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Rizal’s life, works and writing


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Rizal’s life, works and writing

  1. 1. Rizal’s Life, Works and Writing Mylene G. Almario Instructor
  2. 2. What is Republic Act 1425 or Rizal Law? - House Bill No. 5561 - Senate Bill No. 438. - It is commonly known as the Rizal Act, established on 12th of June 1956 by Senator Claro M. Recto. - It requires the curricula of private and public schools, colleges and universities courses to include, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. - It was made effective on August 16, 1956. Mylene Gado Almario
  3. 3. Rizal Law (Republic Act No. 1425) As stated in the preamble of RA 1425/Rizal Law; “Whereas, today more than other period f or history, there is a need for a re-dedication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died.” “Whereas, all educational institutions are under the supervision of, and subject to regulation by the State, and all schools are enjoined to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience, and to teach the duties of citizenship.” Mylene Gado Almario
  4. 4. Rizal Law (Republic Act No. 1425) - The law requires all schools, colleges, universities ,private or public to include in their curricula courses on the life and works of Rizal. It also sates that all schools are required to have an adequate number of copies of the copies of the original and unexpurgated editions of El Filibusterismo and Noli Me Tangere, as well as other works and biographies of Rizal. - The purpose of Batas Rizal is to rekindle the flame of nationalism in the hearts of the Filipino, particularly the youth. We are forgetting what our patriots have done and given to fight for our freedom. Mylene Gado Almario
  5. 5. Factors in Determining of a Person  Just  Patient  Courageous  Bearer of Wisdom  Respectful  Nationalist Source: National Historical Commission Mylene Gado Almario
  6. 6. Criteria in Choosing the Philippine National Hero  Filipino citizen  Patriot/nationalist  Has already been dead  Patient Source: National Historical Commission Mylene Gado Almario
  7. 7. Personalities Nominated to be our National Hero  Marcelo H. del Pilar  Emilio Jacinto  Graciano Lopez-Jaena  Antonio Luna Mylene Gado Almario
  8. 8. Issues about the Proclamation of Dr.Jose Rizal as National Hero 1. He was the illegitimate son of Adolf Hitler 2. He should not be proclaimed as the national hero because of his cowardice to fight the colonizers through revolution. 3. He was regarded as an ―American-made hero‖. First Philippine Commission was formed by the United States President headed by the American Governor-General William Howard c. Taft. Declaration of Dr. Jose Rizal as our national hero was only their strategy to hinder our nationalistic feelings. Mylene Gado Almario
  9. 9. Philippines: Spanish Period  Emergence of political unrest in Spanish Politics 1.It started during the reign of King Ferdinand VII 2.Spanish political instability resulted to frequent shifts of colonial policies and unfixed terms of government officials in the Philippines.  Representation in the Spanish Cortes  Deprivation of Human Rights to the Filipino  Corrupt Spanish Official  Inequality  Racial Discrimination  Land ownership and Feudalism Mylene Gado Almario
  10. 10. Dr. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda Doctor – complete his medical course in Spain and was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine by the Universidad Central de Madrid. Jose – chosen by his mother who was a devotee of the Christian St. Joseph. Protacio – form Gervacio P which come from a Christian calendar, in consideration of the day of his birth. Rizal – from the word ―Ricial‖ in Spanish means a field where a wheat, cut while still green, sprouts again. Mercado – adopted by Domingo Lamco which Spanish term means market. Alonzo – old name surname of his mother. Realonda – it was used by Doña Teodora from the surname of her godmother based on the culture by that time. Mylene Gado Almario
  11. 11. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda - He was born near midnight of Wednesday of June 19, 1861 to the Rizal family of Calamba, Laguna. - He was baptized by Rev. Rufino Collantes in the Catholic church of Calamba on June 22, 1861, three days after birth. - His Godfather named Father Perdo Casanas, a close friend of Rizal family. - Lieutenant-General Jose Lemery was the governor- general of the Philippines when Rizal was born. Mylene Gado Almario
  12. 12. Rizal’s Father Don Francisco Mercado (1818-1898) - Born in Biñan, Laguna on May 11, 1818. - Studied Latin and Philosophy at the College of San Jose in Manila. - Became a tenant-farmer of the Dominican-owned hacienda. - A hardly and independent-minded man, who talked less and worked more, and was strong in body and valiant in spirit. - Died in Manila on January 5, 1898 at age of 80. - Rizal affectionately called him ―a model father‖. Mylene Gado Almario
  13. 13. Rizal’s Mother Doña Teodora Alonso Realonda (1826-1911) - Born in Manila on November 8, 1826. - Educated at the College of Santa Rosa, a well- known college for girls in the city. - A remarkable woman, possessing refined culture, literary talent, business ability, and the fortitude of Spartan. - Is a woman of more than ordinary culture; she known literature and speaks Spanish (according to Rizal). - Died in Manila on August 16, 1911 at age of 85. Mylene Gado Almario
  14. 14. Information about his parents - Rizal always called her sisters Doña or Señora (married) and Señorita (single). - Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonso Realonda married on June 28, 1848, after which they settled down in Calamba. - The real surname of the Rizal was Mercado, which was adopted in 1713 by Domingo Lamco (paternal great-great grandfather of Jose Rizal), who was a full blooded Chinese. - Rizl‘s family acquired a second surname – Rizal – which was given by a Spanish Alcalde Mayor (provincial governor) of Laguna, who was a family friend. Mylene Gado Almario
  15. 15. Fig. 1. Father Side Ancestry Mylene Gado Almario
  16. 16. Fig. 2. Mother Side Ancestry Mylene Gado Almario
  17. 17. The Siblings of Jose Rizal Saturnina (1850-1913) - Oldest of the Rizal children - Nicknamed Neneng - Married to Manuel T. Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas. Paciano - Older brother and confident of Jose Rizal. - He was the second father to Rizal. - Immortalized him in Rizal‘s first novel Noli Me Tangere as the wise Pilosopong Tasio. - Rizal regarded him a s the ―most noble of Filipinos‖. - He became a combat general in the Philippine Revolution. - Died on April 13, 1930,an old bachelor at age of 79, he had two children by his mistress (Severina Decena) – a boy and a girl. Mylene Gado Almario
  18. 18. The Siblings of Jose Rizal Narcisa (1852-1939) - Petname Sisa - She was married to Antonio Lopez (nephew of Father Leoncio Lopez), a school teacher of Morong. Olympia (1855-1887) - Petname Ypia - She was married to Silvestre Ubaldo, a telegraph operator in Manila. Lucia (1857-1979) - she was married to Mariano Herbosa of Calamba, who was a nephew of Father Casanas. Maria (1859-1945) - Biang was her petname - She was married to Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan, Laguna. Mylene Gado Almario
  19. 19. The Siblings of Jose Rizal Concepcion (1862-1865) - Concha was her pet-name - She died at age of three because of sickness. - Her death was Rizal‘s first sorrow in life. Josefa (1865-1945) - Panggoy was her pet-name - An old maid, died at age of 80. Trinidad (1868-1951) - Trining was her pet-name - An old maid, died at age of 83. Soledad (1870-1929) - Choleng was her pet-name - She was married to Pantaleon Quintero of Calamba.Mylene Gado Almario
  20. 20. Rizal’s Home (Physical) - It is one of the distinguished stone houses in Calamba during the Spanish times. - It was a two-storey building, rectangular in shape, built of adobe stones and hard-woods and roofed with red tiles. - During the day, it hummed with the noises of children at paly and the songs of the birds in the garden; by night, it echoed with the dulcet notes of family prayers. - The Rizal family belonged to the principalia, town aristocracy in Spanish Philippines. - The Rizal family had a simple, contented and happy life. Mylene Gado Almario
  21. 21. Childhood Years in Calamba, Laguna - Calamba was a hacienda town which belonged to Dominican Order, which also owned all the lands around. - Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo (In Memory of My Town) – a poem about Rizal‘s beloved town written by Rizal in 1876 when he was 15 years old and was student in the Ateneo de Manila. - The first memory of Rizal, in his infancy, was his happy days in the family garden when he was three. - Another childhood memory was the daily Angelus prayer. By nightfall, Rizal related, his mother gathered all the children at the house to pray the Angelus. Mylene Gado Almario
  22. 22. Childhood Years in Calamba, Laguna - Another memory of Rizal during infancy was the nocturnal walk in the town, especially when there was a moon. - The death of Concha was his first sorrow. - At age of three he began to take part in the family prayers. - At 5, he was able to read haltingly the Spanish family bible, and make sketches with this pencil and to mould in clay and wax on objects which attracted his fancy. - ―The Story of the Moth‖ – made the profoundest impression of Rizal. - ―Sa Aking Mga Kabata‖- the first poem written in the native language at age of 8, he also wrote his first dramatic work (Tagalog comedy). Mylene Gado Almario
  23. 23. Influences on the Hero’s Boyhood 1. Hereditary influence 2. Environmental influence 3. Aid of the Divine Providence - Tio Jose Alberto – he develop the artistic ability of Rizal. - Tio Manuel – he guided Rizal on his physical exercises. - Tio Gregorio – intensified Rizal‘s voracious reading of good books. - Father Leoncio Lopez – fostered Rizal‘s love for scholarship and intellectual honesty. Mylene Gado Almario
  24. 24. Early Education in Calamba and Biñan - The first teacher of Rizal was his mother, who was remarkable woman of good character and fine culture. - Maestro Celestino – first private tutor. - Maestro Lucas Padua – science tutor. - Leon Monroy – a former classmate of his father, that instructed in Spanish and Latin. He diedfive months later. - June 1869 – Rizal left Calamba to study in Biñan, accompanied byPaciano. - Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz – Rizal‘s first teacher in Biñan. Mylene Gado Almario
  25. 25. Early Education in Calamba and Biñan - Pedro – his classmate that challenge him to fight. - Andres Lakindanan – challenged Rizal to an wrestling match. - Juancho – an old painter who was the father-in-law of the school teacher; freely give Rizal lesson in drawing and painting. - December 17, 1870 – he left Biñan after one year and a half of schooling. - Arturo Camos – a French friend of Rizal‘s father who took care of him on board. Mylene Gado Almario
  26. 26. Martyrdom of GomBurZA - January 20, 1872 – about 200 Filipino soldiers and workmen of the Cavite arsenal under the leadership of Sgt. Lamadrid (he was Filipino, but rose in mutiny because of the abolition of their usual privileges). - Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, Jacinto Zamora – were executed at sunrise of February 17, 1872, by the order of Governor-General Izquierdo. - The martyrdom of the GomBurZa in 1872 truly Rizal to fight the evils of Spanish tyranny and redeem his oppressed people. - Rizal dedicated his second novel El Filibusterismo to GomBurZa. Mylene Gado Almario
  27. 27. Injustice to Rizal’s Mother - June 1872 – Doña Teodora was suddenly arrested on a malicious charge that she and her brother Jose Alberto, tried to poison the latter‘s perfidious wife. - Antonio Vivencio del Rosario – Calamba‘s gobernadorcillo, who helped to arrest Doña Teodora. - After arresting Doña Teodora, the sadistic Spanish lieutenant forced her to walk from Calamba to Santa Cruz, Laguna (50km.). - Doña Teodora was incarcerated at the provincial prison, where she languished for two years. - Francisco de Marcaida and Manuel Marzan – the most famous lawyers of Manila that defend Doña Teodora. Mylene Gado Almario
