Learning theories

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Learning theories

  1. 1. Learning Theories
  2. 2. Definitions of Learning 1. “a persisting change in human performance or performance potential . . . (brought) about as a result of the learner‟s interaction with the environment” (Driscoll, 1994, pp. 8-9). “the relatively permanent change in a person‟s knowledge or behavior due to experience” (Mayer, 1982, p. 1040). 3. “an enduring change in behavior, or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion, which results from practice or other forms of experience” (Shuell, 1986, p. 412). 2.
  3. 3. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
  4. 4. Ivan Pavlov  Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, first described classical conditioning in 1899 while conducting research into the digestive system of dogs.
  5. 5. Pavlov’s Research  Pavlov used an apparatus to measure the amount of saliva produced when a dog ate.  The flow of saliva occurred naturally whenever food was placed in the dog‟s mouth, as salivation is an involuntary, reflex response.
  6. 6. Pavlov’s Observation  A stimulus is any event that elicits a     response from an organism. A response is a reaction by an organism to a stimulus. In Pavlov‟s experiment, the stimulus of food initially produced the response of salivation. The salivation response is controlled by the autonomic division of the PNS. Involuntary. The salivation had become associated with, and conditioned to, a new stimulus – the lab tech.
  7. 7. Pavlov’s Basic Principles  Acquisition- period during which a response is being learned. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned Response (UCR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR)
  8. 8. Before conditioning Car No fear, no anxiety During conditioning Car (CS) + Traumatic accident (UCS) After conditioning Cars (CS) Fear, Anxiety Fear, Anxiety
  9. 9. Pavlov’s Basic Principles  Extinction- the CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of UCS, causing the CR to weaken and eventually disappear. (Extinction Trial)  Spontaneous Recovery- the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR after a rest period and without new learning trials.  Generalization- stimuli similar to the initial CS elicit a CR.
  10. 10. Pavlov’s Basic Principles  Discrimination- demonstrated when a CR (alarm reaction) occurs to one stimulus (sound) but not to others.  Higher-order Conditioning- a neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS.
  11. 11. Peter’s Progress Application Rabbit anywhere in room triggers fear Helps us understand human behavior through Classical Conditioning Rabbit 12 ft away tolerated  Acquiring and Rabbit 3 ft away tolerated overcoming fear Rabbit close in cage Exposure tolerated TherapiesRabbit free in room patient is exposed tolerated to a stimulus that Rabbit touched when free arises anxiety, in room without the Rabbit allowed on tray of presence of UCS, high chair extinction occur. Holds rabbit on lap
  12. 12. Application  Attraction and Aversion  Sickness and Health  Allergic Reactions  Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting  The Immune System
  13. 13. Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner
  14. 14. Instrumental Learning  Thorndike’s Law of effect > “In a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur and a response followed by an annoying consequence will become less likely to occur.”
  15. 15. Instrumental Learning  A procedure in which an organism learns that certain responses are instrumental in producing desired effects in the environment
  16. 16. Operant Conditioning  Came from B.F. Skinner‟s study on “how an organism learns to „operate on‟ its environment to produce an effect” Is a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by the consequence that follow it.
  17. 17. Skinner Box  a special chamber used by Skinner to study operant conditioning experimentally
  18. 18. Events Of The Three-part Consistency A.) ANTECEDENTS  stimuli that are present before a behavior occurs B.) BEHAVIORS  action or response an organism emits C.) CONSEQUENCES  follows the behavior  CONTINGENCY is the relation between the behavior and consequence
  19. 19. Consequences That Shape Behavior 1. Reinforcement • response is strengthened by an outcome that follows it • Reinforcer o The outcome that increases the frequency of a response
  20. 20. Reinforcements 1.1. Positive Reinforcement • when the response is strengthened by the subsequent Presentation of a stimulus 1.2. Negative Reinforcement • a response is strengthened by the subsequent Removal of an aversive stimulus
  21. 21. Shaping And Chaining 1. Shaping  reinforcing “successive approximations” toward a final response 2. Chaining  use to develop a sequence of responses by reinforcing each responses with the opportunity to perform the next response
  22. 22. Shaping And Chaining
