Micaeli C. Rourke CC303 Literature Review The Effects of Sexism and Gender Stereotyping in 2008 Presidential Campaign Cove...
Abstract <ul><li>.  From Hillary Rodham Clinton’s narrow defeat in obtaining the Democratic nomination, to the first Repub...
Abstract <ul><li>This analysis will evaluate the negative coverage of both candidates, and how that negative coverage affe...
Scholarly Intent <ul><li>Through this study, I hope to learn about the obstacles female politician face when campaigning: ...
Research Questions <ul><li>I intend to prove if the media’s coverage of Clinton and Palin portrayed a gender bias that con...
Introduction Females as Politicians <ul><li>1872-Victoria Woodhull- first female to run for President, Equal Rights Party ...
Introduction   Representation of Females in U.S. Politics “… Even though women make up slightly more than half of the U.S....
Introduction Graph courtesy of CQ Researcher Online
Introduction Why the Under Representation? <ul><li>- “CBS News conducted a poll in February 2006 that found 92 percent of ...
“ Women are less likely to run as candidates when they’re young and have children…Women [enter politics] at an older age a...
The Gender Gap <ul><li>“ Women have been more likely to vote Democratic than men in presidential elections since 1964” (Gu...
The Gender Gap, Prior to 2008 Note: The Gender Gap is calculated as the difference between the percentage of women voting ...
The Double Bind <ul><li>Kathleen Hall Jamieson-   Beyond the Double Bind  (1995)-  “T he ways in which conflicts between r...
Kanter and Moss’ Gender Frames Explained <ul><li>• Mother - ”The assumption that women are sympathetic and good listeners…...
<ul><li>The pioneer-  “…A trailblazer or groundbreaker…Most of these women were the first elected governor of their state ...
Definitions <ul><li>Media framing- “…focuses on  how  issues and other objects of interest are reported by news media as w...
3 Themes in the Media Representation of Women <ul><li>1.  Women are under represented in the media </li></ul><ul><li>2.  N...
2008 Campaign Coverage Analysis <ul><li>“ Both clung to stereotypical portrayals of women when it appeared to suit their n...
Analysis of 2008 Campaign Coverage: Hillary Rodham Clinton <ul><li>Puppet </li></ul><ul><li>Mother </li></ul><ul><li>Iron ...
Analysis of 2008 Campaign Coverage: Hillary Rodham Clinton
Analysis of 2008 Campaign Coverage: Sarah Palin <ul><li>Pioneer </li></ul><ul><li>Puppet </li></ul><ul><li>Hostess/Beauty ...
Analysis of 2008 Campaign Coverage: Sarah Palin
Trends in 2008 Campaign Coverage <ul><li>Over-sexualizing both candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage of wardrobe v. covera...
Findings <ul><li>“ There is no denial that both Palin and Clinton had strikes against them that contributed to their lack ...
Findings <ul><li>“ We found the greatest similarity between cartoons about Palin and Clinton occurred when they were “neut...
References <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blankenship, J., & Ronson, D. C. (1995). A &quot;Feminine Style&qu...
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  • Source: “A Year Ahead, Republicns Face Tough Political Terrain: Clinton Propelled by Support from Young Women in ‘08 Test” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Oct 31, 2007
  • Statistics, history, mumbo jumbo
  • Note: The Gender Gap is calculated as the difference between the percentage of women voting Democrat minus the percentage of men voting Democrat in each presidential context. The negative coefficents show that women were more Republican than men.” Carroll, Susan J., ed. Women and American Politics, 2003-;National Election Studies, 1948-98.
  • Mother- negatives 10 The mother is rewarded primarily for service and not independent action. 20 The dominant, powerful aspects of the maternal image may be feared. 3. The mother becomes an emotional specialist. “This provides her with a place in the life of the group members, yet at the same time one of the stereotypically “feminine” characteristics men in positions ofof authority most often criticize in women is excess “emotionality” Pet/child- “Such attitudes on the part of men encouraged self-effacing , girlish responses on the part of solitary women…and prevented them from realizing or demonstrating their own power or competence.” Iron Maiden- Women gendered in this role are stereotypes as tougher than they are (hence the name), and are trapped in a more militant stance than they might otherwise take….Iron maiden faced abandonment, isolated by the stereotype.
