According to Worthen and Sanders, all curricula to be effective must have the element of evaluation. There appear to be some 26 approaches often employed to evaluate projects. These 26 may be grouped into five categories: pseudoevaluations, quasi-evaluation studies, improvement- and accountability-oriented evaluation, social agenda and advocacy, and eclectic evaluation. Under the improvement/accountability category, is one of the most widely applied evaluation models which is the CIPP Evaluation Model.
the acronym CIPP stands for context, inputs, processes, and products approach.
The CIPP Evaluation Model can be illustrated in this diagram.
Unlike more traditional evaluation approaches which are mainly concerned with the final retroactive evaluation of whether a set of objectives has been met, ……………. Meaning, it is an evaluation that occurs before, during, and after
Its core concepts are context, input, process, and product evaluation, with the intention of not to prove, but rather improve, the program itself.
This model is used to evaluate both formative and summative assignments. Formative: it takes place during the lesson or the project and tells the evaluator what is happening. Summative: it takes place at the end of the lesson or project and tells the evaluator what has happened.
It asks, “What needs to be done?” This stage assists in decision-making related to planning, and enables the evaluator to identify the needs, assets, and resources of a community in order to provide programming that will be beneficial. Context evaluation also identifies the political climate that could influence the success of the program. To achieve this, the evaluator compiles and assesses background information, and interviews program leaders and stakeholders. In addition, program goals are assessed, and data reporting on the program environment is collected. (can help identify service providers’ learning needs and the community’s needs )
It asks, “How should it be done?” and designed to meet the identified needs. To complement context evaluation, input evaluation can be completed. On the previous stage which is the Context Evaluation, its focus is on identifying or diagnosing the problems. In this stage, the intent is to choose an appropriate strategy to implement to resolve the program problem through evaluating the ingredients of the curriculum which include the goals, instructional strategies, the learners, the teachers, the contents and all the materials needed . (can then help prescribe a responsive project that can best address the identified needs )
It asks, “Is it being done?” and provides an ongoing check on the project’s implementation process. Primary objectives of this stage are to provide feedback regarding the extent to which planned activities are carried out, guide staff on how to modify and improve the program plan, and assess the degree to which participants can carry out their roles Process evaluation techniques include on-site observation, participant interviews, rating scales, questionnaires, records analysis, photographic records, case studies of participants, focus groups, self-reflection sessions with staff members, and tracking of expenditures. (monitors the project process and potential procedural barriers, and identifies needs for project adjustments )
is similar to outcome evaluation. It asks, “Did the project succeed?” assesses the positive and negative effects the program had on its target audience, assessing both the intended and unintended outcomes Its main purpose is to ascertain the extent to which the needs of all the participants were met. Providing feedback is of high importance during all phases of the project, including its conclusion. (measures, interprets, and judges project outcomes and interprets their merit, worth, significance, and probity )
To sum it up: context evaluation can help identify service providers’ learning needs and the community’s needs. input evaluation can then help prescribe a responsive project that can best address the identified needs. process evaluation monitors the project process and potential procedural barriers, and identifies needs for project adjustments. product evaluation measures, interprets, and judges project outcomes and interprets their merit, worth, significance, and probity.
Cipp evaluation model
Cipp Evaluation model
•This model was created
by Daniel L. Stufflebeam,
a professor at Western
Cipp Evaluation model
The CIPP evaluation model is designed to
systematically guide both evaluators and
stakeholders in posing relevant questions
and conducting assessments at the
beginning of a project, while it is in
progress, and at its end.
Cipp Evaluation model
This approach seeks to
improve and achieve
accountability in educational
programming through a
(Zhang et al., 2011).
Context “What needs to be done?”
• assess the overall environmental readiness of
the project, examine whether existing goals
and priorities are attuned to needs, and assess
whether proposed objectives are sufficiently
responsive to assessed needs.
• refers to as “needs assessment”.
• What is the relation of the course to other courses?
• Is the time adequate?
• What are critical or important external factors?
• Should courses be integrated or separate?
• What are the links between the course and
• Is there a need for the course?
• Is the course relevant to the job needs?
Input “How should it be done?”
• Refers to the ingredients of the
curriculum which include the goals,
instructional strategies, the learners, the
teachers, the contents and all the
• What is the entering ability of students?
• What are the learning skills of students?
• What is the motivation of the students?
• What are the living conditions of students?
• What is the students’ existing knowledge?
• Are the aims suitable?
• Do the objectives derives from aim?
• Are the objectives ‘smart’?
• Is the course content clearly defined?
• Does the content match student abilities?
• Is the content relevant to practical
• What is the theory/practice balance?
• What resources/equipment are available?
• What books do the teachers have?
• What books do the students have?
• How strong are the teaching strategies of the
• What time is available compared with the
workload, for preparation?
• What knowledge, skills and attitudes, related to the
subject, do the teachers have?
• How supportive is the classroom environment?
• How many students are there?
• How many teachers are there?
• How is the course organize?
• What regulations relate to the training?
Process “Is it being done?”
• refers to the ways and means of how the
curriculum has been implemented.
• monitors the project implementation
• assess the extent to which participants
accept and carry out their roles.
• What is the workload of the students?
• How well/actively do students participate?
• Are there any problems related to
• Are there any problems related to learning?
• Is there an effective 2-way communication?
• Is knowledge only transferred to students,
or do they use and apply it?
• Are there any problems which students face
in using/applying/analysing the knowledge
• Are the teaching and learning process
• Are the teaching and learning affected by
• What is the level of cooperation/interpersonal
relations between teachers and students?
• How is discipline maintained?
Product “Did the project succeed?”
• indicates if the curriculum accomplishes
• measure, interpret, and judge a project’s
outcomes by assessing their merit,
worth, significance, and probity.
• ascertain the extent to which the needs
of all the participants were met.
• Is there one final exam at the end or
several during the course?
• Is there any informal assessment?
• What is the quality of the assessment?
• What are the students’ KSA levels after
• Is the evaluation carried out for the
• How do students use what they
• How was the overall experience for
the teachers and for the students?
• What are the main ‘lessons learned’?
• Is there an official report?
• Has the teacher’s reputation
improved or been ruined as a result?