  28. 28. Scholastic Triumph at Ateneo de Manila - Ateneo Municipal, a college under the supervision of the Spanish Jesuits. - Escuela Pia (Charity School) – formerly name of Ateneo, a school for poor boys in Manila which was established by the city government 1817. - June 10, 1872 – Rizal was accompanied by Paciano on his way to Manila. - Father Magin Ferrano – he was the college registrar, who refused to admit Rizal in Ateneo for two reason: a) he was late or registration b) he was sickly and undersized for his age. - Manuel Xerez Burgos – because of his intercession, nephew of Father Burgos, Rizal was reluctantly admitted Ateneo. - He registered Rizal as his surname since Mercado was suspected by the Spanish authorities. - Rizal was first board in a house outside in Caraballo Street. This was owned by a spinster named Titay who owed the family the amount of 300 pesos. Mylene Gado Almario
  29. 29. Jesuits System of Education - It trained the character of the students by rigid discipline and religious instructions. - Students were divided into two groups: - Roman Empire – consisting of internos (boarders); red banner. - Carthaginian Empire – composed of the externos (non-boarders); blue banner. - Intelligence distribution: - Emperor – 1st - Tribune – 2nd - Decurion - 3rd - Centurion – 4th - Stand – 5th - The Ateneo students wore a uniform consisted of ―hemp-fabric trousers‖ and ―striped cotton coat‖. The coat material was called ravadillo. Mylene Gado Almario
  30. 30. First Year in Ateneo (1872-1973) - Father Jose Bech – Rizal‘s first professor in Ateneo who he described as ―tall thin man, with a body slightly bend forward, a harried walk, an ascetic face, severe and inspired, smell deep-sunken eyes, a sharp nose that was almost Greek, and thin lips forming an arc whose fell toward the chin‖. - A Religious picture – a Rizal‘s first prize for being brightest pupil in the whole class. - To improve his Spanish, he took private lessons in Santa Isabel College during noon recesses. He paid three pesos for those extra Spanish lessons. - At the end of the school year in March, 1873, he returned to Calamba for summer vacation. - When the summer vacation ended, Rizal returned to Manila for his second year term in Ateneo. This time he boarded inside Intramuros at No. 6 Magallanes Street. His landlady was an old widow name Doña Pepay. Mylene Gado Almario
  31. 31. Second Year in Ateneo (1873-1874) - At the end of the school year, Rizal received excellent grades in all subjects and a gold medal. - The Count of Monte Cristo –(Alexander Dumas) – the first favourite novel of Rizal which made a deep impression on him. - Universal History (Cesar Cantu) – Rizal persuaded his father to buy him this set of historical work that was a great aid in his studies. - Dr. Feodor Jagor – a German scientist-traveller who visited the Philippines 1859-1860 who wrote Travels in the Philippines. He was impressed in this book because; 1) Jagor’s keen observation of the defects of Spanish colonization, and, 2) his prophecy that someday Spain would lose the Philippines and that America would come to succeed her as colonizer.Mylene Gado Almario
  32. 32. Third and Fourth Year in Ateneo (1874- 1876) - Rizal's grades remained excellent in all subjects but e won only one medal – Latin. - At the end of the school year, Rizal‘s returned to Calamba for the vacation. He himself was not impressed by his scholastic work. - June 16, 1875 – Rizal became an interno of the Ateneo. - Padre Francisco de Paula Sanchez – a great educator and scholar, one of Rizal‘s professors who inspired him to study harder and to write poetry. Rizal described this Jesuit professor as ―model of uprightness, earnestness, and love for the advancement of his pupils‖. - Rizal‘s topped all his classmates ain all subjects and on five medals at the end of the school term.Mylene Gado Almario
  33. 33. Last Year in Ateneo (1876-1877) - Rizal‘s studies continued to fare well. As a matter-of-fact, the excelled in all subjects. The most brilliant Atenean of his time, he was truly the pride of the Jesuits. - March 23, 1877 – Commencement Day, Rizal who was 15 years old, received from his Alma Mater; the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, with highest honour. - Marian Congeragtion – a religious society wherein Rizal was an active member and later became the secretary. - Rizal cultivated his literary talent under the guidance of Father Sanchez. - Father Jose Vilaclara – advised Rizal to stop communing with the muse and pay mote attention to more practical studies. - Rizal studies painting under the famous Spanish painter, Agusti Saez, and sculpture under omualdo de Jesus; a noted Filipino sculptor. - Rizal carved an image of the Virgin Mary on a piece of batikuling with his pocket-knife. - Father Lieonart – impressed by Rizal‘s sculptural talent, requested him to carve for him an image of Sacred Heart of Jesus. Mylene Gado Almario
  34. 34. Poems in Ateneo - It was Doña Teodora who was first discovered the poetic genius of her son, and it also she who first encourage him to write poems. However, it was Father Sanchez who inspired Rizal to take full of his God-given gift in poetry. - Mi Primera Inspiracion (My First Inspiration), 1874, the Rizal probably wrote during days in Ateneo which was dedicated to his mother on her birthday; Rizal wrote he was 14 years old. 1875 (inspired by Father Sanchez) 1. Felicitacion 2. El Embarque: Himno a la Flota de Magallanes 3. Y Es Español:Elcano el Primero en dar la Vuelta al Mundo 4. El Combate: Urbiztondo, Terror de Jolo 5. Al Niño Jesus (To the Child Jesus) – brief ode. Mylene Gado Almario
  35. 35. Poems in Ateneo 1876 (religion, education, childhood and memories of war) 1. Un Recuerdo a Mi Pueblo (In Memory of My Town) – honour for his hometown Calamba. 2. Alianza Intima Entre la Religion y la Buena Education (Intimate Alliance Between Religion and Good Education) – shows the importance of religion and education. 3. Por la Educacion Recibe Lustre la Patria (Through Education the Country Receives Light) – education plays in the progress and welfare a nation. 4. El Cautiverio y el Triunfo: Batalla de Lucenas y Prison Boabdil (The Captivity and the Triumph: Battle of Lucena and the Imprisonment of Boadbil) – the defeat and capture of Boabdil, the last Sultan of Granada. 5. La Entrada Triunfal de los Reyes Catolices en Granada (The Triumphal Entry of the Catholic Monarchs into Granada) – victorious entry of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel of Spain to Granada. 6. San Eustacio, Martir (St. Eustace, The Martyr) – prose story of St. Eustace. Mylene Gado Almario
  36. 36. Poems in Ateneo 1877 1. El Heroismo de Colon (The Heroism of Columbus) – poem praises Columbus. 2. Colon y Juan II (Columbus and John II) – relates how King John II of Spain missed fame and riches by his failure to finance the projected expedition of Columbus to the New World. 3. Gran Cunsuelo en la Mayor Desdicha (Great Solace in Great Misfortune) – a legend relates to the tragic life of Columbus. 4. Un Dialogo Aluviso a la Despedida de los Colegiales (A Farewell Dialogue of the Students) – farewell to his classmates in Ateneo. 5. A la Virgen Maria (To the Virgin Mary) – another religious poem which doesn‘t have exact date when it was written. Mylene Gado Almario
  37. 37. Life in the University of Santo Tomas (1877-1882) - After finishing the first year of a course in Philosophy and Letters (1877-1878). He transferred to the medical course. - April 1877 – he enrolled in the UST taking Philosophy and Letters because; 1) his father like it, 2) he was “still uncertain as to what career to pursue”. - Father Pablo Ramon – Rector of Ateneo, who had been good to him his students days in that college, asking for advice on the choice of a career but unfortunately he was in Mindanao. - During Rizal‘s first school term in the UST, Rizal also studied in Ateneo. He took the vocational course leading to the title of perito agrimensor (expect surveyor). Mylene Gado Almario
  38. 38. Life in the University of Santo Tomas (1877-1882) - Rizal excelled in all subjects in the surveying course in Ateneo, obtaining gold medals in agriculture and topography. He passed all the subject but the title was no issued to him because he was only 17 years- old, underage. The title was issued to him on November 25, 1881- the title was issued to Rizal for passing the final examination in the surveying course. - Liceo Artistico-Literario (Artistic-Literay Lyceum of Manila) – society of literary men and artists held a literary contest in the year 1879. He also served as the President of the Spanish Literature in Ateneo. Mylene Gado Almario
  39. 39. Life in the University of Santo Tomas (1877-1882) - While at UST, he fell in love with three women. During his first year, he fell in love with a woman simply called “Miss L”, a woman with a fair, seductive and attractive eyes. The romance dead a natural death because of two reasons: (1) the sweet memory of Segunda Katigbak was still fresh to in his memory a and, (2) Rizal‘s father did not like the family of Miss L. - During his sophomore year, he courted Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl with regal bearing. Rizal sent her love notes in invisible ink. But just like Segunda he also stopped visiting her. Mylene Gado Almario
  40. 40. Life in the University of Santo Tomas (1877-1882) - During his junior year, Rizal had romance with Leonor Rivera, of Camiling, Tarlac. Leonor was a pretty girl and a students of La Concordia Colllege. Both Rizal and Leonor were engaged, he used the sign name ―Taimis‖ to cover their relationship from their parents. - Rizal studied in UST from 1878-1882. his grade in Medicine consists of 2 excellent, 3 very good, 8 good, and 2 fair (physics and general pathology). His grades in UST College of Medicine were not as impressive as what he got at Ateneo Philosophy and Letters due to the hostility of the Dominican professors. Accordingly, laboratory equipment's are just for display and racial discrimination against the Filipino students.Mylene Gado Almario
  41. 41. Education in University of Santo Tomas (1877-1882) - A La Juventud (To the Filipino Youth) – at 18, submitted tis poem, it is inspiring poem of flawless form. This poem won as a classic Filipino literature for two reasons: a) it was a great poem in Spanish written by the Filipino, whose merit was recognized by Spanish literary authorities, 2) expressed for the first time the nationalistic concept that the Filipino, and not the foreigners, were the “fair hope of the Fatherland”. The Board of Judges, composed of Spaniards was impressed by Rizal‘s poem and gave it gave it the first prize which consisted of a silver pen, feather-shaped and decorated with a gold ribbon. - A Filipinas – a sonnet written by Rizal for the album of the Society of Sculptors; in this sonnet, he urged all Filipino artists to glorify the Philippines. Mylene Gado Almario
  42. 42. Education in University of Santo Tomas (1877-1882) - Abd-el-Azis y Mahoma – poem honouring the Ateneo Patroness. - Al M.R.P Pablo Ramon – poem dedication to Father Pablo Ramon (Atenean Rector), who had been so kind and helpful to him. - Vicenta Ybardolaza – a pretty girl colegiala who skillfully played a harp at the Regalado home, whom Rizal was infatuated. - Compañerismo (Comradeship) – Rizal founded a secret society of Filipino students in UST 1880. - Galicano Apacible – Rizal‘s cousin from Batangas who is the secretary of the society. Mylene Gado Almario
