Types Of Seizures Presented By: Myeshi Briley,HS-BCP
Types Of Seizures• Many different disorders can affect the brain, causing different types of seizures. What occurs during an epileptic seizure depends on the area of the brain involved. Seizures can range from mild to completely debilitating.
Types Of Seizures• Tonic – stiffening of muscles lasting a few seconds up to a minute• Atonic – brief loss of muscle tone, causing falls (also known as "drop attacks" or "drop seizures")• Tonic-clonic – begins with stiffening of the limbs (the tonic phase), followed by jerking of the limbs and face (the clonic phase)• Absence – staring spells lasting for many seconds• Myoclonic – sudden muscle jerks lasting for many seconds up to a minute• Clonic – a pattern of jerking movements• Partial – limited to a specific area of the brain; sometimes consciousness may be lost
Types Of Seizures• There are six types of generalized seizures. The most common and dramatic, and therefore the most well known, is the generalized convulsion, also called the grand-mal seizure. In this type of seizure, the patient loses consciousness and usually collapses. The loss of consciousness is followed by generalized body stiffening (called the "tonic" phase of the seizure) for 30 to 60 seconds, then by violent jerking (the "clonic" phase) for 30 to 60 seconds, after which the patient goes into a deep sleep (the "postictal" or after-seizure phase). During grand-mal seizures, injuries and accidents may occur, such as tongue biting and urinary incontinence
Types Of Seizures• Absence seizures cause a short loss of consciousness (just a few seconds) with few or no symptoms. The patient, most often a child, typically interrupts an activity and stares blankly. These seizures begin and end abruptly and may occur several times a day. Patients are usually not aware that they are having a seizure, except that they may be aware of "losing time."
Types Of SeizuresMyoclonic seizures consist of sporadic jerks, usually on both sides ofthe body. Patients sometimes describe the jerks as brief electricalshocks. When violent, these seizures may result in dropping orinvoluntarily throwing objects.
Types Of Seizures• Clonic seizures are repetitive, rhythmic jerks that involve both sides of the body at the same time.
Types Of Seizures• Tonic seizures are characterized by stiffening of the muscles.
Types Of Seizures• Atonic seizures consist of a sudden and general loss of muscle tone, particularly in the arms and legs, which often results in a fall.
Types Of Seizures• Partial Seizures• Partial seizures are divided into simple, complex and those that evolve into secondary generalized seizures. The difference between simple and complex seizures is that during simple partial seizures, patients retain awareness; during complex partial seizures, they lose awareness.
Types Of Seizures• Simple partial seizures are further subdivided into four categories according to the nature of their symptoms: motor, autonomic, sensory, or psychological. Motor symptoms include movements such as jerking and stiffening. Sensory symptoms caused by seizures involve unusual sensations affecting any of the five senses (vision, hearing, smell, taste, or touch). When simple partial seizures cause sensory symptoms only (and not motor symptoms), they are called "auras."
Types Of Seizures• Simple partial seizures• Autonomic symptoms affect the autonomic nervous system, which is the group of nerves that control the functions of our organs, like the heart, stomach, bladder, intestines. Therefore autonomic symptoms are things like racing heart beat, stomach upset, diarrhea, loss of bladder control. The only common autonomic symptom is a peculiar sensation in the stomach that is experienced by some patients with a type of epilepsy called temporal lobe epilepsy. Simple partial seizures with psychological symptoms are characterized by various experiences involving memory (the sensation of deja-vu), emotions (such as fear or pleasure), or other complex psychological phenomena.
Types Of Seizures• Complex partial seizures, by definition, include impairment of awareness. Patients seem to be "out of touch," "out of it," or "staring into space" during these seizures. There may also be some "complex" symptoms called automatisms. Automatisms consist of involuntary but coordinated movements that tend to be purposeless and repetitive. Common automatisms include lip smacking, chewing, fidgeting, and walking.• The third kind of partial seizure is one that begins as a focal seizure and evolves into a generalized convulsive ("grand-mal") seizure. Most patients with partial seizures have simple partial, complex partial, and secondarily generalized seizures. In about two-thirds of patients with partial epilepsy, seizures can be controlled with medications. Partial seizures that cannot be treated with drugs can often be treated surgically.
Types Of Seizures• Non-epileptic Seizures• What is a non-epileptic seizure ?• Non-epileptic seizure (SE-zhur), or NES, is a short period of symptoms that change how you move, think, or feel. NES looks like an epileptic seizure (convulsion). With NES, there are no electrical changes in the brain. With epileptic seizures, abnormal changes in the brain are present during the attack. NES is more common in women and usually affects those between 15 to 35 years of age. NES is a serious condition and early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent further problem.• Non-epileptic seizures are paroxysmal events that mimic an epileptic seizure but do not involve abnormal, rhythmic discharges of cortical neurons. They are caused by either physiological or psychological conditions. The latter is discussed more fully in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.
Types Of Seizures• What causes a non-epileptic seizure?• There are two types of NES. Physiologic which is caused by conditions that affect blood, oxygen and sugar available to the brain, and psychogenic which is caused by the bodys reaction to severe psychologic (mental) stress.
Types Of Seizures• Physiologic NES – Alcohol: Drinking alcohol too much and too often. Different people have different ideas about what too much means. How often you drink is as important as how much you drink alcohol. Alcohol is found in beer, wine, liquor, such as vodka and whiskey, or other adult drinks. – Drugs: Using illegal or street drugs.
Types Of Seizures– Syncopal attacks: Sudden drops in blood pressure leading to fainting spells.– Hypoglycemia: Episodes of low blood sugar.– Sleep disorders: Abnormal sleeping patterns.
Types Of Seizures: Reference:• http://www.banzel.com/LGS/Seizures.aspx• http://www.webmd.com/epilepsy/guide/types-of-seizures-their- symptoms• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-epileptic_seizure• http://www.drugs.com/cg/non-epileptic-seizures.html
Types Of Seizures Reference:• American Academy of Family Physicians 11400 Tomahawk Creek Parkway Leawood , KS 66211-2680 Phone: 1- 913 - 906-6000 Phone: 1- 800 - 274-2237 Web Address: http://www.aafp.org• American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 3615 Wisconsin Avenue NW Washington , DC 20016 Phone: 1- 202 - 966-7300 Web Address: http://www.aacap.org