edge •  Can benefit from LFA FRR in Core and Aggregation if topology is LFA •  LDP IP/MPLS Access uses remote LFA FRR •  Labeled BGP Access uses labeled BGP control plane protection •  MPLS VPN Service •  eNB UNI: •  MPC UNI: •  Transport: Static Routes PE-CE dynamic routing with BFD keep-alive BGP VPNv4/v6 convergence, BGP VPN PIC, VRRP on MTG •  VPWS Service: •  UNI: mLACP for Ethernet, MR-APS for TDM/ATM •  Transport: PW redundancy, two-way PW redundancy •  Synchronization Distribution: •  ESMC for SyncE, SSM for ring distribution. •  1588 BC with active/standby PTP streams from multiple 1588 OC masters © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
  31. 31. Access Network OPSF 0 / IS-IS L2 Aggregation Network IS-IS L1 PAN Inline RR  next-hop-self  Core Network IS-IS L2 Aggregation Network IS-IS L1 CN-ABR Inline RR  next-hop-self  CN-ABR Inline RR  next-hop-self  iBGP IPv4+label Access Network OPSF 0 / IS-IS L2 PAN Inline RR  next-hop-self  iBGP IPv4+label CSG CSG iBGP IPv4+label iBGP IPv4+label CN-RR RR iBGP IPv4+label CSG CSG MTG Mobile Packet Core CSG CSG SGW/PGW MME iBGP Hierarchical LSP! LDP LSP ! BGP PIC Edge <100 msec © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! BGP PIC Core <100 msec LDP LSP ! LDP LSP ! LFA FRR, Remote-LFA FRR < 50msec Cisco Confidential 31
  32. 32. Failure Scenario IGP Availability Function BGP Availability Function CSG Uplink LFA FRR Transient CSG link/node LFA FRR PAN link/node BGP PIC Core Transient AGG link/node BGP PIC Core Agg/Core ASBR link/ node BGP PIC Edge Core link/node MTG link/node © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. LFA FRR BGP PIC Core BGP PIC Edge Cisco Confidential 32
  33. 33. •  What is LFA FRR? Well known (RFC 5286) basic fast re-route mechanism to provide local protection for unicast traffic in pure IP and MPLS/LDP networks Path computation done only at “source” node Backup is Loop Free Alternate (C is an LFA, E is not) 2 C 2 10 2 A 4 D 1 B 8 E F •  No directly connected Loop Free Alternates (LFA) in some topologies •  Ring topologies for example: Consider C1-C2 link failure A2 A1 If C2 sends a A1-destined packet to C3, C3 will send it back to C2 C1 C5 C2 •  However, a non-directly connected loop free alternate node C4 (C5) exits C3 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33 3 3
  34. 34. http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-shand-remote-lfa •  Remote LFA uses automated IGP/LDP behavior to extend basic LFA FRR to arbitrary topologies Backbone •  A node dynamically computes its remote loop free alternate node(s) A1 Done during SFP calculations using algorithm (see draft) •  Automatically establishes a directed LDP session to it The directed LDP session is used to exchange labels for the FEC in question •  On failure, the node uses label stacking to tunnel traffic to the Remote LFA node, which in turn forwards it to the destination A2 C1 C5 Directed LDP session C2 C4 C3 •  Note: The whole label exchange and tunneling mechanism is dynamic and does not involve any manual provisioning © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Access Region Cisco Confidential 34 3 4
  35. 35. •  C2’s LIB C1’s label for FEC A1 = 20 Backbone C3’s label for FEC C5 = 99 C5’s label for FEC A1 = 21 A1 •  On failure, C2 sends A1-destined traffic onto an LSP A2 destined to C5 Swap per-prefix label 20 with 21 that is expected by C5 for that prefix, and push label 99 •  When C5 receives the traffic, the top label 21 is the one that it expects for that prefix and hence it forwards it onto the destination using the shortest-path avoiding the link C1-C2. C1 20 Directed LDP session 21 C2 21 C4 21 99 C5 E1 C3 21 X 99 Access Region © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35 3 5
  36. 36. Odd Ring •  MPLS-TE FRR 1-hop Link AG1-2 AG1-1 14 primary TE tunnels to operate 14 backup TE tunnels to operate CSS-1 tLDP session for link CSS 2-3 CSS-5 No node protection •  MPLS-TE FRR Full-Mesh tLDP session for link CSS 1-2 CSS-2 42 primary TE tunnels to operate CSS-4 CSS-3 14 backup TE tunnels to operate for Link protection 28 backup TE tunnels to operate for Link & Node protection Even Ring •  Remote LFA AG1-1 Fully automated IGP/LDP behavior tLDP session for links CSS 1-2 and 2-3 tLDP session dynamically set up to Remote LFA Node Even ring involves 1 directed LDP sessions per node AG1-2 CSS-1 CSS-4 Odd ring involves 2 directed LDP sessions per node No tunnels to operate CSS-2 CSS-3 *For the count, account that TE tunnels are unidirectional © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36 3 6