  43. 43. Unhappy Days in UST - Rizal found the atmosphere at the UST suffocating to his sensitive spirit. He was unhappy at this Dominican institution of higher learning because 1) the Dominican professors were hostile to him 2) the Filipino students were racially discriminated by the Spaniards 3) the method of instruction was obsolete and repressive. - In Rizal novel, El Filibusterismo, he described how the Filipino students were humiliated and insulted by their Dominican professors and how backward the method of instruction was, especially in the teaching of the natural sciences. He related in Chapter XIII (The Class in Physics). Mylene Gado Almario
  44. 44. Rizal’s Departure for Spain(1882) - After finishing his 4th year of medical course in UST, Rizal decided to complete his studies in Spain. - Aside form his studies in Spain, Rizal has his ―secret mission‖ a). To observe keenly the life and culture ,languages and customs, industries and commerce, and the government laws of the European nations in order to prepare himself in the mighty task of liberating his oppressed people from Spanish tyranny. - Before the secret departure of Rizal, he wrote a farewell letter to his parents and sweetheart Leonor Rivera which was delivered to them – after he sailed away. Mylene Gado Almario
  45. 45. Rizal’s Departure for Spain(1882) - May 3, 1882 – the Spanish Steamer (Salvadora), Rizal departed for Spain using Jose Mercado, on his travel documents. His main reason in leaving the Philippines was to transfer at the Universidad Central De Madrid in Spain to finish his medicine course. - May 8, 1882 – they have two-day stopover in Singapore. He reached the island considered by him as ―Talim Isand with the Susong Dalaga‖. The following day, May 9, Rizal registered at Hotel de la Paz and spent two-day sightseeing sorties of the city. He saw the Botanical Garden, the Famous Buddhist Temple and the founder of Singapore, Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles. Mylene Gado Almario
  46. 46. Rizal’s Departure for Spain(1882) - May 11, 1882 – he was board on the steamer Djemnah, a French steamer, much larger and cleaner than the Salvadora. On board the vessel were British, French, Dutch, Spaniards, Malays, Siamese and Filipinos. French was mostly spoken on the board. - May 17,1882 – he arrived at the Point Galle, a seacoast town in southern Ceylon. The town is lovely, quiet and sad at the sometime according to him. - May 18, 1882 – he had a stopover at Colombo. It is more beautiful, smart, elegant than Singapore, Point Galle and Manila. Mylene Gado Almario
  47. 47. Rizal’s Departure for Spain(1882) - May 28, 1882 – the Djemnah continued its voyage and crossed the Indian Ocean until he reached the Cape of Guardafin, Africa. Rizal called it as inhospitable land but famous. Then, he reached Aden, according to him it was a city hotter than in Manila –for the first time he saw camels. - June 2, 1882 – he proceeded to Suez Canal. It took 5 days to travel Suez. He disembarked for sightseeing and he was fascinated to hear a the multiracial inhabitants speaking a babel of tongues – Arabic, Egyptians, Greek, Italian and Spanish. - June 11, 1882 – the steamer proceeded to Europe and reached Naple City, Italy. Rizal was fascinated by Mount of Vesuvius, the Castle of St. Telno, and the historic sights of the city. The city was busy because of its business activity, lively people and panoramic beauty. Mylene Gado Almario
  48. 48. Rizal’s Departure for Spain(1882) - June 12, 1882 – the steamer docked at the French harbour of Marseilles. Rizal disembarked to visit the famous Chateau d‘ef where Dantes, the hero of The Count of Monte Cristo was jailed. He stayed at Maseilles for two and a half days at Hotel Noailles for 3 days. - June 15, 1882 – the steamer left Mersailles by on its last trip Spain. The steamer reached Pyrenees and stopped for a day at Port Bou. In this place, Rizal saw the indifference accorded to tourists in comparison to the courtesy accorded by the French immigration officers. Mylene Gado Almario
  49. 49. Rizal’s Departure for Spain(1882) - June 16, 1883 - from Port Bou, Rizal continued his trip for the last lap by train for Spain and finally reaching his destination – Barcelona, Spain. Rizal stayed in Hotel de España and in Sitges Street with Tomas Cabangis and boarded a house in San Severo Street. He visited Ronda de la Universidad of Barcelona – ugly, dirty little inns, inhospitable people – because he happened to stay upon his arrival in a stingy inn. Later, he changed his mind and came to like the city – as a great city with an atmosphere of freedom and liberalism and the people were open- hearted, hospitable and courageous. He enjoyed promenading along Las Rambles, the famous Barcelona Street. Mylene Gado Almario
  50. 50. Life in Barcelona, Spain (1882) - Rizal was welcome by the Filipinos by the in Barcelona, some of who were his classmates in Ateneo. They gave him a party at their favourite café – Plaza de Catalina. They exchanged toast and they Rizal of the attractions and customs of the people in Barcelona. Rizal, in turn, gave news and gossips in the Philippines. While in Barcelona, Rizal received two bad news; 1. the cholera outbreak that ravaged Manila and the provinces, and 2. the chatty letter of Chengoy recounting the unhappiness of Leonor Rivera, who was getting thinner due to the absence of a loved one. - Mylene Gado Almario
  51. 51. Life in Madrid, Spain (1882-1885) - On November 3, 1882 – upon the advice of Paciano to Rizal to finish the medical course in Madrid, Rizal left Barcelona in the fall of 1882 and went to Madrid. - He enrolled in the Universidad Central de Madrid, in Medicine and Philosophy and Letters. - In Madrid, he lodged at Visitacion Street, No. 3, 3rd floor (Room 4) in 1883. - On October 1884, he transferred to Pizarro Street, No. 13 and later on at Ventura de la Vega Street. - He also studied painting and sculpture in the Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, took tutoring lessons in French, German and English and practiced fencing and sharpshooting in the Hall of Arms of Sanz y Carbonell.Mylene Gado Almario
  52. 52. Life in Madrid, Spain (1882-1885) - Rizal lived frugally, rigidly budgeting his money wisely. Although he used to buy ticket in every draw of the Madrid Lottery, he never wasted his money for gambling, wine and women. Rizal spent his leisure time by reading books, fencing, and shooting. - He also visited his Filipino friends at the house of Paterno brothers. He also fraternized with other students at the Antigua Café d Cevantes. Every Saturday evenings he visited the home of Don Pablo Ortega y Rey. - During his stay in Barcelona and Madrid, hard times occurred in Calamba such as harvest of rice and sugarcane failed due to drought and locust, increasing of land leased to the hacienda cultivated by the Rizal, and, Paciano was forced to sell Rizal’s pony to send him money.Mylene Gado Almario
  53. 53. Life in Madrid, Spain (1882-1885) - June 21, 1884 – Rizal was conferred the Licentiate in Medicine with a rating of “Fair” by the Universidad Central de Madrid after completing 5th and 6th year term. Legal Medicine (excellent)  Obstetrical Clinic (fair)  Other subjects (good and very good) - 1884-1885, he passed all the subjects leading to the degree of Doctor of Medicine. In his three subjects he got ―fair‖ in History of Medical Science, ―good‖ in Surgical Analysis and ―excellent‖ in Normal Histology. However, he didn‘t conferred Doctor of Medicine because of the failure to present a thesis required for graduation and pay for the corresponding fee. Mylene Gado Almario
  54. 54. Life in Madrid, Spain (1882-1885) - Obtaining the degree of Licentiate in Medicine, the became a full-fledged physician and qualified to practice medicine. He was not interested in taking the post-degree of Degree of Medicine because such a degree is good only for teaching purposes, and he knew that no friar-owned university in the Philippines would accept him for a position because of his brown complexion. - June 24, 1884 – Rizal was broke. With empty stomach, he attended his classes at the University, participated in the contest in Greek language and won the gold medal. Mylene Gado Almario
  55. 55. Life in Madrid, Spain (1882-1885) - November 20, 1884 – student demonstrations started to explode at the Universidad Central de Madrid due to the expulsion of Dr. Miguel Morayta (history). Dr. Morayta was also excommunicated by the Catholic church because of his liberal idealism. All the professor fought for his side was forced to resign from the university. - June 19, 1885 – on his 24th birthday, Rizal received his degree on Licentiate in Philosophy and Letters (sobresaliente). He was also qualified to be a professor of humanities in any Spanish University. Mylene Gado Almario
  56. 56. Life in Madrid, Spain (1882-1885) - June 15, 1885 – Rizal was invited to speak in an banquet to celebrate the double victory of two artists; Juan Luna (Spolarium) for winning the 1st prize, and Felix Hidalgo (Virgenes Christianas Expuestas el Populacio) for 2nd prize, in the National Exposition of Fine Arts in Madrid. He saluted Luna and Hidalgo for their artistic achievements. - October 1885 – Rizal decided to went to Paris. Rizal had stopover in Barcelona on his way to Paris. He visited his friend MaximoViola, at lodge in Vergara No. 1, 3rd floor Room 2. he also befriended Eusebio Corominas, editor of the newspaper La Publisidad. Mylene Gado Almario
  57. 57. Life in Paris, France(1885-1886) - November 1885 – Rizal went to Paris and lived their there for 4 mos., where he worked as assistant to Dr. Louis de Wecket (a leading French ophthalmologist). He rapidly improved his knowledge of ophthalmology. Outside of his working hours, he relaxed by visiting his friends. He also went to Luna‘s studio. He helped Luna by posing as a model in several artworks. Rizal posed as Egyptian priest in Luna‘s canvass ―The Death of Cleopatra‖ and Sikatuna in ―The Blood Compact‖. - After 4 months of staying in Paris, he left Paris for Heidelberg, Germany. Mylene Gado Almario
  58. 58. Life in Heidelberg, Germany (1886) - He lived for a short time in with a German law students in a boarding house but later on, he transferred to a boarding house near the University of Heidelberg. He became a member of the Chess Player‘s Club. He became a popular friend to the German so that the German students joined him in beer drinking, saber duel, and chess games. - He worked at the University Eye Hospital under Dr. Otto Becker (ophthalmologist). He also attended the lectures of Dr. Becker and Prof. Wilhelm Kuehne at the university. During weekends, he had sights seeing at the scenic spots at Heidelberg (Heidelberg Castle, romantic Neckar River, and old church). Mylene Gado Almario
  59. 59. Life in Heidelberg, Germany (1886) - He also spent a 3-month summer vacation at Wilhelmsfeld. Here he became a good friend of Dr. Karl Ullmer (Protestant pastor). On June 25, 1886, he left Wilhelmsfeld, and returned to Heidelberg carrying with him the memories of the Ullmer friendship and hospitality. - July 3, 1886 – Rizal wrote his first letter in Germany to Prof. Ferdinand Blumentritt (Austrian ethnologist)- he became the best friend of Rizal. - August 6, 1886 – 5th centenary celebration of Heidelberg. - August 9, 1886 – Rizal left Heidelberg and boarded a train, visited other cities of Germany and arrived at Leipzig. - Mylene Gado Almario
  60. 60. Tour in Germany (1886) - August 14, 1886 – he arrived at Leipzig. He attended some lectures at the University of Leipzig in history and psychology. He met Prof. Friedrich Ratzel (historian) and Dr. Hans Meyer anthropologist. - He translated Scheller’s “William Tell” and Hans Christian Anderson “Fairy Tale” in Tagalog. He found Leipzig as the cheapest in Europe and so he stayed for two and half months. - October 29, 1886 – he arrived as Dresden, Germany and met Dr. Adolf B. Meyer, Director of the Anthropological and Ethnological Museum. He stayed two days in this city. Mylene Gado Almario