  • Pioneer-pioneering spirit, “common folks”, “grassrootsy” The grassroots appeal allowed them in some cases to distance themselves from the “woman question”, and later feminism, which was seen as radical, aggressive, extreme.” Puppet-This cultural fear of feminine strength, complicated by the expectations of masculinity tied to the presidency. Hostess/BQ- Political woman as a beauty queen must be married. “It still underscores women’s femininty and attention to beauty/appearance as appropriate and reinscribes women’s traditional role in a hierarchical family structure…The rhetorical sensitivity that goes along with playing hostess is completely overlooked.” MOST TRADITIONAL AND RECOGNIZABLE. ENCOMPASSES ISSUES OF POWER, SEXUALITY, AND PUBLICITY. “It is likely that this cluster is not a vestige of the sexis past, but a lingering influence on how the media and electorate make sense of politics.” (27) Unruly Woman- . “…Emphasizes reveresal, pointing out how some political women simply do not measure up in the poise and appearance category…Creates the sense that the women elected to the masculine office is somehow unfitting…the butt of humor
  • Citation?? Font
  • Have You Come A Long Way, Baby?
  • CC303 Lit Review Presentation

    1. 1. Micaeli C. Rourke CC303 Literature Review The Effects of Sexism and Gender Stereotyping in 2008 Presidential Campaign Coverage
    2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>. From Hillary Rodham Clinton’s narrow defeat in obtaining the Democratic nomination, to the first Republican nomination of a female Vice-Presidential candidate, Senator Clinton and Governor Sarah Palin illustrate that American women have made strides proving their legitimacy as politicians in America. This fact remains especially true, considering that women were still striving towards gaining suffrage less than a century ago. </li></ul><ul><li>However, an analysis of the scholarly literature on mainstream media coverage reveals that the face of sexism is still revealed in the coverage of female candidates. The gender bias displayed by the mainstream media largely contributed to the framing of their coverage of not only female candidates, but also the entire 2008 election . By evaluating proven gender stereotypes in American leadership, the history of female politicians in the eyes of the American news media, as well as a critical analysis of the 2008 Presidential election coverage. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Abstract <ul><li>This analysis will evaluate the negative coverage of both candidates, and how that negative coverage affected the candidate’s popularity, through national polls. </li></ul>Men and Women of the Corporation R.M. Kanter, 1977 Governing Codes; Gender, Metaphor, and Political Identity Anderson, Sheeler, 2005
    4. 4. Scholarly Intent <ul><li>Through this study, I hope to learn about the obstacles female politician face when campaigning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pre-existing gender stereotypes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gender biased media coverage, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociological barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>My intent is to adapt these theory-based obstacles, and apply them to Clinton and Palin’s campaigns. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to fully understand the content, I will also analyze the rhetorical styles of both candidates, and how their campaign styles help or hurt their quest for political legitimacy. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Research Questions <ul><li>I intend to prove if the media’s coverage of Clinton and Palin portrayed a gender bias that contributed to the downfall, and eventual defeat of both female candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>I will be specifically analyzing the gender framing applied to news stories about the Clinton and (McCain)Palin campaigns, and whether negative news cycles directly swayed public opinion polls. </li></ul><ul><li>I will be comparing the coverage of both female candidates’ campaigns, in regards to one another’s, and those of their competitors. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Introduction Females as Politicians <ul><li>1872-Victoria Woodhull- first female to run for President, Equal Rights Party </li></ul><ul><li>1920- 19th Amendment ratified, granting female suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>1984- Geraldine Ferraro- First woman on major national party ticket </li></ul><ul><li>1999-Elizabeth Dole-First female front runner for Presidential nomination (GOP) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Introduction Representation of Females in U.S. Politics “… Even though women make up slightly more than half of the U.S. population and vote in higher proportion than men, men outnumber women by a factor of three in state legislatures and a factor of five in Congress...At virtually every level, women are less than a quarter of officeholders. Women are nowhere near parity.” (Jost, 267). -Currently: 17 women serving in Senate, 6 female governors, 17 women in Congress, and 3 female Supreme Court Justices.
