Literature is the expression oflife in words of truth and beauty.It is the written record of man’sspirit, his emotions, thoughtsand aspirations. It is the historyand only history of the humansoul.Wordsworth
derived from theLatin term litera – letterFrench phrase belles-letters – beautifulwriting
is anything that is printed, as long as it isrelated to the ideas and feelings ofpeople, whether it is true, or just a product ofone’s imagination (Webster) is the story of man, for it deals with theideas, thoughts and emotions of man(Kahayon, 1998) mirror of life sister of history
(Garcia, 1993) Great literature is distinguishableby the following qualities: ARTISTRY INTELLECTUALVALUE SUGGESTIVENESS SPIRITUALVALUE PERMANENCE UNIVERSALITY
PROSE POETRYFORM Written inparagraph formWritten in stanza orverse formLANGUAGE Expressed inordinary formExpressed inmetrical, rhythmicaland figurativelanguageAPPEAL To the intellect To the emotionAIM To convince,instruct, imitate andreflectStir the imaginationand set an idea ofhow life should be
This is a long narrative divided into chapters The events are taken from true-to-life storiesand spans a long period of time. There are many characters involved. Examples:Without Seeing the Dawn by Stevan JavellanaDekada 70 by Lualhati Bautista
This is a narrative involving one or morecharacters , one plot and one singleimpression. Examples:The Laughter of My Father by Carlos BulosanDead Stars by Paz Marquez-BenitezHow My Brother Leon Brought Home aWifeby Manuel E. Arguilla
This is presented on stage, is divided into actsand each act has many scenes. Examples:Three Rats byWilfredo Ma. GuerreroCadaver by Alberto S. FlorentinoSa Pula, Sa Puti by Rodrigo Francisco
These are fictitious narratives, usually aboutorigins. Examples:Legend of the MermaidLegend ofTagaytay
These are fictitious narratives which deal withanimals and inanimate things who speak andact like people. Have morals or lessons Examples:The Monkey and theTurtleTheTwo Cats and the Monkey
This is a short entertaining account about anamusing or interesting event or person. Its main aim is to bring out lessons to thereader. Example:The Moth and the Lamp
A short literary composition which isexpository in nature. The author shares some of his thoughts,feelings, experiences or observations onsome aspects of life that has interested him.
This is an account of a certain person’s lifewritten by another. AUTOBIOGRAPHY – a written account ofman’s life written by himself
This is a report of everyday events insociety, government, science and industry(local, national, international).
This is a formal treatment of a subject and isintended to be spoken in public. It appeals to the intellect, to the will or to theemotions of the audience.
A form of poetry which describesimportant events in life, either real orimaginary. A poem that tells a story.
This is an extended narrative poem aboutheroic exploits often under supernaturalcontrol. It may deal with heroes and gods. Two Kinds:1. ANCIENT/POPULAR EPIC – oftenwithout a definite author and is of slowgrowth2. LITERARY/MODERN EPIC – with adefinite author
A narrative poem consisting usually of asingle series of connective events that aresimple, and generally do not form a plot. Examples of these are simple idylls or hometales, love tales, tales of the supernatural ortales written for a strong moral purpose inverse form.
A narrative poem that tells a story ofadventure, love and chivalry. The typical hero is knight on a quest.
Considered the shortest and simplest type ofnarrative poetry. It has a simple structure and tells of a singleincident. It is intended to be sung. Variations: loveballads, humorous, moral, historical ormythical ballads.
Originally refers to that kind of poetrymeant to be sung to the accompanimentof a lyre. Now, it applies to any type of poetry thatexpresses emotions and feelings of thepoet. It is usually short, simple and easy tounderstand.
A lyric poem of some length (no definitenumber of syllables or of lines in astanza), serious in subject and dignified instyle. It is most majestic of the lyric poems. It is written in a spirit of praise of somepersons or things.
A lyric poem which expresses feelings of griefand melancholy, and whose theme is death.
A lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with anemotion, a feeling, or an idea.
These are short poems intended to be sung. The common theme is love, despair, grief,doubt, joy, hope and sorrow.
Have measures of twelve syllables(dodecasyllabic) and slowly sung to theaccompaniment o a guitar or banduria. Example: Florante at Laura
Have measures of eight syllables(octosyllabic) and recited to a martial beat. Example: Ibong Adarna
A song praising God or the Virgin Mary andcontaining a philosophy of life.
Comes from the Greek term Komos meaningfestivity or revelry. This form is usually light and written with thepurpose of amusing, and usually has a happyending.
This is usually used in musical plays with theopera. Today, this is related to tragedy just as thefarce is to comedy. It arouses immediate and intense emotionand is usually sad, but there is a happy endingfor the principal character.
This involves the hero struggling mightilyagainst dynamic forces; he meets death orruin without success and satisfaction.
This is an exaggerated comedy. It seeks to arouse mirth by laughable lines;situations are too ridiculous to be true; thecharacters seem to be caricatures and themotives undignified and absurd.
This form is either purely comic or tragic andit pictures the life of today. It may aim to bring about changes in thesocial conditions.