  61. 61. Life in Berlin, Germany (1886) - November 1, 1886 – he left Dresden by train and reached Berlin in the evening. Rizal met for the first time Dr. Feodor Jagor, a German scientist. He also met famous personalities Dr. Hans Virchow, Dr. Rudolf Virchow, Dr. W. Joest, and Dr. Ernest Schweigger. - He also worked in the clinic of Dr. Schweigger and upon the recommendation of Dr. Jagor and Dr. Meyer he became a member of the Anthropological Society, Ethnological Society and Geographical Society. - He was impressed with Berlin because of its scientific atmosphere and absence of racial race. He lived in Berlin in a frugal life. At night he attended the lecture in the University of Berlin. Mylene Gado Almario
  62. 62. Life in Berlin, Germany (1886) - He took private lessons under French professor Madame Lucie Cerdale. He observed keenly the customs, dresses, homes and occupations of the peasants. He made sketches of the things he saw. - During the winter, he lived in poverty because he was flat broke. Because was unable to pay his landlord and because he didn‘t had a money arrived from Calamba, he pawned the diamond ring that was given to him by his sister Saturnina. He had to eat only one meal a day, and a daily meal consisted of bread and water or cheap vegetable soup. He washed his clothes because he could not afford to pay the laundry. Paciano was delayed in raising the necessary funds, Rizal‘s health broke down. He began to cough and feared that he was going to be sick with tuberculosis.Mylene Gado Almario
  63. 63. Life in Berlin, Germany (1886) - After several months, Rizal received Paciano‘s remittance of P1000, which was forwarded by Juan Luna form Paris. Rizal paid the sum of P300 for the loan granted to Rizal for the printing of Noli Me Tangere. - He went to Berlin for the following reasons: 1.To increase his knowledge in ophthalmology 2.To broaden his studies of sciences and languages 3.To observe political and economic conditions of Germany 4.To associate with famous German scientist and scholars 5.To publish his novel Mylene Gado Almario
  64. 64. Grand Tour in Europe - May 11, 1887 – Rizal and Viola left Berlin for Dresden. They visited Dr. Adolf B. Meyer. While strolling at the scene of the Floral Exposition, they met Dr. Jagor, and suggested them to meet Blumentritt. - May 13, 1887 –Rizal and Viola reached Leitmeritz, Bohemia. They met Ferdinand Blumentritt. The two enjoyed the warm hospitality of the Blumentritt family. - They also met famous scientist Dr. Carlos Czepelah and another eminent naturalist Robert Klutschak. - May 17, 1887 – they left Leitmeritz by train on their way to the city of Prague. They carried recommendation letters of Prof. Blumentritt Dr. Wilhomm, a professor of Natural History in the University of Prague. Mylene Gado Almario
  65. 65. Grand Tour in Europe - May 19, 1887 – they reached the city of Brunn. - May 20, 1887 – they arrived at the city of Vienna, Austria. They visited famous interesting scenic places like churches, museums, art galleries, theatres, public parks, beautiful buildings, and religious images. They also met Mr. Norfenfoe (European novelist) and Masner and Nordmenn (Austrian scholars). - May 24, 1887 – they left Vienna, via river boat to see the beautiful sights of the Danube river. The river voyage ended in Lintz, afterwards they travelled on land to Salzburg and from there Munich. In Munich, they had a short time savouring the famous Munich beer (best beer in Germany). Mylene Gado Almario
  66. 66. Grand Tour in Europe - From Munich, they went to Nuremberg (oldest city in Germany), were their impressed by the manufacturer of dolls which was the biggest industry in the city. Afterwards, they went to Ulm particularly he city cathedral, they enjoyed they view upon reaching the top, even though Viola felt dizzy and tried. - All they visit Ulm, they went to Stuttgart, Baden and Rheinfall. - June 2-3, 1887 – they continued their trip on a boat and reached Basel, Bern, Laussenne, and they cross to the lake of Geneva. - June 6, 1887- they reached Geneve, Switzerland. While in Geneva, Rizal received sad news from his friends in Madrid about the conditions of Igorots, who were exhibited in the 1887 Madrid Exposition, some of the natives died. Mylene Gado Almario
  67. 67. Grand Tour in Europe - June 19, 1887 – it was 26th birthday, he treated Viola to a blow- out with a sumptuous meal. He also wrote a letter to Blumentritt regarding Industrial exhibition. - June 23, 1887 – Rizal and Viola parted ways. They both spent 15 days in Geneva. Viola returned to Barcelona and Rizal continued his tour to Italy. - June 24, 1887 – Rizal went to Italy, and visited Turin, Milan, Venice and Florence. - June 27, 1887 – he reached Rome and visited famous architectural buildings. - June 29, 1887 – he visited the Vatican City. He has sightseeing and was impressed by the magnificent edifice like St. Peter‘s Church, the rare works of the art, the vast St. Peter‘s Square, and the colourful Papal Guard. After a week travel in Rome, he decided to return to the Philippines.Mylene Gado Almario
  68. 68. Preliminary Examination
  69. 69. Topics: Midterm Period  Jose Rizal’s Love Life  Collaboration with the other Heroes  Contribution to Reform Movement MIDTERM EXAMINATION  Mylene Gado Almario
  70. 70. The Women in Rizal’s Life  Julia – a girl in the Pagsanjan River, who use to catch butterfly.  Segunda Katigbak – ―teenage crush‖ - She was a comely 14-year old Batangueña from Lipa City. She also known as ―Paisana‖ but Rizal referred to her in his diary as ―K‖. She was described by Rizal as gay, talkative, witty, virginal, attractive, alluring, and beguiling. - At 16, Rizal fell in love with his ―first romance‖. Segunda was boarding student at the Colegio de la Concordia where his sister Olympia and Leonor Rivera also studied. He found out later that Segunda was engaged to be married to her town-mate, Manuel Luz. Mylene Gado Almario
  71. 71. The Women in Rizal’s Life  Margarita Almeda Gomez – ―Miss L‖ - A young lady from Pakil, Laguna. This young lady was believed to be Leonor Valenzuela but she was not. She was described by Rizal as with fair complexion, seductive and with attractive eyes. Their romance died a natural death for two reasons: 1) Rizal’s memory of Segunda was still fresh in his heart, and 2) Rizal’s father objected their love affair.  Leonor Valenzuela – ―Orang‖ - The daughter of Capitan Juan and Capitana Sanday Valenzuela of Pansanjan, Laguna. She was a tall girl with regal bearing. Rizal sends her love notes written in invisible ink, that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. He visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her last goodbye. Mylene Gado Almario
  72. 72. The Women in Rizal’s Life  Vicenta Ybardoza – ―pretty colegiala‖ - She was also from Pakil, Laguna who was a high school at that time. Rizal get infatuated to her when she played a harp. However, nobody knew what happened later between the two.  Leonor Rivera – ―Taimis‖ - A lady form Camiling, Tarlac, a daughter of Antonio Rivera (Rizal‘s uncle) and Silvestre Bauson. Rizal courted her, when she was 13-year old and she got engaged to Rizal before the age of 15. Their relationship was actually a ―love affair by correspondence‖ wherein Rizal wrote several letters to Leonor while he was in abroad. However, their relationship ended when she married her mother choice Charles Henry C. Kipping. Their love affair last for 10 years.Mylene Gado Almario
  73. 73. The Women in Rizal’s Life  Consuelo Ortega y Rey – ―pretty Manileña‖ - She was a daughter of Don Pablo Ortega y Rey(a former civil governor of Manila, under the administration of Carlos Ma. De la Torre). He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. y R., which became one of his best poems. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance, because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy his friendship with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo. Mylene Gado Almario
  74. 74. The Women in Rizal’s Life  Seiko Usui – ―O-Sei-San‖ - A Japanese samurai‘s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known as su-mie. Rizal was 29 at that time while Seiko was 23. She helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language. They spent a happy months together visiting old temples and art galleries. - If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission, he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job. Mylene Gado Almario
  75. 75. The Women in Rizal’s Life  Gertrude Beckett – ―Gettie‖ - An English girl with brown hair, blue eyes and pink cheeks. When Rizal was in London, he boarded in the house of the Beckett family. During rainy days when Rizal stayed at home, Gettie helped him mixed his colours for paintings or assisted in preparing the clay for sculpturing. - Then Rizal realized that their friendship was drifting to a serious affair, he drove to Paris in 1889 leaving Gertrude behind. He could not return the English girl‘s affection and marry her because of loyalty to Leonor Rivera. Mylene Gado Almario
  76. 76. The Women in Rizal’s Life  Suzanne Jacoby – ―pretty girl in Brussels, Belgium‖ - She was a pretty niece of Rizal‘s landlady. Suzanne was deeply fell in love with him, she cried when Rizal left for Madrid towards the ends of July, 1890. - Nellie Boustead – ―almost wife‖ - She was a daughter of Eduardo Boustead, they met when Rizal was a guest in the Boustead family. She was described as gay-hearted, sports- minded, highly intelligent, vivacious in temperament and morally upright. Nelly was infatuated with Rizal but Rizal, at first, loved Adelina. Antonio Luna, who had previously loved and lost Nelly, encouraged Rizal court and marry her. Rizal having lost his beloved Leonor Rivera came to entertain considerable affection for Nelly. - However, their love affair didn‘t have a happy ending because of two reasons: a) he refused to give up his Catholic faith, and 2) Nelly’s mother did not like Rizal as a son-in-law. Mylene Gado Almario
  77. 77. The Women in Rizal’s Life  Pastora Necesario – ―Totak‖ - She was a weaver of cloth at a sign of love, Rizal gave her a statue of a woman and also sent her letters of love and concern. When Rizal was executed in Bagumbayan, she married Gonzalo Carreon of Dapitan.  Josephine Bracken – ―unhappy wife‖ - In the last days of February 1895, while still in Dapitan, Rizal met an 18-year old petite Irish girl, with bold blue eyes, brown hair and a happy disposition. She was the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong, who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye treatment. Rizal was physically attracted to her. His loneliness and boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to fall in love again. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to Rizal‘s security.Mylene Gado Almario
  78. 78. The Women in Rizal’s Life - Rizal and Josephine fell in love with each other, however, Fr. Obach , refused to marry them without the permission of the Bishop of Cebu. When Mr. Taufer heard their projected marriage, he flared up because he could not endure the thought of losing Josephine. He even tried to commit suicide by cutting off his throat but Rizal prevented him from killing himself. To avoid further injury, Josephine went with his uncle to Manila. - Eventually, Mr. Taufer returned to Hongkong alone and Josephine returned to Dapitan. Since no priest would marry them, they lived happily as common law husband and wife. Their extremely happy marriage had begotten an 8-month old premature baby boy who lived only for 3 hours. Their son was named ―Francisco‖ in honour of Don Francisco. Mylene Gado Almario
  79. 79. The Women in Rizal’s Life - During the hours of Rizal on December 30, 1896, Josephine was accompanied by Narcisa, arrived at Fort Santiago. At 5:00 am on the same day, Rizal requested Fr. Balaguer that they be married canonically. Then Rizal gave his ―wife‖ – a wedding gift, a religious book ―Imitacion de Cristo‖ which he autographed: “To my dear and unhappy wife, Josephine December 30th, 1896”. Note: Rizal‘s canonical marriage to Josephine Bracken remains doubtful and questionable. Since, there was no proof that they were married in court or in church. Mylene Gado Almario