  37. 37. http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-shand-remote-lfa •  Simple operation with minimal configuration •  No need to run an additional protocol (like RSVP-TE) in a Backbone IGP/LDP network just for FRR capability Automated computation of node and directed LDP session setup A1 A2 Minimal signalling overhead •  Simpler capacity planning than TE-FRR TE-FRR protected traffic hairpins through NH or NNH before being forwarded to the destination Need to account for the doubling of traffic on links due to hairpinning during capacity planning C5 E1 C1 C2 TE-FRR Backup tunnel NH protection C4 C3 Remote-LFA traffic is forwarded on per-destination shortestpaths from PQ node Access Region Remote-LFA tunnel to PQ node If you need Traffic Engineering then TE is the way to go. But, if all you need is fast convergence, consider simpler options! © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37 3 7
  38. 38. •  BGP Fast Reroute (BGP FRR)—enables BGP to use alternate paths within subseconds after a failure of the primary or active paths •  PIC or FRR dependent routing protocols (e.g. BGP) install backup paths •  Without backup paths Convergence is driven from the routing protocols updating the RIB and FIB one prefix at a time - Convergence times directly proportional to the number of affected prefixes •  With backup paths Paths in RIB/FIB available for immediate use Predictable and constant convergence time independent of number of prefixes © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
  39. 39. PIC Edge PIC Core 100000 100000 250k PIC 10000 10000 250k no PIC PIC 1000 no PIC 100 500k PIC 1000 500k no PIC 100 10 10 500000 450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 Prefix 1 50000 P 1 25 00 0 50 00 0 75 00 10 0 00 0 12 0 50 0 15 0 00 0 17 0 50 0 20 0 00 0 22 0 50 0 25 0 00 0 27 0 50 0 30 0 00 0 32 0 50 0 35 0 00 00 1 0 LoC (ms) msec 1000000 Core Prefix •  Upon failure in the core, without Core PIC, convergence function of number of affected prefixes §  Upon failure at the edge, without edge PIC, convergence function of number of affected prefixes •  With PIC, convergence predictable and remains constant independent of the number of prefixes §  With PIC, convergence predictable and remains constant irrespective of the number of prefixes © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
  40. 40. Unified MPLS Functional Aspects OAM and PM
  41. 41. •  OAM benchmarks Set by TDM and existing WAN technologies •  Operational efficiency Reduce OPEX, avoid truck-rolls Downtime cost •  Management complexity Large Span Networks Multiple constituent networks belong to disparate organizations/ companies •  Performance management Provides monitoring capabilities to ensure SLA compliance Enables proactive troubleshooting of network issues © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
  42. 42. LTE, 3G IP UMTS, Transport IPSLA PM IPSLA Probe IPSLA Probe VRF Service OAM VRF MPLS VRF OAM 3G ATM UMTS, 2G TDM, Transport IPSLA Probe IPSLA Probe IPSLA PM CC / RDI (BFD) Fault OAM (LDI / AIS / LKR) On-demand CV and tracing (LSP Ping / Trace) Performance management (DM, LM) Transport OAM MPLS VCCV PW OAM IP OAM over inter domain LSP – RFC 6371,6374 & 6375 End-to-end LSP With unified MPLS NodeB RFC6427, 6428 & 6435 CSG © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Aggregation Mobile Transport GW RNC/BSC/SAE Cisco Confidential 42
  43. 43. Fixed Mobile Convergence   © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
