My Mobile ‘Education on the move’ Final Conference London - Friday, June 22 Institute of Education, University of London Ben Bachmair Cultural Ecology and Mobile Learning Em. Professor University of Kassel, GermanyVisiting Professor Institute of Education, University of London
The issues of my presentation2. Ecologies = holistic and critical system approaches- Early media ecologies: Neil Postman = TV, the changing public and socialization / Dieter Baacke = Media in the life world and socializations- Ecology of the resources of nature, energy and knowledge- The mobile complex: mobile cultural resources in the running transformation of society and culture2. The key concept “cultural resources”3. The concept of affordance in an ecology of culture and education4. The affordance of cultural resources and education- Learning, development and appropriation, the explicit educational perspective to ecology- Contexts: From stabile cultural products for appropriation to cultural products by appropriation- Social justice and participation: Well known tasks to be revisited e.g. recognition of naive expertise
1. Ecologies = holistic and critical system approaches Early approaches of a media ecology with relevance for socializationNeil Postman: Media Ecology = The disappearance of Childhood, 1982 TV changes the public (see Jürgen Habermas), which is a salient for childhoodDieter Baacke: The life world with its typical media offers spaces for socialization. The spaces are like circled zones of ecology, which reaches from the near zone of the family, neighbourhood and peers to the far zones. These zones are entangled with the inner, subjective world and the outer world of the media.
• Ecology of the resources nature and energy• Creative knowledge society Araya, Daniel, Peters, Michael A. (eds.) (2010). Education in the Creative Economy. Knowledge and Learning in the Age of Innovation. New York, Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang
Analysis of the mobile complex: cultural resources in the runningtransformation of society and culture Structures: - De-traditionalization of learning: Learning as a context related social risk: At-risk-learners; learning as meaning making - User generated contexts and contexts (from the push to a pull model) : Facebook and youTube. Contexts for construction and generation as highly relevant cultural artefacts. Agency: - Habitus of learning: Self-representation, playing, target orientation Cultural practices of learning: * Increase of informal learning outside the school * Curricular learning in traditional modes (driven by a teacher and learning subjects) and in flexible modes (situated, constructivist, collaborative) * with at-risk learners as a feature of the individualisation of risks.
2. The key concept “cultural resources”Pierre Bourdieu “cultural capital”:- ‘objectified’ capital, like artworks; can be bought and sold.- ‘embodied’ capital, in the form of habits and dispositions of a person, such as knowing how to behave at the opera – Habitus.- ‘institutionalised’ capital, in the form of academic and recognised professional qualifications.Basil Bernstein: „restricted codes“ and „elaborated code“ in the school (Class, Codes and Control 1973)
3. The concept of affordance in an ecology of culture and educationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affordance, 19. March 2012“AffordanceFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia An affordance is a quality of an object, or an environment, which allows an individual to perform an action. For example, a knob affords twisting, and perhaps pushing, while a cord affords pulling. The term is used in a variety of fields: perceptual psychology, cognitive psychology, environmental psychology, industrial design, human–computer interaction (HCI), interaction design, instructional design and artificial intelligence.”
James Jerome Gibson and Eleanor Gibson Ecology of perception“The affordances of the environment ... are in a sense objective, real and physical. ... An affordance is neither an objective property nor a subjective property; or it is both if you like. An affordance cuts across the dichotomy of subjective-objective and helps us to understand its inadequacy. It is equally a fact of the environment and a fact of behavior. It is both physical and psychical, yet, neither. An affordance points both ways, to the environment and to the observer.” (1979:129)
The relevance of the context in the perception of an object„The ambient stimulus information available in the sea of energy around us ... is not transmitted, does not consist of signals, and does not entail a sender and receiver. The environment does not communicate with the observers who inhabit it. Why should the world speak to us?”J. J. Gibson 1979: 63
Martin Oliver (2005). The Problem with Affordance. In: E-Leaning, Volume2, Number 4, 2005, pp 402 – 413Affordance in respect of media technology and media design = like „mapping“, „cultural constraints“ und „conventions (p. 406)Affordance “reflects the possible relationship among actors and objects: they are properties of the world” (p. 406).Affordance “conveys messages about the possible uses and functions” (407).Affordance as a cultural text, mainly the syntax of the cultural text.
Making affordance concrete for planning m-devices as part of formal learning The focal point for m-learning1. To integrate informal learning2. To set up episodes of situated learning3. To generate learning and media contexts (A context is a frame under construction for optional combinations of actions, representational resources inclusive media and literacy, virtual and local sites or social sites like socio-cultural milieus.)4. To construct conversational bridges/ threads5. To support students as experts of media use in everyday life within the school6. To set up responsive contexts for development and learning
4. The affordance of cultural resources and education 4.1 Learning and appropriation, the expliciteducational perspective of a cultural ecology.