  80. 80. Collaboration with other Heroes ANTONIO LUNA - He received Bachelor of Arts in Ateneo (1881), afterwards he studied literature, chemistry, and pharmacy at the UST. He also obtained a licentiate (at Universidad de Barcelona) and doctorate (at Universidad Central de Madrid) in Pharmacy. - He collaborated with other Filipino expatriates like Rizal in working for the Propaganda Movement. Writing for La Solidaridad, he once contributed the article ‗Impressions‘ which discussed Spanish unique traditions and customs under the pen- name ‗Taga-ilog‘. He also managed the paper La Independencia. - Luna was good in sharpshooting, swords and military ability. - Rizal challenged him for a duel for the chance to court Nellie Boustead, eventually Luna surrendered and Rizal formally courted Boustead. Mylene Gado Almario
  81. 81. Collaboration with other Heroes - He turned down the invitation of the Katipunan, believing that reform was better than revolution. But when the Spanish authorities had known about the Katipunan and its plans, the Luna brothers were arrested and locked up in Fort Santiago for supposed involvement in the society. - He studied various aspects of military science like guerrilla warfare, management, and field fortifications. Eventually, he joined Aguinaldo‘s cause in the Philippine-American war. Assigned by Aguinaldo as commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, Luna founded the country‘s first military academy, formed professional guerrilla soldiers which was later known as the ‗Luna sharpshooters,‘ and designed the three-tier defense (Luna Defense Line) which gave the opponents a hard campaign in Central Luzon. - He was killed on June 5, 1899 by Filipino captain Pedro Janolino and other elements of the Kawit troop. Mylene Gado Almario
  82. 82. Collaboration with other Heroes MARIANO PONCE - The overpowering feeling of patriotism got the better of Ponce that he quit his studies to join the Filipino Movement in Spain. He co- founded the ‗La Solidaridad,‘ served as secretary of the Propaganda Movement, and became head of the Literary Section of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina. - he used various aliases like Naning Kalipulako and ‗Tigbalang. Through his writings, he disclosed the sad condition of Filipinos under Spanish government, attacked the rulers‘ abuses, and fought for reforms and equality.  In 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo chose Ponce to represent the newly- founded First Philippine Republic and commissioned him to design a framework of the revolutionary government. Assigned later as a representative of the First Republic to Japan, Ponce went to Japan to seek aid. Mylene Gado Almario
  83. 83. Collaboration with other Heroes - In Japan, he met, negotiated with, and became a close friend of Sun Yat-Sen, the founder and First President of the Chinese Republic. Through Dr. Sun‘s assistance, Ponce had procured weapons for the Philippine revolution, though the shipment failed to reach the Philippines because of a typhoon off the coast of Formosa. - In 1917, he published his ‗Ang Wika at Lahi,‘ a discussion on the significance of a having a national language. He was most likely influenced by Rizal‘s interest in having a distinct Filipino language. In Rizal‘s August 18, 1888 letter, he informed Ponce, ―The new Tagalog orthography (a system of spelling) that we are using is perfectly in accord with the ancient writing and with the Sanskrit origin of many Tagalog words as I have found out through my research in the British Museum. - He died in the Government Civil Hospital in Hong Kong on May 23, 1918. Mylene Gado Almario
  84. 84. Collaboration with other Heroes GRACIANO LOPEZ-JAENA - At the age of 18, he anonymously wrote a satire, ―Fray Botod (Big Bellied Friar)‖ which revealed the friars greed, immorality, cruelty, and false piety. This incensed the Spanish clergy and authorities but they could not prove that Lopez Jaena was its author. He got into deep trouble, however, when he refused to testify that some prisoners died of natural causes for he knew that they had died at the hands of the mayor of Pototan. When threats were made on his life, he left for Spain in 1880. - He took medical courses at the University of Valencia. His thirst for reforms nonetheless took him away from medical studies into writing for patriotic cause and establishing the genesis of the Propaganda Movement two years ahead of Rizal and nine years before Marcelo Del Pilar. Rizal once reproved Graciano for not finishing his medical studies Mylene Gado Almario
  85. 85. Collaboration with other Heroes - He became known as a great orator in socio-political clubs and thus became a member of the Progressive Republican Party. Deputized by the party to go on speaking engagements, Jaena became popular for his fiery and eloquent speeches espousing liberal ideas. - With a round of drinks, he would artistically craft very impressive patriotic articles. - Jose Rizal invited him to join the Kidlat Club in Paris, France, through a mail, saying the appreciation of them to him. - He died because of tuberculosis at age of 39 (January 20, 1896). Mylene Gado Almario
  86. 86. Collaboration with other Heroes JOSE ALEJANDRINO - He came from a rich family which was originally from Arayat, Pampanga. pursued further studies in Spain and in Belgium where he had outstanding academic performance. Eventually, he finished his degree in chemical engineering in July 1895. - Alejandrino joined the Propaganda Movement and served as an editorial staff of La Solidaridad. He supported Rizal in the Pilaristas- Rizalistas rivalry. - Being Rizal‘s roommate in Belgium, Alejandrino was the one who canvassed printing press for El Fili. For his assistance, Rizal gave him the El Fili‘s corrected proofs and the pen used in doing the corrections. Unluckily, these historical souvenirs were either lost or destroyed during the revolution. Having helped Rizal in correcting errors in the El Fili, Alejandrino might have been the first person to read the novel aside from the author. Mylene Gado Almario
  87. 87. Collaboration with other Heroes - Philippine Revolution - he served as an engineer and general in the revolutionary army under Emilio Aguinaldo. he went to Hong Kong to procure guns, ammunitions, and dynamites which would be used in the Filipino revolutionary movement . - Filipino – American War – he led the construction of trenches in areas like Caloocan and Bulacan. He later served as acting secretary of war, appointed as Central Luzon‘s commanding general of the military operations, and assigned as Pampanga‘s military governor . - At age 80, Jose Alejandrino died on June 1, 1951, some 55 years after his former roommate‘s martyrdom. Mylene Gado Almario
  88. 88. Collaboration with other Heroes EDILBERTO EVANGELISTA - He came from a poor family in Sta. Cruz, Manila and he had to work hard to have an education. To get further education in Europe, he worked first as a cattle dealer, tobacco merchant, teacher, and later a contractor of public works. - Rizal counselled him to take engineering in Belgium. Upon the suggestion proved fruitful as Evangelista finished civil engineering and architecture with highest honours. Some European companies offered him rewarding positions but he turned them down for wanting to serve his country instead. - He was asked to draft a constitution by the Magdalo and Magdiwang—two rival factions in the Katipunan on which he remained neutral. His composed constitution was accepted at the Imus Assembly on December 31, 1896. Mylene Gado Almario
  89. 89. Collaboration with other Heroes - He was described as either brave or just relaxed and stoic. He would draw trenches on the ground even while the Spanish forces were firing bombs at them. When a shell dropped near him one time, he did not bother to wince or run away, instead he simply brushed the dirt off his clothes and proceeded drawing. - He nonetheless ―ran out of luck‖ when he was soon killed during the Battle of Zapote Bridge on February 17, 1897. His military post was succeeded by Miguel Malvar, the hero who could have been listed as the second Philippine President for taking over the revolutionary government after Aguinaldo‘s arrest in 1901. Mylene Gado Almario
  90. 90. Connection to Andres Bonifacio ANDRES BONIFACIO - He joined Rizal‘s La Liga Filipina, being one of the 20 attendees in the meeting administered by Rizal at the house of Doroteo Ongjunco at Ilaya Street, Tondo, Manila on July 3, 1892. - He founded the Katipunan on July 7, 1892, when Rizal was to be deported to Dapitan. Considerably inspired by Jose Rizal, they elected him as honorary president and the Katipuneros used his name as one of their passwords. - Instead of using the old Spanish spelling of letter ―c‖ for the name of the society, Bonifacio preferred the Tagalog spelling of ―k‖, as suggested by Rizal on his earlier La Solidaridad article as a way of promoting nationalism. Mylene Gado Almario
  91. 91. Connection to Andres Bonifacio - He used May Pag-asa as his pseudonym in the society. the Katipunan created its organ, Kalayaan (Freedom) in which Bonifacio wrote several articles like the poem Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa (Love for One´s Homeland) under the penname Agapito Bagumbayan. - Together with Emilio Jacinto, and Guillermo Masangkay had entered the pier where Rizal‘s ship was docked. Jacinto personally met with Rizal but the physician refused the suggestion to escape and join Katipunan‘s imminent uprising. - He wrote a Tagalog translation of the Mi Ultimo Adios entitled Pahimakas. - He was first married to Monica who died of leprosy; then in 1893 to Gregoria de Jesus of Caloocan. Gregoria and Andres had one son named Andres (Junior) who died of smallpox at young age Mylene Gado Almario
  92. 92. Love-Hate Relationship to Del Pilar COLLABORATION: - He fought against clerical abuses, like the unfair collection of tax for the Church‘s financial gain, and once worked for the establishment of a school for Filipinos. - He met Rizal through a letter of Mariano Ponce saying that Rizal was impressed to his work as Plaridel. One of his great work was the Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayer-book and Teasing game) - a mock-prayer book and satire on the friars‘ greediness, pretence, and extravagance. - He was also helped Rizal with the agrarian trouble in Calamba, when he was trying to seek justice for his family. Mylene Gado Almario
  93. 93. Love-Hate Relationship to Del Pilar RIVALRY: - Their rivalry begins in 1890, when Del Pilar became the owner of La Solidaridad and had taken the place of Jaena as editor- in-chief. His political views was different to Rizal. Jose Rizal and his close friends objected to the periodical‘s editorial policy which was occasionally contrary to his political views. - To solve the issue, the Filipino community in Madrid, decided to have an election for the Responsible – a leader. The faction divided into two the Pilaristas and Rizalistas. - Jose Rizal won the election because of the vote of Mariano Ponce, however, he declined the position and decided to abdicate his leadership and leave Madrid. Rizal also stopped his contribution to La Solidaridad. Mylene Gado Almario
  94. 94. Love-Hate Relationship to Del Pilar - Through a letter, Rizal enumerated his reasons for stopping to write for La Solidaridad: a) I need time to work on my book b) I wanted other Filipinos to work also c) I considered it very important to the party that there be unity in the work - He died of tuberculosis on July 4, 1896 (46yo.) Del Pilar had seven children by his wife Marciana, but only two of whom (Sofia and Anita) grew to adulthood. The building that houses the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Graduate School was named after Marcelo H. Del Pilar. Mylene Gado Almario