  23. 23. Immediate And Delayed Reinforcers 1. Immediate Reinforcers  Occurs INSTANTLY after a behavior 2. Delayed Reinforcers  Delayed in time for a certain behavior • Man is inclined to pursue small immediate reinforcers rather than large delayed reinforcers.
  24. 24. Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement  Every response of a particular type is reinforced 2. Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement 1.  only a portion of the responses of a particular type are reinforced
  25. 25. Ratio Schedule 2.1. Fixed-ratio Schedule (FR)  Reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses 2.2 Variable-ratio Schedule (VR)  Reinforcement is given after a variable (unpredictable)number of responses Averaged around some mean
  26. 26. Ratio Schedule 2.3. Fixed-interval Schedule (FI)  Reinforces the first response displayed after a fixed time interval 2.4. Variable- Interval Schedule (VI)  reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals ( averaged around a mean) Produces slow, steady responses
  27. 27. Consequences That Shape Behavior 2. Punishment • When response is weakened by outcomes that follow it • PUNISHER o Consequence that weakens the behavior
  28. 28. Punishments 2.1 . Aversive Punishment o Positive punishment or punishment by application o A response is weakened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus 2.2. Response Cost o Negative punishment or punishment by removal o Response is weakened by a subsequent removal of a stimulus
  29. 29. Consequences That Shape Behavior 3. Extinction  weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer reinforced  A good alternative for punishment  Resistance To Extinction o Degree to which nonreinforced responses still persist  low resistance  high resistance
  30. 30. Consequences That Shape Behavior
  31. 31. Generalization And Discrimination 1. GENERALIZATION Occurs to a new antecedent stimulus or situation that is similar to the original one  2. DISCRIMINATION  Operant response will occur to one antecedent stimulus but not to another  STIMULUS CONTROL o behavior that is influenced by discriminative stimuli
  32. 32. Observational Learning Albert Bandura (1925- present)
  33. 33. Observational Learning  Identified by Albert Bandura  Learning through observation and imitation  Most common during childhood  Significant role in the socialization process  Belief that people can adapt new information without committing new behaviors.
  34. 34. Factors That Influence Observational Learning  People we perceive as warm and nurturing  People who receive rewards for their behavior  When you have been rewarded for imitating the behavior in the past  When we lack confidence in our own knowledge or abilities
  35. 35. Factors That Influence Observational Learning  People who are in a position of authority over our lives  People who are similar to us in age, sex, and interests  People who we admire or who are of a higher social status  When the situation is confusing, ambiguous, or unfamiliar
  36. 36. Social-learning theory  Also known as Social-cognitive theory  Learning that processes through observation of a certain model‟s behavior  Acquiring belief that people can produce behaviors to influence events in their lives  Modeling – man‟s ability to learn by observation  Self-efficacy – people‟s belief in their capability to produce a particular situation they desired
  37. 37. Three basic models of observational learning 1. A live model – an individual demonstrating a behavior 2. A verbal instructional model – descriptions and explanations of a behavior 3. A symbolic model – real or fictional characters displaying behaviors
  38. 38. Factors in the Four-step process of modeling  Attention – paying attention to the model‟s behavior  Retention – storing the information in memory  Reproduction – performing the model‟s behavior  Motivation – being motivated to display the
  39. 39. Levels of Analysis Biological Level Environmental Level Psychological Level
  40. 40. Sources Social Learning Theory - An Overview of Bandura's Social Learning Theory http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm What Is Observational Learning? http://psychology.about.com/od/oindex/fl/What-Is-Observational-Learning.htm What Is Self-Efficacy? http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/self_efficacy.htm Classical Conditioning ppt https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja &ved=0CCsQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fvcepsychpages.wikispaces.com%2Ffile% 2Fview%2FClassical%2BConditioning.ppt&ei=leGrUuqCDouzrgf7q4D4Cw&usg=AF QjCNGX1hBU4N2Z5fWPiMZbLCZiVkGynA&sig2=CFQya31wTsvzdqOP1D1PzA&bv m=bv.57967247,d.bmk Psychology : the science of mind and behavior / Michael W. Passer, Ronald E. Smith.
  41. 41. Members  Deuna, Ina Francesca  Lee, Sujeong (Chloe)  Lustañas Bridgette -2ELS

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