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Evidences of Evolution<br />FOSSIL RECORD, MORPHOLOGY, EMBRYOLOGY, AND BIOCHEMISTRY<br />
Fossil Record<br />Fossil – preserved remains of animal or plant.<br />We have to take note that the fossil record will ne...
Fossil Record<br />Types of Fossil<br />1. Compression fossil<br />It is an original part of an organism that was buried u...
Fossil Record<br />3. Impression Fossil<br />An outline that is formed when hard parts of a dead organism pressed against ...
Fossil Record<br />5. Mold<br />Impression that is left in rocks.<br />A. Internal Mold<br />B. External Mold<br />E.g. Sh...
Fossil Record<br />7. Petrified Fossils<br />Crystallization of minerals inside cells.<br />E.g.<br />Petrified wood <br />
MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Morphology – the form and structure of an organism or of a part of an organism.<b...
Morphological Divergence Among Vertebrate Forelimbs.<br />
MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION <br />Homologous structures<br />Similar body parts that reflect shared ancestry.<br /...
MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Morphological Divergence <br />Refers to a change from the body form of a common ...
MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE<br />Even though vertebrate forelimbs are not the same in size, shape or function from one group to...
MORPHOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE<br />In morphological convergence, body parts that appear alike evolve independently in differen...
Morphological Convergence<br />
ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES<br />Structures that look alike in different lineages but did not evolve in a shared ancestor.<br />E...
EMBRYOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Embryology<br />Branch of biology dealing with the development of the animal embr...
EMBRYOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Developmental Comparisons in Animals<br />Embryos of many vertebrate species deve...
EMBRYOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Body appendages<br />Buds form whenever homeotic gene Dlx is expressed. <br />Dlx...
Dlx/Hox gene control system operates across many phyla.<br />A strong evidence that it evolved a very long time ago.<br />...
Comparative Embryology<br />
Amino Acid Sequence Similarities<br />
Amino Acid Sequence Similarities Are a Measure of Evolutionary Relatedness<br />
The Rate of DNA hybridization reflects the degree of evolutionary relatedness.<br />
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Evidences of evolution

  1. 1. Evidences of Evolution<br />FOSSIL RECORD, MORPHOLOGY, EMBRYOLOGY, AND BIOCHEMISTRY<br />
  2. 2. Fossil Record<br />Fossil – preserved remains of animal or plant.<br />We have to take note that the fossil record will never be complete.<br />Why? Because geologic events obliterated much of it.<br />1. The rest of the record is slanted toward species that<br /> has hard parts,<br />2. has dense populations with wide distribution,<br />3. And had persisted for a long time.<br />Although the fossil record is substantial enough to help us reconstruct patterns and trends in the history of life.<br />
  3. 3. Fossil Record<br />Types of Fossil<br />1. Compression fossil<br />It is an original part of an organism that was buried under sediments and the water squeezed out of it.<br />E.g.<br />Thin film of plant cuticle that remained from a leaf.<br />2. Fossil fuels<br />Carbon-containing fuel derived from the decomposed remains of prehistoric plants and animals.<br /> a. Coal b. Oil c. Natural Gas<br />
  4. 4. Fossil Record<br />3. Impression Fossil<br />An outline that is formed when hard parts of a dead organism pressed against soft sediment, which then hardened after the organism decayed.<br />E.g.<br />A. Foot prints B. Worm borings<br />4. Casts<br />Fossil formed when minerals slowly replace tissue.<br />E.g. Long horn coral<br />
  5. 5. Fossil Record<br />5. Mold<br />Impression that is left in rocks.<br />A. Internal Mold<br />B. External Mold<br />E.g. Shell<br />6. Mineralized Fossils <br />Minerals replaced cells and intracellular materials.<br />E.g. Bones and teeth<br />
  6. 6. Fossil Record<br />7. Petrified Fossils<br />Crystallization of minerals inside cells.<br />E.g.<br />Petrified wood <br />
  7. 7. MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Morphology – the form and structure of an organism or of a part of an organism.<br />Do similar parts indicate an evolutionary relationship?<br />In Morphological Divergence, a body part inherited from a common ancestor becomes modified differently in different lines of descent. Such parts are called homologous structures.<br />
  8. 8. Morphological Divergence Among Vertebrate Forelimbs.<br />
  9. 9. MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION <br />Homologous structures<br />Similar body parts that reflect shared ancestry.<br />Structures may be used for different purposes in different groups,<br /> but the same genes direct their development.<br />
  10. 10. MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Morphological Divergence <br />Refers to a change from the body form of a common ancestor in a macroevolutionary pattern .<br />Macroevolution<br />Evolutionary patterns on a larger scale.<br />Comprises large-scale patterns of evolutionary change such as adaptive radiations, the origins of major groups and loss through extinction. <br />
  11. 11. MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE<br />Even though vertebrate forelimbs are not the same in size, shape or function from one group to the next,<br />They are alike in the structure and positioning of bony elements.<br />
  12. 12. MORPHOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE<br />In morphological convergence, body parts that appear alike evolve independently in different lineages, not in a common ancestor.<br />Such parts are called analogous structures.<br />
  13. 13. Morphological Convergence<br />
  14. 14. ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES<br />Structures that look alike in different lineages but did not evolve in a shared ancestor.<br />E.g. <br />Bird wing – flight – feathers<br />Bat wing – flight – skin membrane<br />Insect wing – flight - sac <br />
  15. 15. EMBRYOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Embryology<br />Branch of biology dealing with the development of the animal embryo.<br />Development of the fertilized egg and embryo and the growth of fetus.<br />
  16. 16. EMBRYOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Developmental Comparisons in Animals<br />Embryos of many vertebrate species develop in similar ways.<br />Their tissues form the same way as embryonic cells divide, differentiate and interact.<br />All vertebrates go through a stage in which they have four limb buds and a tail.<br />Adult forms of these lineages are different.<br />Why do they differ?<br />Answer lies with the heritable changes or the onset, rate or completion of early steps in development.<br />An altered body plan is advantageous. <br />
  17. 17. EMBRYOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION<br />Body appendages<br />Buds form whenever homeotic gene Dlx is expressed. <br />Dlx gene <br />Encodes a transcription factor that signals clusters of embryonic cells to “srtick out from the body” and give rise to an appendage.<br />Hox gene<br />Help sculpt details of the bodies form.<br />It suppresses Dlx expression in all parts of an embryo that will not have appendages. <br />
  18. 18. Dlx/Hox gene control system operates across many phyla.<br />A strong evidence that it evolved a very long time ago.<br />Dlx came first in some Cambrian fossils.<br />Hox appeared later. <br />
  19. 19. Comparative Embryology<br />
  20. 20. Amino Acid Sequence Similarities<br />
  21. 21. Amino Acid Sequence Similarities Are a Measure of Evolutionary Relatedness<br />
  22. 22. The Rate of DNA hybridization reflects the degree of evolutionary relatedness.<br />
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(●̮̮̃•̃) /█\ .Π. ~Sir Zybs

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