    8. 8. Introduction Graph courtesy of CQ Researcher Online
    9. 9. Introduction Why the Under Representation? <ul><li>- “CBS News conducted a poll in February 2006 that found 92 percent of those polled said that they would vote for a woman for president if she were qualified.” (Gutgold, 2) </li></ul>Graph courtesy of “A Year Ahead, Republicans Face Tough Political Terrain: Clinton Propelled by Support from Young Women in ‘08 Test” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Oct 31, 2007
    10. 10. “ Women are less likely to run as candidates when they’re young and have children…Women [enter politics] at an older age and thus can make fewer leaps up the ladder.” (Scholzman, c/o Jost 270) “ In some ways, the political system has not shown that it is capable of making the kind of changes that women want to see it make…You have to have a diverse and critical mass of women to sit there and really change how it affects women’s lives.” (White House Project’s Wilson) Introduction Why the Under representation?
    11. 11. The Gender Gap <ul><li>“ Women have been more likely to vote Democratic than men in presidential elections since 1964” (Gutgold, 273). </li></ul><ul><li>“ In 2004, nearly 9 million more women voted in the presidential race than men” (Jost, 346). </li></ul><ul><li>See graph: </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Gender Gap, Prior to 2008 Note: The Gender Gap is calculated as the difference between the percentage of women voting Democrat minus the percentage of men voting Democrat in each presidential context. Graph c/o CQ Researcher Online.
    13. 13. The Double Bind <ul><li>Kathleen Hall Jamieson- Beyond the Double Bind (1995)- “T he ways in which conflicts between role expectations trap women in double binds that curtail their options and circumscribe their power.” (Jamieson, 7) </li></ul><ul><li>“ As a result of this culturally-pervasive containment logic, women leaders are often placed in a double bind.” (Andersen and Sheeler, 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Jamieson proves that the double bind serves as a context for the candidacy of any woman “…Our assessment suggests that the double bind effects different candidates in different ways…Party influence, geographical location, and personal style influence the rhetorical options at her disposal for challenging the double bind.” (Andersen and Sheeler, 6). </li></ul>
    14. 14. Kanter and Moss’ Gender Frames Explained <ul><li>• Mother - ”The assumption that women are sympathetic and good listeners…A mother is not necessarily vulnerable to sexual pursuit…nor do men need to compete for her favors, since they are available to everyone. (232) </li></ul><ul><li>Seductress- ”Introduces an element of sexual competition and jealousy…Should the woman cast as a sex object…share her attention widely, she risks the debasement of being a whore. Yet, should she form a close a close alliance with any man in particular, she arouses resentment…there are just not enough women to go around.” (234) </li></ul><ul><li>Pet/Child- ”…Amusing little thing and symbolically taken along on group events as mascot-a cheerleader for shows of prowess…Humor was often a characteristic…Shows of competence on her part were treated as special and complimented just because they were unexpected…” (235) </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Maiden-” Women who resisted to fall into the first three roles, and…resisted overtures that would trap them in a role…might consequently be responded to as ‘tough’ or dangerous.” (236) </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>The pioneer- “…A trailblazer or groundbreaker…Most of these women were the first elected governor of their state and have many other ‘firsts’ lining their biographies.” (14) </li></ul><ul><li>The puppet- ”…An instrument…to be manipulated by some more powerful other-most often a man, and more specifically a husband…Political spouses (First Ladies)…have been cast as extensions of their husbands’ political careers who, if they spoke publicly at all, acted as political mouthpieces for the candidates…” whom they were affiliated with. (16) </li></ul><ul><li>The host/ beauty queen- “Encapsulates a cluster of metaphors representing all things that traditional women are allowed praise in public…Sometimes giddy, attractive, social creatures who win popularity contests and enjoy playing hostess and caretaker.”(20) </li></ul><ul><li>The unruly woman- A reversal of the host/ beauty queen “Creates disorder..she will not condone herself to her proper place…Is excessively physical…Makes jokes, or laughs herself…Old or a masculizined crone…Associated with thresholds, borders…taboo.” (28) </li></ul>Andersen and Sheeler- Metaphor Clusters
    16. 16. Definitions <ul><li>Media framing- “…focuses on how issues and other objects of interest are reported by news media as well as what is emphasized in such reporting.” -(Weaver, McCombs, Shaw, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>“ What matters to successful exertion of political power is whether a frame has a decisive impact on two key audiences…first, citizens lacking strong ideological or partisan predispositions ...whose attitudes are most malleable; and second, political elites themselves.” (Entman, 392). </li></ul>