  95. 95. Connection to Aguinaldo - Three days after the execution of Rizal, his common-law wife immediately joined the Katipunan forces in Cavite. Initially hesitant to admit her in the group, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo nonetheless even provided Josephine with lessons in shooting and horseback riding. Bracken helped Aguinaldo‘s group in taking care of the sick and wounded. - Two years after Rizal‘s martyrdom, Aguinaldo as head of the Philippine Revolutionary Government issued a decree proclaiming December 30 of every year a national day of mourning in honour of Jose Rizal. - He died because of coronary thrombosis at age 94. Mylene Gado Almario
  96. 96. Noli Me Tangere: Notable Purposes 1. To picture the past and the realities in the Philippines 2. To reply to insults heaped on the Filipinos and their country 3. To unmask the hypocrisy that have impoverished and brutalized the Filipino people 4. To stir the patriotism of the Filipino people Mylene Gado Almario
  97. 97. Noli Me Tangere Introduction When Dr. Jose Rizal was 26, he published his first novel “Noli Me Tangere” in Belgium in the year 1887 . It was the Book that gave a spark in the Philippine Revolutions. It talked about the Spaniard’s arrogance and despicable use of religion to achieve their own desires and rise to power. It mostly talked about the life of Crisostomo Ibarra, a member of the Insulares (Creoles) social class, and a series of unfortunate events that he encountered through the works of a Franciscan friar, namely Padre Damaso Verdolagas, and by the Spanish conquistadors. Mylene Gado Almario
  98. 98. Noli Me Tangere Introduction Noli Me Tangere, a Latin phrase used by Jose Rizal as a title for his first novel, was actually the words used by Jesus Christ to Mary Magdalene when she saw him resurrected from the dead. It roughly translated as “Touch Me Not” in English. These words were said because Jesus, although risen in body and in spirit, was not the same for as he was before. Being glorified, waiting for the right time to ascend to Heaven and such, he did not allow himself yet to be known until the Great Commission. Mylene Gado Almario
  99. 99. The Cover Symbols SILHOUETTE OF A FILIPINA- It was popular belief that the silhouette of the woman in the cover of Noli Me Tangere is the unfortunate Maria Clara, Crisostomo Ibarra’s lover. "'Padre Cura! Padre Cura!' [Padre Salvi] the Spaniards cried to him; but he did not mind them. He ran in the direction of the Capitan Tiago's house. There he breathed a sigh of relief. He saw through the transparent gallery an adorable silhouette full of grace and the lovely contours of Maria Clara and that of her aunt bearing glasses and cups." (366) Mylene Gado Almario
  100. 100. The Cover Symbols • HELMET OF THE GUARDIA CIVIL/CONSTABULARY HELMET- An obvious take on the arrogance of those in authority. • A MAN IN A CASSOCK WITH HAIRY FEET- This symbolism at the lower part of the cover is to be a representation for priests using religion in a dirty way, specifically Padre Damaso. Mylene Gado Almario
  101. 101. The Cover Symbols • FLOGS- another symbolism for cruelties. It is a representation of Jesus Christ’s scourging before his imminent crucifixion. • WHIP/CORD- The cruelties present in the novel best explains the symbol Rizal used in the cover. • Mylene Gado Almario
  102. 102. The Cover Symbols • BAMBOO STALKS – One thing comes to mind when bamboo stalks are talked about: Resilience. • A LENGTH OF CHAIN- Rizal’s representation of slavery and imprisonment. Mylene Gado Almario
  103. 103. The Cover Symbols • CROSS- The one that killed the Christ Jesus. It was a representation of suffering and death. It also represent a grave. Magnifies the discrimination towards Filipinos, Chinese Mestizos and Spaniards during this time towards a proper burial. Mylene Gado Almario
  104. 104. The Cover Symbols • BURNING TORCH- A reference to the Olympic torch, it tells everyone the beginning of the defense of honors and the start of proving themselves worthy of victory. Rage and passion are most abundant in this phase. Represents a phrase that could possibly mean everything to every single suffering Filipinos: “The rise of the revolution is now at hand.” Mylene Gado Almario
  105. 105. The Cover Symbols • POMELO BLOSSOMS AND LAUREL LEAVES- They roughly represent faith, honor and fidelity. P0melo blossoms are utilized as loose potpourri or a mixture of dried flower petals and spices used to scent the air. It is commonly used in prayers and cleansing. The laurel leaves, also known as bay leaves, are used as crowns during the Ancient Greek Olympics wherein the best of the best are treated as heroes. Filipinos in this time wants to embody these three virtues that Rizal represented as two plants. Mylene Gado Almario
  106. 106. The Cover Symbols SUNFLOWERS- A unique behavior in sunflowers, known as phototropism, is a motif that has appeared in many ancient myths and is viewed as a symbol of loyalty and constancy. The sunflower's petals have been likened to bright yellow rays of sunshine, which evoke feelings of warmth and happiness. In addition, the sunflower is often associated with adoration and longevity. Rizal’s observation towards the happiness of the Filipinos are, in the Spanish times, are only fulfilled through their giving in and bowing down to the more powerful entity: Spain. Mylene Gado Almario
  107. 107. EL FILIBUSTERISMO COVER Tagalog Translation: Madaling ipagpalagay na ang isang rebelde (pilibustero) ay lihim na umaakit sa liga ng mga panatiko ng mga prayle at mga paurong nang sa gayon, wala man sa loob na sumunod sa mga panunulsol, ay dapat nilang panigan at paigtingin ang patakarang sumusunod lamang sa iisang layunun; ang maipalaganap ang mga kaisipan ng rebelyon sa kabuuang haba at lawak ng lupain, at mahikayat ang bawat Pilipino sa paniniwalang walang katubusan liban sa seperasyon mula sa inang bayan. Ferdinand Blumentritt Mylene Gado Almario
  108. 108. NOLI ME TANGERE Touch me Not • Uncle’s Tom Cabin • Romantic Novel • Wo r k o f t h e h e a r t • B o o k o f Fe e l i n g • I t h a s f re s h n e s s , c o l o r, h u m o r, l i g h t n e s s , w i t • M a rc h 2 1 , 1 8 8 7 • M o t h e r l a n d / Fa t h e r l a n d • 6 3 c h a p t e r s a n d a n e p i l o g u e • M a x i m o V i o l a EL FILIBUSTERISMO T h e R e i g n o f G r e e d •The Count of Monte Cristo •P o l i t i c a l n o v e l •Wo r k o f t h e h e a d •B o o k o f t h o u g h t •I t h a s b i t t e r n e s s , h a t re d , p a i n , v i o l e n c e , s o r row •S e p t e m b e r 1 8 , 1 8 9 1 •G o m B u r Z a •3 8 c h a p t e r s •Va l e n t i n Ve n t u r a Mylene Gado Almario
  109. 109. La Liga Flipina – July 3, 1892 Objectives of the Liga  To unite the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous, and homogenous body;  Mutual protection in every want and necessity;  Defense against all violence and injustice;  Encouragement of instruction, agriculture, and commerce; and  Study and application of reforms. Mylene Gado Almario
  110. 110. La Liga Filipina –The Split At first the Liga was quite active. Bonifacio in particular exerted great efforts to organize chapters in various districts of Manila. A few months later, however, the Supreme Council of the Liga dissolved the society. The reformist leaders found out that most of the popular councils which Bonifacio had organized were no longer willing to send funds to the Madrid propagandists because, like Bonifacio, they had become convinced that peaceful agitation for reforms was futile. Afraid that the more radical rank and file members might capture the organization and unwilling to involve themselves in an enterprise which would surely invite reprisals from the authorities, the leaders of the Liga opted for dissolution. The Liga membership split into two groups: the conservatives formed the Cuerpo de Compromisarios which pledged to continue supporting the La Solidaridad while the radicals led by Bonifacio devoted themselves to a new and secret society, the Katipunan, which Bonifacio had organized on the very day Rizal was deported to Dapitan. Mylene Gado Almario
  111. 111. Topics: - First Travel - First Homecoming - Second Travel Semi-Final Examination!!!  Mylene Gado Almario
  112. 112. First Travel of Jose Rizal (1882-1887) Mylene Gado Almario
  113. 113. Mylene Gado Almario
  114. 114. Secret Mission of Jose Rizal Rizal conceived the secret mission, with the blessing of his brother Paciano was to do the following: Observe keenly the life and culture, languages and customs, industries and commerce and governments and laws of the European nations in order to prepare himself for the task of liberating his people from Spanish Tyranny Mylene Gado Almario
  115. 115. Rizal’s Departure for Spain His parents, Leonor Rivera and the Spanish authorities knew nothing about his secret departure except; 1. Paciano 2. Antonio Rivera 3. Saturnina(Neneng) 4. Lucia 5. Leonor Valenzuela and family 6. Pedro Paterno 7. Mateo Evangelista Mylene Gado Almario
  116. 116. Highlights: • When Jose Rizal becomes Jose Mercado ▫ Due to the popularity of the surname and perhaps the kind Jesuit priest who gave him letters of recommendation for their Society in Barcelona – he was claimed as a cousin ▫ May 3, 1882 – he left Manila through the steamer Salvadora, with 16 passenger including him. ▫ May 8, 1882 – the Salvadora reached Singapore (an English Colony), he stayed in Singapore for two days spending his time sightseeing the sorties of the city. Mylene Gado Almario
  117. 117. Highlights: • May 11, 1882 – he was board Djemnah, accordingly it is more larger and cleaner than Salvadora. During the travel he was ale to learn French language and observation, because the steamer’s speaking language is French. • May 17, 1882 – he steamer arrived at the Point Galle, Ceylon. The town was quiet, lovely and sad at the same time. • May 18, 1882 – he had an stopover at Colombo, Ceylon, which describe by him as smart, elegant than Singapore, Point Galle and Manila. Mylene Gado Almario
  118. 118. Highlights: • May 28, 1882 – from Colombo, Djemnah continued it voyage and crossed the Indian Ocean until he reached Cape of Guardafin, Africa to Aden, Africa where he was able to see camels for the first time. • June 2, 1882 – he proceeded to Suez Canal. It took 5days to travel in the said canal, then they reached the Port Said. • June 11, 1882 – from Port Said, the steamer proceeded it travel to Europe and reached the Naple City, Italy. The city was busy because of its business activity, lively people and panoramic beauty. Mylene Gado Almario
  119. 119. Highlights: • June 12, 1882 – the steamer docked at the French harbor of Marseilles, France. Rizal disembarked and visited the Chateau d’ef where Dantes (The Count of Monte Cristo) was in jailed. He stayed in Marseilles for 3 days. • June 16, 1882 – by a train he continued his trip to Barcelona, Spain. He stayed in Hotel de España. He visited Ronda de la Universidad de Barcelona. At first, he had a bad impresions to Barcelona – because he happened to stay in a stingy people inn. But later on, he realized the atmosphere of freedom and liberalism around the place, the people were open-hearted, hospitable and courageous. Mylene Gado Almario
  120. 120. Highlights: Life in Barcelona: 1. He was welcomed by his former classmates in Ateneo. 2. He was treated and guided by his friend in European way. 3. He received the bad news about the cholera outbreak in Manila. 4. Leonor Rivera’s recounting happiness who getting thinner and thinner due to the absence of her love-one. Mylene Gado Almario
  121. 121. Highlights: • November 3, 1882 – he left Barcelona for Madrid through the advised of Paciano. Life in Madrid: 1. He enrolled in Universidad Central de Madrid (Philosophy and Letters and Medicine) 2. He lived frugally, budgeting hid money wisely. 3. He used to buy lottery tickets in every draw in Madrid Lottery. 4. He spent his leisure time in reading books. 5. He met and attracted to Consuelo Ortega y Rey. 6. He graduated his degree in Philosophy and Letter and Medicine. Mylene Gado Almario
