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New Republic


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New Republic

  1. 1. The New Republic
  2. 2. Review – Colonial Protest Movement <ul><li>Leads Up to the American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>French & Indian War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonials & British troops interact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proclamation Line of 1763 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of Salutary Neglect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Britain tries to increase control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to pay down debt from Fr. & Indian War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has the power to tax? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct v. indirect – internal v. external </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stamp Act, Townshend, Massacre, Tea Party, Coercive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sons of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence, Boycotts, Tar & Feather </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Beginning of the War <ul><li>Mostly occurs in New England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lexington & Concord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Continental Congress – Declaration of Independence -> Articles of Confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunker (Breed’s) Hill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion of Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shift to Mid-Atlantic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to isolate New England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saratoga </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French Aid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave supplies, navy, troops (Marquis de Lafayette) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. End of the War <ul><li>American Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knew the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deeply committed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blunders by the British </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern Phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British overestimated loyalist support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought large & small battles to no avail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeat at Yorktown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What affect did the Revolution have on various social groups? (women, slaves, loyalists, Native Americans) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Aftermath <ul><li>The new nation faced a lot of problems (debt, lack of unity, Shays’ Rebellion) </li></ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation were weak </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally designed to ‘reform’ Articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Branches of Government & Checks + Balances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists v. Anti-Federalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A new elite? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Ratification <ul><li>1 st ratified by Delaware (the 1 st state) </li></ul><ul><li>Voted down originally by North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Most states eventually ratified after close debate </li></ul><ul><li>Have enough states to make it official – but no NY or VA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They ratify on the condition of a Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhode Island still doesn’t ratify for a couple of years </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Early Republic <ul><li>Two visions for America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong central government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modest central government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic implications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Federalist – Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had power at 1 st </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘enlightened’ ruling class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to fund & assume the debt – done to gain support of the wealthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank of the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report on Manufacturing: excise taxes & tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC becomes the capital </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Early Republic - continued <ul><li>Republican Opposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists used control over government appointments to maintain power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TJ & JM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed they spoke for the ideas, values, & needs of farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted some industry, but distrustful of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict v. Loose construction of the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support of the French Revolution </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Problems in the New Republic <ul><li>During George Washington’s Presidency </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to link the western territories to the new government </li></ul><ul><li>Whiskey Rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western PA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to pay excise tax & terrorized tax collectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal government dealt with the matter – contrast with Shays’ Rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GW calls up three state militia’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led the army into PA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Accepting new states </li></ul><ul><li>Relations w/ Native American Tribes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Border clashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely left out of the Constitution </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Foreign Relations in the New Republic <ul><li>Great Britain doesn’t send an ambassador for a while </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain goes for war w/ the ‘new’ France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists like Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans like France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to stay neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizen Genet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jay’s Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate w/ Great Britain trading regulations & sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pickney’s Treaty </li></ul>
  11. 11. Downfall of the Federalists <ul><li>Federalists see the Republicans as threatening national stability & go after them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GW’s Farewell Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Election of 1796 (Adams & TJ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams wins by a slim margin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quasi-War w/ France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprisoning American ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XYZ Affair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French officials demanded bribes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popular unrest against the French </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a navy and capture French ships; France eventually gives in </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Downfall – continued <ul><li>Success in dealing with France gave the Federalists confidence to deal with the Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Alien & Sedition Acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created new obstacles for foreigners who wished to become citizens (many of these people would vote for Republicans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throw people in jail for speaking against the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams didn’t enforce the Acts very much but they still had a negative effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VA & Kentucky Resolutions – ideas of John Locke; states can ignore the federal government </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Revolution of 1800 <ul><li>Potentially ugliest presidential election in US history </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters engaged in a smear campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral College ended in a tie between Jefferson & Burr </li></ul><ul><li>Now the Federalists only ‘controlled’ the Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judiciary Act of 1801: appointed federal judges even though Adams was leaving office, positions given to federalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midnight Judges </li></ul></ul>