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# Oscillation+and+waves

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### Oscillation+and+waves

1. 1. OSCILLATION AND WAVES
2. 2. THE NATURE OF A WAVE We encounter waves daily, such as sound waves, visible light waves, radio waves, microwaves, water waves, flag waves & stadium waves.
3. 3. WAVE Wave – a rhythmic disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space  Carries energy without transporting matter from place to place
4. 4. Wave Mechanical Waves Transverse Longitudinal Electromagneti c Waves
5. 5. Main types of Wave 1. Mechanical Waves act as the propagation of a disturbance through a material medium due to the repeated periodic motion of the particles of the medium about their mean positions, the disturbance being handed over from one particle to the next. 2. Electromagnetic Waves are the disturbance, which does not require any material medium for its propagation and can travel even through vacuum. They are caused due to varying electric and magnetic fields. Wave Mechanical Waves Transverse Longitudinal Electromagnetic Waves
6. 6. Mechanical Waves Mechanical Waves act as the propagation of a disturbance through a material medium due to the repeated periodic motion of the particles of the medium about their mean positions, the disturbance being handed over from one particle to the next. A medium is a substance or material that carries the wave Mechanical waves are of two types: 1. Transverse Wave Wave Mechanical Waves Transverse Longitudinal Electromagnetic Waves
7. 7. Types of Mechanical Waves: Transverse Compressional/ Longitudinal
8. 8. Transverse waves – matter moves in the medium back and forth at right angles to the direction that the wave is traveling  Light waves & water waves
9. 9. Compressional waves – matter in the medium moves back and forth in the same direction that the wave travels  Sound waves
10. 10. TRANSVERSE WAVE  The crest of a wave is the point on the medium that exhibits the maximum amount of positive or upward displacement from the rest position. Points C and J on the diagram represent the troughs of this wave.  The trough of a wave is the point on the medium that exhibits the maximum amount of negative or downwar  The amplitude of a wave refers to the maximum amount of displacement of a particle on the medium from its rest position. In a sense, the amplitude is the distance from rest to crest. d displacement from the rest position.  The wavelength of a wave is simply the length of one complete wave cycle.
11. 11. LONGITUDINAL WAVE  A compression is a point on a medium through which a longitudinal wave is traveling that has the maximum density. A region where the coils are spread apart, thus maximizing the distance between coils, is known as a rarefaction.  A rarefaction is a point on a medium through which a longitudinal wave is traveling that has the minimum density. Points A, C and E on the diagram above represent compressions and points B, D, and F represent rarefactions.
12. 12. FREQUENCY AND PERIOD Frequency – the number of waves that pass a given point each second  Measured in Hertz = 1/sec  Period: The amount of time it takes one wavelength to pass a point
13. 13. PERIOD AND FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIP T = period f = frequency Period Frequency T= 1/f f = 1/T One hertz is equal to one peak (or cycle) per second. 1/sec
14. 14. SAMPLE PROBLEM What is the period of a spring that is oscillating in a frequency of 27.1Hz.? T=1/f T=1/27.1Hz T=0.04/s
15. 15. SPEED OF WAVES v=λf Where v=speed λ=wavelength f=frequency Sample problem: Radio waves travel at 3.0x108 m/s. If an FM station operates with a frequency of 96.3MHz, how long is one complete wave?
16. 16. SAMPLE PROBLEM: Radio waves travel at 3.0x108 m/s. If an FM station operates with a frequency of 96.3MHz, how long is one complete wave? Given: v= 3.0x108 m/s. f= 96.3MHz or 96.3x106 Hz Find: λ Formula to use: v=λf λ=v/f λ= 3.0x108 m/s. / 96.3x106 Hz λ=3.12m
17. 17. RarefactionsCompressionsTroughsCrests General Wave Properties Types of Waves Wave Terms Transverse Longitudinal Frequency Period Speed Amplitude Wavelength Frequency Period f = 1/T Speed, v = fl
18. 18. RECTILINEAR MOTION. Waves travel in a straight line through a uniform medium.
19. 19. RECTILINEAR MOTION
20. 20. PROPERTIES OF WAVES
21. 21. PROPERTIES OF WAVES 1. REFLECTION. The bouncing off of waves when encountering an obstruction. θi θr Reflected waves Normal Incident waves B A R R I E R
22. 22. PROPERTIES OF WAVES 2. REFRACTION. The bending of waves when passing from one medium of different density to another. N O N’ R’ I θi θr High density medium Low density medium
23. 23. PROPERTIES OF WAVES REFRACTION. One good example is the bending of pencil in a glass of water. The pencil seemed to be bent when viewed from the side. This is because the speed of light in air is faster than its speed in water. The light reflected by the pencil in air reached our eyes first before the light reflected by the pencil in water. Our brain perceives it as bent because of the difference in the time it reached it.
24. 24. PROPERTIES OF WAVES 3. INTERFERENCE. The meeting of two waves at a point is called interference.
25. 25. INTERFERENCE w2 w1 w2w1 W1+ W2 1. 2. 3
26. 26. INTERFERENCE w1 w1w2 4. 5. w2
27. 27. PROPERTIES OF WAVES 4. DIFFRACTION. The spreading of waves as they enter the opening of a barrier.
28. 28. PROPERTIES OF WAVES DIFFRACTION. WAVE FRONTS DIFFRACTE D WAVES BARRIERS OPENING
29. 29. RarefactionsCompressions TroughsCrests General Wave Properties Types of Waves Wave Terms Transverse Longitudinal Speed Amplitude Wavelength Frequency Period f = 1/T Speed, v = fl Properties of Waves Rectilinear Motion Reflection Refraction Interference Diffraction Mechanical Waves Electromagnetic Waves