  122. 122. Highlights: Life in Paris, France: • June 15, 1882 – Rizal was invited to speak for the celebration for the double victory for the two artist namely: Juan Luna (Spoliarium) and Felix R. Hidalgo (Virgenes Christianas Expuestas El Populacio), for winning the 1st and 2nd prizes in the Paris Exposition for the Arts. • He lived in Paris, France for 4 months and be came an assistant to the clinic of Dr. Louis de Wecket. • He also became a model for the artworks of Juan Luna (“The Death of Cleopatra” and “The Blood Compact”). • After his stay in Paris, he left for Heidelberg, Germany. Mylene Gado Almario
  123. 123. Highlights: Heidelberg, Germany 1. He work in the University Eye Hospital under the supervision of Dr. Otto Becker. 2. He also attended some lectures of Dr. Becker and Dr. Wilhelm Kuehne. 3. He visited some scenic places in Heidelberg, such as castles, rivers and old churches. 4. He was also befriended with Dr. Karl Ullmer, during summer vacation where he stayed in Wilhelmsfeld. 5. He wrote his first letter to Ferdinand Blumentritt. - During the 5th centenary celebration of Heidelberg, he decide to left and went to Leipzig, Germany via train. Mylene Gado Almario
  124. 124. Highlights: Leipzig, Germany: August 14, 1886 - He attended the lectures at the University of Leipzig in history and psychology. - He met Dr. Hans Meyer and Prof. Friedrich Ratzel. - He translated Scheller’s William Tell and Hans Christian Andersons’s Fairy Tale. Dresden, Germany: October 29, 1886 - He met Dr. Adolf Meyer - After two days of stay he left Dresden and went to Berlin, Germany in the evening of November 1, 1886. Mylene Gado Almario
  125. 125. Berlin, Germany • Rizal was enchanted by Berlin because of its scientific atmosphere and the absence of race prejudice • Rizal met for the first time Dr. Feodor Jagor, celebrated German scientist-traveler and author of Travels in the Philippines, a book which Rizal read and admired during his student days in Manila • Dr. Rudolf Virchow- introduced to Rizal by Dr. Jagor; famous German anthropologist • Dr. Hans Virchow- son of Dr. Rudolf Virchow, professor of Descriptive Anatomy. • Dr. Ernest Schweigger (1830-1905)- famous German ophthalmologist where Rizal worked • Rizal became a member of the Anthropological Society, the Ethnological Society, and the Geographical Society of Berlin, upon the recommendation of Dr. Jagor and Dr. Meyer.Mylene Gado Almario
  126. 126. Grand Tour in Europe - May 11, 1887 – Rizal and Viola left Berlin for Dresden. They visited Dr. Adolf B. Meyer. While strolling at the scene of the Floral Exposition, they met Dr. Jagor, and suggested them to meet Blumentritt. - May 13, 1887 –Rizal and Viola reached Leitmeritz, Bohemia. They met Ferdinand Blumentritt. The two enjoyed the warm hospitality of the Blumentritt family. - They also met famous scientist Dr. Carlos Czepelah and another eminent naturalist Robert Klutschak. - May 17, 1887 – they left Leitmeritz by train on their way to the city of Prague. They carried recommendation letters of Prof. Blumentritt Dr. Wilhomm, a professor of Natural History in the University of Prague. Mylene Gado Almario
  127. 127. Grand Tour in Europe - May 19, 1887 – they reached the city of Brunn. - May 20, 1887 – they arrived at the city of Vienna, Austria. They visited famous interesting scenic places like churches, museums, art galleries, theatres, public parks, beautiful buildings, and religious images. They also met Mr. Norfenfoe (European novelist) and Masner and Nordmenn (Austrian scholars). - May 24, 1887 – they left Vienna, via river boat to see the beautiful sights of the Danube river. The river voyage ended in Lintz, afterwards they travelled on land to Salzburg and from there Munich. In Munich, they had a short time savouring the famous Munich beer (best beer in Germany). Mylene Gado Almario
  128. 128. Grand Tour in Europe - From Munich, they went to Nuremberg (oldest city in Germany), were their impressed by the manufacturer of dolls which was the biggest industry in the city. Afterwards, they went to Ulm particularly he city cathedral, they enjoyed they view upon reaching the top, even though Viola felt dizzy and tried. - All they visit Ulm, they went to Stuttgart, Baden and Rheinfall. - June 2-3, 1887 – they continued their trip on a boat and reached Basel, Bern, Laussenne, and they cross to the lake of Geneva. - June 6, 1887- they reached Geneve, Switzerland. While in Geneva, Rizal received sad news from his friends in Madrid about the conditions of Igorots, who were exhibited in the 1887 Madrid Exposition, some of the natives died. Mylene Gado Almario
  129. 129. Grand Tour in Europe - June 19, 1887 – it was 26th birthday, he treated Viola to a blow-out with a sumptuous meal. He also wrote a letter to Blumentritt regarding Industrial exhibition. - June 23, 1887 – Rizal and Viola parted ways. They both spent 15 days in Geneva. Viola returned to Barcelona and Rizal continued his tour to Italy. - June 24, 1887 – Rizal went to Italy, and visited Turin, Milan, Venice and Florence. - June 27, 1887 – he reached Rome and visited famous architectural buildings. - June 29, 1887 – he visited the Vatican City. He has sightseeing and was impressed by the magnificent edifice like St. Peter’s Church, the rare works of the art, the vast St. Peter’s Square, and the colourful Papal Guard. After a week travel in Rome, he decided to return to the Philippines. Mylene Gado Almario
  130. 130. Rizal’s First Homecoming (1887-1888)
  131. 131. Rizal’s Plans of Homecoming • As early as 1884, Rizal wanted to go back to the Philippines for the following reasons: – Financial difficulties in Calamba – Dissatisfaction with his studies in Madrid – Desire to prove that there is no reason to fear going home. – His belief that the Spanish regime will not punish the innocent. Mylene Gado Almario
  132. 132. Decision to return home • After five years of his memorable sojourn in Europe, Rizal returned to the Philippines. • However, Rizal was warned by the following not to return to the Philippines because his Noli Me Tangere angered the friars: – Paciano Mercado – Rizal’s adviser and only brother. – Silvestre Ubaldo – Rizal’s brother in law; husband of Olimpia. – Jose Ma. Cecilio (Chenggoy) – one of Rizal’s closest friends. Mylene Gado Almario
  133. 133. • Rizal was determined to come back to the Philippines for the following reasons: – To operate his mother’s eyes – To serve his people who had long been oppressed by Spanish tyrants. – To find out for himself how the Noli Me Tangere and his other writings were affecting Filipinos and Spaniards. – To inquire why Leonor Rivera remained silent. Mylene Gado Almario
  134. 134. Rizal arrives in Manila • Rizal left Rome by train to Marseilles, a French port and boarded Djemnah, the same steamer that brought him to Europe five years ago. • There were 50 passengers: 4 Englishmen, 2 Germans, 3 Chinese, 2 Japanese, 40 Frenchmen, and 1 Filipino (Rizal) • When the ship reached Aden, the weather became rough and some of Rizal’s book got wet. • In Saigon (Ho Chi Minh), Vietnam – he transferred to another steamer, Haiphong, that brought him to Manila. Mylene Gado Almario
  135. 135. Happy Homecoming • When Rizal arrived in Calamba, rumors spread that he was a: – German spy – An agent of Otto Von Bismarck – the liberator of Germany. – A Protestant – A Mason – A soul halfway to damnation • Paciano – did not leave him during the first days after arrival to protect him from any enemy assault. • Don Francisco – did not permit him to go out alone Mylene Gado Almario
  136. 136. In Calamba • Rizal established a medical clinic. • Doña Teodora – was Rizal’s first patient • Rizal treated her eyes but could not perform any surgical operation because her cataracts were not yet ripe. • He painted several beautiful landscapes in Calamba. • He translated German poems of Von Wildernath in Tagalog. Mylene Gado Almario
  137. 137. • Doctor Uliman – Rizal was called this name because he came from Germany. – He earned P900 in a few months and P5,000 before he left the Philippines. • Gymnasium – was opened by Rizal for the young people • He introduced European sports fencing and shooting to discourage them from cockfighting and gambling. Mylene Gado Almario
  138. 138. Sad moments while Rizal was in Calamba • Leonor Rivera – Rizal tried to visit her in Tarlac but his parents forbade him to go because Leonor’s mother did not like him for a son-in- law. • Olimpia Mercado-Ubaldo – died because of child birth. Mylene Gado Almario
  139. 139. Storm over the Noli Me Tangere • As Rizal was peacefully living in Calamba, his enemies plotted his doom. • Governor General Emilio Terrero – wrote to Rizal requesting to come to Malacañang Palace. – Somebody had whispered to his ear that the Noli contains subversive ideas. – Rizal explained to him that he merely exposed the truth, but did not advocate subversive ideas. – He was pleased by Rizal’s explanation and curious about the book, he asked for a copy of the novel. – Rizal had no copy that time but promised to send one for him. Mylene Gado Almario
  140. 140. Rizal visited the Jesuits • Rizal visited the Jesuit fathers to ask for their feedback on the novel. • He was gladly welcomed by the following friars: – Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez – Fr. Jose Bech – Fr. Federico Faura – told Rizal that everything in the novel was the truth and warned him that he may lose his head because of it. Mylene Gado Almario
  141. 141. • Governor-General Emilio Terrero – a liberal minded Spaniard who knew that Rizal’s life was in jeopardy because the friars were powerful. – Because of this he gave Rizal a bodyguard to protect him. Mylene Gado Almario
  142. 142. Jose Taviel de Andrade • A young Spanish lieutenant who came from a noble family • He was cultured and knew painting • He could speak French, English and Spanish. • They became good friends. Mylene Gado Almario
  143. 143. Attackers of the Noli • Archbishop Pedro Payo – a Dominican • Archbishop of Manila • Sent a copy of the Noli to Fr. Gregorio Echevarria, Rector of the University of Santo Tomas to examine the novel. Mylene Gado Almario
  144. 144. UST and Rizal • The committee that examined the Noli Me Tangere were composed of Dominican professors. • The report of the faculty members from UST about the Noli states that the novel was: – Heretical, impious and scandalous in the religious orders, and anti-patriotic, subversive of pubic order, injurious to the government of Spain and its function in the Philippine Islands in the political order. Mylene Gado Almario
  145. 145. • Governor-General Terrero – was not satisfied with the report so he sent the novel to the Permanent Commission of Censorship which was composed of priests and lawyers. • Fr. Salvador Font – Augustinian friar curate of Tondo was the head of the commission. – The group found that the novel contain subversive ideas against the Church and Spain and recommended that the importation, reproduction and circulation of the pernicious book in the islands be absolutely prohibited. Mylene Gado Almario
  146. 146. • The newspaper published Font’s written report • The banning of the Noli Me Tangere served to make it popular • The masses supported the book. Mylene Gado Almario
  147. 147. • Fr. Jose Rodriguez – Augustinian Prior of Guadalupe – Published a series of eight pamphlets under the heading Questions of Supreme Interest to blast the Noli and other anti-Spanish writing. – Copies of anti-Rizal pamphlets were sold after mass – Many Filipinos were forced to buy them in order not to displease the friars. Mylene Gado Almario
  148. 148. Noli Me Tangere in Spain • The novel was fiercely attacked in the session hall of the Senate of the Spanish Cortes. • Senators: – General Jose de Salamanca – General Luis de Pando – Sr. Fernando Vida • Vicente Barantes – Spanish academician of Madrid who formerly occupied high government position in the Philippines bitterly criticized the novel in an article published in the Madrid newspaper, La España Moderna. Mylene Gado Almario