    17. 17. 3 Themes in the Media Representation of Women <ul><li>1. Women are under represented in the media </li></ul><ul><li>2. News about female candidates is presented in forms of sex-role stereotypes. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Gender roles physiologically consign women to limited nurturing and supporting roles. </li></ul>
    18. 18. 2008 Campaign Coverage Analysis <ul><li>“ Both clung to stereotypical portrayals of women when it appeared to suit their needs, and both demanded that they be considered “candidates who happen to be women” rather than women candidates when sexism surfaced. Both, however, did experience overt sexism.” (Carlin, Winfrey 327) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Analysis of 2008 Campaign Coverage: Hillary Rodham Clinton <ul><li>Puppet </li></ul><ul><li>Mother </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Maiden </li></ul><ul><li>Pet/Child </li></ul><ul><li>“The authenticity issue” </li></ul><ul><li>The double bind </li></ul>
    20. 20. Analysis of 2008 Campaign Coverage: Hillary Rodham Clinton
    21. 21. Analysis of 2008 Campaign Coverage: Sarah Palin <ul><li>Pioneer </li></ul><ul><li>Puppet </li></ul><ul><li>Hostess/Beauty Queen </li></ul><ul><li>Unruly woman </li></ul><ul><li>Triumph of the double bind </li></ul>
    22. 22. Analysis of 2008 Campaign Coverage: Sarah Palin
    23. 23. Trends in 2008 Campaign Coverage <ul><li>Over-sexualizing both candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage of wardrobe v. coverage of issues </li></ul><ul><li>Objectification of both candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Family roles under hyper scrutiny </li></ul>
    24. 24. Findings <ul><li>“ There is no denial that both Palin and Clinton had strikes against them that contributed to their lack of success, and there are a sufficient number of analyses to point out flawed campaigns and inexperience. But those strikes were unrelated to their being women. Palin was inexperienced…Hillary Clinton has long been a polarizing figure…However, if one accepts the shortcomings of the two campaigns, and the two women themselves on political merits, there is still no reason for sexist attacks to enter into the debate.” -(Carlin and Winfrey, p. 339). </li></ul>
    25. 25. Findings <ul><li>“ We found the greatest similarity between cartoons about Palin and Clinton occurred when they were “neutralized”, that is, when they were pictured along with a running mate or other candidate without and particular reference to gender. This suggests that women as political leaders is becoming normalized in the American social imagination.” </li></ul><ul><li>-(Edwards and McDonald, 326) </li></ul>
    26. 26. References <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blankenship, J., & Ronson, D. C. (1995). A &quot;Feminine Style&quot; in Women's Political Discourse: An Exploratory Essay. Communication Quarterly , 43 , 353-366. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Braden, M. (1996). Ms. President?. Women politicians and the media (pp. 166-182). Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calmes, J. (2008, August 31). Palin Gets Women's Attention, Not Necessarily Their Support. The New York Times , p. 1. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carlin, Diana B., and Kelly L. Winfrey (2009). Have You Come a Long Way, Baby? Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and Sexism in 2008 Campaign Coverage. Communication Studies, 60.4  326-343. Retrieved February 4, 2011 from Communication Abstracts database. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crowther, A. (2007, December 12). Sexist Language in Media Coverage of Hillary Clinton - Media Crit . Media Crit Online . Retrieved April 1, 2011, from http://mediacrit.wetpaint.com/page/Sexist+Language+In+Media+Coverage+of+Hillary+Clinton.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dowd, M. (2008, February 13). A Flawed Feminine Test. The New York Times , p. 25. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dowd, M. (2008, October 26). A Makeover With an Ugly Gloss. The New York Times , p. 14. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edwards, J. L. (2007). Drawing Politics in Pink and Blue. Political Science and Politics , 40 (2), 249-253. Retrieved February 14, 2011, from http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/PSApr07Edwards.pdf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edwards, Janis. (2009). Gender and Political Communication in America. Langham: Lexington Books. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edwards, J. L., & McDonald II, C. A. (2010). Reading Hillary and Sarah. American Behavioral Scientist , 54 (313), 313-329. Retrieved April 1, 2011, from http://abs.sagepub.com/content/54/3/313 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entman, R. M. (2010). Media framing biases and political power: Explaining slant in news of Campaign 2008. Journalism , 11(4), 389-408. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from Communication Abstracts database.   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falk, Erika. (2010). Women For President, Media Bias in Nine Campaigns. Second Edition. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Garber, M. (2011, January 8). Play Misty for Me: Columbia Journalism Review. Columbia Journalism Review . Retrieved April 1, 2011, from http://www.cjr.org/campaign_desk/play_misty_for_me_1.php </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genovese, M. A. (1993). Women as national leaders . Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gordon, A., Shafie, D. M., & Crigler, A. N. (2003). Is Negative Advertising Effective for Female Candidates?. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics , 8(3), 35. Retrieved February 24, 2011from EBSCO host . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gutgold, N. D. (2006). Paving the Way for Madam President . Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handlin, Amy H. (1998). Whatever Happened to the Year of the Woman? Why Women Still Aren’t Making it to the Top in Politics. Denver: Arden Press. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harp, D., Loke, J., & Bachmann, I. (2010). First Impressions of Sarah Palin: Pit Bulls, Politics, Gender Performance, and a Discursive Media (Re)contextualization. Communication, Culture & Critique , 3(3), 291-309. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from EbscoHost. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hoyt, C. (2008, June 22). Pantsuits and the Presidency. The New York Times , p. 10. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jost, K. (2008). Women in Politics: Does gender bias hurt female candidates?. CQ Researcher , 18 (12), 266-287. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kanter, R.M. (1977). Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books. ☑ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kim, J. (2008). Let's Talk About Sex(ism). Columbia Journalism Review , 47(4), 12-14. Retrieved February 24, 2011 from EBSCO host .    </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lauer, N. C. (2002, May 23). Women's Shrinking Role in Media. AlterNet. Retrieved April 1, 2011, from www.alternet.org/story/13200/women/%27s_shrinking_role_in_media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liswood, L. (1996). Women World Leaders. San Francisco: Pandora Publishers. (Original work published 1995) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manning, M. R. (2006). The Rhetoric of Equality: Hillary Rodham Clinton's Redefinition of the Female Politician. Texas Speech Communication Journal , 30(2), 109-120. Retrieved February 24, 2011 from EBSCO host . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marshall, B. D., & Mayhead, M. A. (2008). The Personal is Political: Negotiating Publicity and Privacy in Hillary Rodham Clinton's 'Living History'. Telling political lives: the rhetorical autobiographies of women leaders in the United States (pp. 130-146). Lanham: Lexington Books. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norris, Pippa. (1997). Women, Media, and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers, C. (2007). Hating Hillary, Trashing Teresa, and Mauling Martha. Selling anxiety: How the news media scare women (pp. 74-86). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ross, Karen. (2002). Women, Politics, Media; Uneasy Relations in Comparative Perspective. Cresskill: Hampton Press Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seltzer, R., Newman, J., & Leighton, M. V. (1997). Women as Voters and Candidates in the 1996 Elections. Sex as a political variable: Women as candidates and voters in U.S. elections (pp. 119-134). Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shepard, Ryan (2009). Confronting Gender Bias, Finding A Voice: Hillary Clinton and the New Hampshire Crying Incident. Argumentation and Advocacy, 46(3), 64-77. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from Communication Abstract database. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Welsom, M. (2004, April 21). No News in Newsroom Census: Gender Gap Persists. WeNews.org. Retrieved April 6, 2011, from www.womensnews.org/story/commentary/04/04/21/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Witt, L., Paget, K. M., & Matthews, G. (1995). Decoding the Press, Emerging from Jezebel's Shadow. Running as a woman: Gender and power in America politics. (pp. 50-73). New York, NY: The Free Press. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zernike, K. (2008, August 31). Can You Cross Out 'Hillary and Write 'Sarah'?. The New York Times , p. 1. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zernike, K. (2008, September 15). Both Sides to Be What Women Want. The New York Times , p. 22. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com </li></ul></ul></ul>

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