Dominant model: the teacher guided instruction and assessmentJohann Peter HasencleverHieronymus Jobs als Schulmeister, 1846 – Museum der Bildenden Künste Leipzig
The three main models of learning(a) instruction as transfer of knowledge. Thy dynamic: out - in(b) In the tradition of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778):Supporting the personal developmentThe dynamic of development = bringing out the pre-given inside by unfolding and educational challenges. Education follows the model of the gardener. New version: J. J. Piaget; J.S. Bruner et al./ Lev Vygotsky = Scaffolding; Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger = Situated learningIn the tradition young Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767 – 1835):Bildung and appropriation of cultural productsThe dynamic for development comes from formative expression by appropriation of cultural product. The curricular model is based on the selecting and offering of relevant cultural object for appropriation as learning New version: George H. Mead, A. Leontjew / L. Vygotsky , Norbert Elias, John Dewey
Transfer to the actual prerequisites of and conditions for learningLearning as formation/ construction of meaning in the society of individualised risks Lave, Jean, Wenger, Etienne (1991): Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, Cambridge University PressLerning as Appropriation of Contexts Dourish, P. (2004). ‘What we talk about when we talk about context.’ In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 8(1), pp. 19-30. http://www.ics.uci.edu/~jpd/publications/2004/PUC2004- context.pdfHabitus of Learning in the combination of self representation, playing and target orientation
Gunther Kress: L e a r n i n g a n d E n v i r o n m e n t s o f L e a r n i n ginC o n d i t i o n s o f P r o v i s i o n a l i t y . I n : B e n B a c h m a i r : (ed)(2010).Medienbildung in neuen Kulturräumen.Die deutschsprachige und britische Diskussion.Wiesbaden VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. Pp 173-185
4.2. Contexts, from stabile cultural products for appropriation to cultural products by appropriation Dourish, P. (2004) ‘What we talk about when we talk about context.’ In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 8(1), pp. 19-30 Also available at: Available at: http://www.ics.uci.edu/~jpd/publications/2004/PUC2004- context.pd The internet as a context A context is a frame under construction for optional combinations of actions, representational resources inclusive media and literacy, virtual and local sites or social sites like socio-cultural milieus
Examples for cultural resourcesnow as examples for contexts
• Dourish, p. 5:• “First, rather than considering context to be information, it instead argues that contextuality is a relational property that holds between objects or activities. It is not simply the case that something is or is not context; rather, it may or may not be contextually relevant to some particular activity.• Second, rather than considering that context can be delineated and defined in advance, the alternative view argues that the scope of contextual features is defined dynamically.
• Third, rather than considering that context is stable, it instead argues that context is particular to each occasion of activity or action. Context is an occasioned property, relevant to particular settings, particular instances of action, and particular parties to that action.• Fourth, rather than taking context and content to be two separable entities, it instead argues that context arises from the activity. Context isn’t just “there,” but is actively produced, maintained and enacted in the course of the activity at hand.
4.3 Social justice and participation. Well known tasks to be revisited = e.g. recognition of naïve expertiseBertelsmann Stiftung, Institute für Schulentwicklung (Hrsg.) 2012. Chancenspiegel (barometer of opportunties). Zur Chancengerechtigkeit (equal opportunities) und Leistungsfähigkeit (efficiency) der deutschen Schulsysteme. Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, GüterslohRawls, John (2001, p. 60): Justice of Fairness The institutional side of the “equity in the distribution of resources” like rights, liberties and opportunities, incomes and wealth, and the social basis of self-respectSen, Amartya (2009): The idea of justice. Social justice and life accomplishment
Social justice and the resources ofeducational institution (Mayerberg 2011)„Durchlässigkeit“ als Ergänzung zur Selektionsfunktion der Schule (S. 28);„Kompetenzförderung“, „sämtliche Potentiale der Schülerinnen und Schüler ausschöpfen und keine systembedingten einseitigen Fördereffekte zulassen“ (S. 29);„angemessene Zertifikatsvergabe“, „unter Berücksichtigung der an die Zertifikate gestellten systemimmanenten Anforderungen und ihrer systeminternen wie systemexternen Vergleichbarkeit“, „Vergaben von Anschlussmöglichkeiten“, die mit „Lebenschancen“ verknüpft sind.„‚adult-initiated action and shared decisions with students“