  149. 149. Defenders of the Noli Me Tangere • Propagandists such as Marcelo H. del Pilar, Graciano Lopez-Jaena, Antonio Ma. Regidor, Mariano Ponce rushed to uphold the truths of the Noli. • Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez – Rizal’s favorite teacher in Ateneo defended and praised the novel in public. • Don Segismundo Moret – former Minister of the Crown. • Prof. Miguel Morayta- historian and stateman • Prof. Ferdinand Blumentritt – Rizal’s best friend Mylene Gado Almario
  150. 150. • Rev. Fr. Vicente Garcia – a Filipino Catholic priest-scholar, a theologian of the Manila Cathedral and a Tagalog translator of the famous Imitation of Christ by Thomas Kempis. – Under the pen name Justo Desiderio Magalang he wrote a defense of the novel published in Singapore. Mylene Gado Almario
  151. 151. • Rizal cried because of his gratitude to his defenders especially to Fr. Garcia who defended him unexpectedly. • He attacked Barantes by exposing his ignorance of Philippine affairs and mental dishonesty which is unworthy of an academician. • Because of the interest of both enemies and protectors of the Noli the price of the book increased from five pesetas per copy to 50 pesetas per copy. Mylene Gado Almario
  152. 152. Agrarian Problem in Calamba • Influenced by the novel, Governor-General Emilio Terrero ordered a government investigation of the friar estates to remedy whatever inequities might have been present in connection with land taxes and with tenant relations. • One of the friar estates affected was the Calamba hacienda by the Dominican order since 1883. • Upon hearing about the investigation, the people of Calamba asked helped from Rizal to gather facts and list the grievances so that the government might institute certain agrarian reforms. Mylene Gado Almario
  153. 153. Findings submitted by Rizal • The hacienda of the Dominican Order comprised not only the lands around Calamba, but the whole town of Calamba. • The profits of the Dominican Order continually increased because of the arbitrary increase of he rentals paid by the tenants. • The hacienda owner never contributed a single centavo for the celebration of the town fiesta, for the education of the children, and for the improvement of agriculture. Mylene Gado Almario
  154. 154. • Tenants who spent much labor in clearing the lands were dispossessed of the said lands for flimsy reasons • High rates of interest were arbitrarily charged the tenants for delayed payment of rentals • When the rentals could not be paid, the hacienda management confiscated the work animals, tools, and farm implements of the tenants. Mylene Gado Almario
  155. 155. Friars Reaction • Rizal’s exposure to the deplorable condition angered the friars. • The friars exerted pressure to Malacañang to eliminate Rizal. • They asked Gov. Gen. Terrero to deport Rizal but the latter refused for there is lack of charges against Rizal in court. • Anonymous threats in Rizal’s life alarmed his parents, siblings, Andrade his bodyguard, friends, and even Terrero, thus they all advised him to leave the country. Mylene Gado Almario
  156. 156. Rizal’s reasons for leaving the Philippines • His presence in Calamba was jeopardizing the safety and happiness of his family and friends. • He could not fight better his enemies and serve his country’s cause with greater efficacy by writing in foreign countries. Mylene Gado Almario
  157. 157. Himno Al Trabajo • A Poem for Lipa – shortly before Rizal left in 1888, he was asked by a friend to write a poem in commemoration of the town’s cityhood. • Himno Al Trabajo (Hymn To Labor) – title of the poem dedicated to the industrious people of Lipa. Mylene Gado Almario
  158. 158. Farewell Philippines • On February 3, 1888 Rizal left his country with a heavy heart. • But this is for his own good and the safety of his family and friends. Mylene Gado Almario
  159. 159. Second Travel of Dr. Jose Rizal (1888-1892) Mylene Gado Almario
  160. 160. • February 3, 1888 – after a short stay of six months in Calamba, Rizal was forced to leave his country for a second time. Rizal left Manila for Hongkong on board the Zafiro. He was sick and sad to leave Calamba. • February 7, 1888 – the steamer made a brief stopover at Amoy. But he got off the ship he was not feeling well and that the city was dirty. • February 8, 1888 – he arrived in Hongkong. He stayed at Victoria Hotel. Accordingly, it was a small but very clean city. He was welcomed by Filipino residents like Jose Maria Basa, Balbino Mauricio and Manuel Yriarte. There were other Filipinos in Hongkong but they were generally poor, gentle and timid. He observed the noisy celebration of the Chinese New Year due to the continuous explosions of firecrackers, the noisy audience and music in a Chinese theatre. Mylene Gado Almario
  161. 161. • February 18, 1888 – Rizal and Basa visited Macao. They boarded the ferry steamer, Ku-Kiang. The city was small,low and gloomy. There were many junks, sampans, but few steamers. The city looked sad and dead. They stayed at the house of Don Juan Francisco Lecaros. They also visited the theatre, casino, cathedral, churches, pagodas, botanical gardens and bazaars. • February 20, 1888 – after their two-day sojourn in Macao, Rizal and Basa returned to Hongkong on board again on the steamer Ku-Kiang. • February 21, 1888 – Rizal and Basa went back to Hongkong. Rizal stayed in Hongkong for almost two weeks. While in Hongkong, Jose Sainz de Varonda, a Spaniard, was commissioned by the Spanish authorities to spy on Rizal. Mylene Gado Almario
  162. 162. Japan • February 22, 1888 – Rizal left Hongkong alone on board the Oceanic, American steamer to Japan his next destination. Rizal liked the ship because it was clean and efficiently managed but did not like the meals on board. Other passengers of the ship were two Portuguese, two Chinese, several British and an American woman Protestant missionary. His cabin mate was a British Protestant missionary who lived in China for 27 years. • February 28, 1888 – Rizal arrived in Yokohama, Japan and registered at the Grand Hotel. • February 29, 1888 – he proceeded to Tokyo and took a room at Tokyo Hotel where he stayed for 6 days. Japan was to him the “Land of the Cherry Blossoms” because of its natural beauty and the charming manners of the Japanese people. Mylene Gado Almario
  163. 163. Japan • He visited by Juan Perez Caballero, secretary of the Spanish legation. He wrote a letter to Ferdinand Blumentritt, sharing his observation in Japan. • During his first day in Tokyo, Japan, Rizal was embarrassed because he didn’t know the Japanese language. To avoid further embarrassment, he decided to study the Japanese language and a few days, he was able to speak the language. • He also studied Kabuki, visited museum, libraries, art galleries and shrines, and villages. He was impressed by the beauty of Tokyo, but he was not impressed with the mode of transportation because the rickshaws were drawn by men, which made Rizal disgusted because human were working like horses. Mylene Gado Almario
  164. 164. Japan • He also met Seiko Usui but Rizal called her as O-Sei-San. They also met daily as they visited interesting spots of the city, like the Imperial Art Gallery, the Imperial Library, the city parks and picturesque shrines. She served as his guide, interpreter and tutor. • April 13, 1888 – Rizal boarded the Belgic, an English steamer bound for the United States. He left Japan very sad because he would never see again the beautiful land and his beloved O-Sei-San. His sojourn in Japan for 45days was one of the happiest interludes in Rizal’s life. • On board the Belgic, he met a passenger, Techo Suchero, a Japanese newspaperman who was jailed in his country for his articles and principles and was exiled. The ship carried 643 Chinese people and other nationalities. Mylene Gado Almario
  165. 165. Across the Atlantic - USA • April 28, 1888 – Rizal and Techo arrived in San Francisco Port on Saturday morning of April 28. All passengers were not allowed to land because the ship was placed on a quarantine on the ground that it came form the Far East where cholera epidemic was alleged to be raging. • He soon discovered that placing the ship under quarantine was prompted by politics. • After a week of quarantine, all first class passengers, including Rizal were permitted to land but the Chinese and Japanese passengers of the second and third class accommodations was remained on board. Mylene Gado Almario
  166. 166. Across the Atlantic - USA • May 4, 1888 – it was the day when Rizal and other passengers were permitted to land. Rizal registered at the Palace Hotel. • May 6, 1888 – Rizal left San Francisco to Oakland by ferry boat. In Oakland, he took his supper at Sacramento for 75 cents and slept in his coach. • May 7, 1888 – Rizal boarded a train for a trip across the continent. • Reno, Nevada (May 7); Utah, Ogden, Denver (May 8); • Colorado (May 9); Nebraska (May 10); • Chicago (May 11); Canada (May 12); • Albany (May 13) and travel to New York City. Mylene Gado Almario
  167. 167. Across the Atlantic - USA • May 13, 1888 – Rizal reached New York and stayed for 3 days. Rizal called it as “The Big Town”. He visited the memorial George Washington, and other scenic and historic places. • May 16, 1888 – he left New York for Liverpool and board the City of Rome. He also visited the Colossal Statue of Liberty on Bedloe Island. Rizal’s Impressions of America 1. Progressive nation 2. People were energetic and hard-working 3. Better opportunities for immigrants 4. Racial prejudice 5. Freedom and democracy were only in words, not practiced 6. No true liberty Mylene Gado Almario
  168. 168. London, England • May 25, 1888 – he went to London and stayed there for a short time as a guest at the home of Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor (lawyer). • He boarded at Becket family, and being close to Gertrude Becket. • He spent Sundays in the house of Dr. Reinhold Rost, and played crickets with Dr. Rost son. • He also spent much of his time in the British Museum annotating Morga’s book, Sucesos de los Islas Filipinas (Historical Events of the Philippine Islands). • For 10 months, he was deeply immensed in his historical studies in London. Mylene Gado Almario
  169. 169. London, England He received news: • Persecution of the Filipino patriots who signed the petition addressed to the Queen Regent of Spain requesting the expulsion of the friars in the Philippines. • Attacks on Rizal by Senator Salamanca and Vida in the Spanish Cortes and Wenceslao Retana. • Persecution of the Rizal’s family and other Calamba farmers for their courage to petition the government for agrarian. • Exile of Manuel Hidalgo without due process. • Arrest and jailing of Rizal’s friend – Lauriano Viado, for the copies of Noli found in his house. Mylene Gado Almario
  170. 170. • September, 1888 – Rizal visited Paris for a week and visited his Juan Luna and his wife Paz Pardo de Tavera with their son Andres. • December 11, 1888 – he went again to Spain and visited Madrid and Barcelona. He went to visit his compatriots Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Marciano Ponce. They exchanged ideas and promised to cooperate in the fight for reforms. • December 24, 1888 – he returned to London and spent Christmas and New Year with the Becket family. • December 31, 1888 – the Associacion de La Solidaridad was inaugurated, Rizal served as the Honorary President; Galicano Apacible (President); Graciano Lopez-Jaena (VP); Manuel Santa Maria (Secretary); Mariano Ponce (Treasurer); Jose Ma. Panganiban (Accountant). Mylene Gado Almario
  171. 171. • January 14, 1889 – Rizal wrote Blumentritt of his proposal to establish the “Inauguration Association of the Filipinologist” and have its inauguration in the French capital. Blumentritt gladly supported him. • January 28, 1889 – Rizal a letter addressed to the members of the Associacion de La Solidaridad recognizing his position as Honorary President. On his letter, he stressed that the individual should give way to the welfare of society and he should nor expect rewards/honours for what he does. • February 15, 1889 – Graciano Lopez-Jaena and Mariano Ponce was founded newspaper, called as La Solidaridad in Barcelona – the official organ of the Propaganda Movement. Mylene Gado Almario