  44. 44. Expand into CE services Leveraging Unified RAN Mobile Operators Value •  Mobile Internet •  Wholesale RAN Backhaul © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Expand into RAN services Leveraging Carrier Ethernet Converged Scenarios: Fixed/Mobile Infrastructure Wholesale Ethernet / RAN Backhaul Mobile Operator with Business Services Typical Services: Unified RAN Intelligent Converged Network Typical Services: • Security •  Business Ethernet •  Mobile Internet •  Triple Play •  Internet Access •  RAN Backhaul Converged CE + Unified RAN Telcos (+ MSOs) Typical Services: •  Security •  Business Ethernet • Triple Play •  Wholesale Ethernet • Internet Access Carrier Ethernet Cisco Confidential 44
  45. 45. §  Types of network •  Network architecture options ‒  Mobile backhaul only ‒  Converged with other services §  Types of mobile traffic ‒  2G/3G ‒  4G only MPLS access & aggregation L2 access & aggregation L2 access, MPLS aggregation L3 access & aggregation MPLS access & aggregation ‒  2G/3G/4G ‒  Small cell §  •  Network timing options GPS Sync. Ethernet PTP: 1588v2008 Hybrid Packet Core placements options ‒  Centralized ‒  Distributed © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45 4 5
  46. 46. Mobile Backhaul Bandwidth - Radio Behavior § BW is designed on per cell/sector, including each radio type § Busy time – averaged across all users § Quiet Time – one/two users (Utilize Peak bandwidth) § For multi-technology radio- sum of BW for each technology § Last mile bandwidth- Planned with Peak § Aggregation/Core – Planned with Meantime Average § Manage over subscription UE1 Many UEs Quiet Time Busy Time More variation More averaging Spectral Efficiency bps/Hz bps/Hz 64QAM 64QAM bps/Hz Cell average cell average 16QAM QPSK : : : UE3 UE2 UE1 QPSK UE1 Hz Cell average UE1 Hz Bandwidth, Hz a) Many UEs / cell © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. b) One UE with a good link c) One UE, weak link Cisco Confidential 46
  47. 47. Mobile Backhaul Transport Architecture E-UTRAN Cell Site Access Layer Ethern et uW Aggregation Layer Aggregation node Access node GE Ring or Pt-to-Pt Core BSC RNC SGW Backbone Layer Distribution node 10 GE or IPoDWDM Fibre E-LINE/E-LAN (L2VPN) Option 1 Option 2 L2VPN Option 5 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. L3 MPLS VPN L3 MPLS VPN Option 3 Option 4 E-LINE/E-LAN (L2VPN) L3 MPLS VPN L2VPN L3 MPLS VPN L3 MPLS VPN Cisco Confidential 47
  48. 48. No longer Pt-to-Pt relationship with S1-c Base Station to MME multipoint requirements interface Multi-homed to multiple MME pools MME GW SCTP/IP based Different traffic types with different S11 MME to transport requirements SAE GW GTP-c Version 2 Demarcation point between the radio SGW and the Backhaul technology SGW PDN GW “X2” interface introduces direct communication between GW to PDN GW SAE eNodeBs X2 inter base station GTP or PMIP based macro mobility interface SCTP/IP Signalling MME GW Network intelligence for advanced GTP tunnelling S1-u Base Station to SAE GW following handover services and traffic manipulation GTP-u base micro mobility © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48
  49. 49. Converged Transport   © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49
  50. 50. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50 5 0
  51. 51. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51 5 1
  52. 52. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52 5 2
  53. 53. Connection via External TXP Packet FEC Packet OTN IPoDWDM DWDM controller Packet Data controller FEC Packet OTN •  IPoDWDM acts on the entire router interface as in the case of Transponders •  All IPoDWDM features leverage the OTN overhead and FEC which act on the entire router interface © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53
  54. 54. Summary
  55. 55. Unified MPLS simplifies the transport and service architecture •  Unified MPLS LSPs across network layers to any location in the network •  Flexible placement of L2 and L3 transport to concurrently support 2G, 3G, and 4G services, as well as wholesale and wireline services. •  Service provisioning only required at the edge of the network •  Divide-and-conquer strategy of small IGP domains and labeled BGP LSPs helps scale the network to hundred of thousands of LTE cell sites •  Simplified carrier-class operations with end-to-end OAM, performance monitoring, and LFA FRR fast convergence protection © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 55
  56. 56. Thank you.

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