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Epilepsy presentation


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Myeshi Briley I

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Epilepsy presentation

  1. 1. Epilepsy & Seizures101<br />Presentation by: Myeshi Briley <br /> Education Presenter for Epilepsy Foundation<br />(2010)<br />
  2. 2. What Is the Difference Between Epilepsy & Seizures?<br /><ul><li>Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurring seizures (also known as “seizure disorder”)
  3. 3. A seizure is a brief, temporary disturbance in the electrical activity of the brain</li></ul>A seizure is a symptom of epilepsy<br />
  4. 4. Who Has Epilepsy?<br />About 3 million Americans have epilepsy<br />Roughly 200,000 new cases of seizures and epilepsy occur each year<br />50% of people with epilepsy develop seizures by the age of 25; however, anyone can get epilepsy at any time<br />Now there are as many people with epilepsy who are 60 or older as children aged 10 or younger<br />
  5. 5. What Causes Epilepsy?<br />In about 70% of people with epilepsy, the cause is not known<br />In the remaining 30%, the most common causes are:<br /><ul><li> Head trauma
  6. 6. Brain tumor and stroke
  7. 7. Lead poisoning
  8. 8. Infection of brain tissue
  9. 9. Heredity
  10. 10. Prenatal disturbance of brain development</li></li></ul><li>Groups at Increased Risk for Epilepsy<br /><ul><li>About 1% of the general population develops epilepsy
  11. 11. The risk is higher in people with certain medical conditions:
  12. 12. Mental retardation
  13. 13. Cerebral palsy
  14. 14. Alzheimer’s disease
  15. 15. Stroke
  16. 16. Autism</li></li></ul><li>The Brain Is the Source of Epilepsy<br />All brain functions -- including feeling, seeing, thinking, and moving muscles -- depend on electrical signals passed between nerve cells in the brain<br />A seizure occurs when too many nerve cells in the brain “fire” too quickly causing an “electrical storm” <br />
  17. 17. What Happens During a Seizure<br />Generalized seizureInvolves the whole brain and loss of consciousness<br />Absence: characterized by brief loss of consciousness<br />Tonic-Clonic: characterized by rhythmic jerking of muscles<br />Partial seizureInvolves only part of the brain; may or may not include loss of consciousness<br />Symptoms relate to the part of the brain affected<br />
  18. 18. Symptoms That May Indicate a Seizure Disorder<br />Periods of blackout or confused memory<br />Occasional “fainting spells”<br />Episodes of blank staring in children<br />Sudden falls for no apparent reason<br />Episodes of blinking or chewing at inappropriate times<br />A convulsion, with or without fever<br />Clusters of swift jerking movements in babies<br />
  19. 19. Seizure Triggers<br />Missed medication (#1 reason)<br />Stress/anxiety<br />Hormonal changes<br />Dehydration<br />Lack of sleep/extreme fatigue<br />Photosensitivity<br />Drug/alcohol use; drug interactions<br />
  20. 20. First Aid for Seizures<br />Stay calm and track time<br />Do not restrain the person, but help them avoid hazards<br />Protect head, remove glasses, loosen tight neckwear<br />Move anything hard or sharp out of the way<br />Turn person on one side, position mouth to ground<br />Check for epilepsy or seizure disorder ID<br />Understand that verbal instructions may not be obeyed<br />Stay until person is fully aware and help reorient them<br />Call ambulance if seizure lasts more than 5 minutes or if it is unknown whether the person has had prior seizures<br />
  21. 21. Potentially Dangerous Responses to Seizure<br />DO NOT<br />Put anything in the person’s mouth<br />Try to hold down or restrain the person<br />Attempt to give oral anti-seizure medication<br />Keep the person on their back face up throughout convulsion<br />
  22. 22. When to Call 911 or Emergency Medical Services<br />A convulsive seizure occurs in a person not known to have seizures or lasts more than 5 minutes<br />A complex partial seizure lasts more than 5 minutes BEYOND its usual duration for the individual<br />Another seizure begins before the person regains consciousness<br />Also call if the person:<br />Is injured or pregnant <br />Has diabetes/other medical condition <br />Recovers slowly<br />Does not resume normal breathing<br />
  23. 23. How Is Epilepsy Diagnosed?<br />Clinical Assessment<br />Patient history<br />Tests (blood, EEG, CT, MRI or PET scans)<br />Neurologic exam<br />ID of seizure type<br />Clinical evaluation<br /> to look for causes<br />
  24. 24. Treatment Goals in Epilepsy<br />Help person with epilepsy lead full and productive life<br />Eliminate seizures without producing side effects<br />
  25. 25. What Factors InfluenceDecision to Treat?<br />Treatment may be appropriate:<br />Abnormal EEG<br />Previous seizure<br />Partial seizure<br />Driver<br />Other neurologic impairment<br />Elderly<br />Treatment may NOT be appropriate: <br />Single seizure<br />No history<br />Neurologically normal<br />Young age<br />Side effects<br />
  26. 26. Types of Treatment<br /><ul><li>Medication
  27. 27. Surgery
  28. 28. Non-pharmacologic treatment
  29. 29. Ketogenic diet
  30. 30. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)
  31. 31. Lifestyle modifications</li></li></ul><li>Factors That Affect theChoice of Drug<br /><ul><li>Seizure type/ Epilepsy syndrome
  32. 32. Side effects
  33. 33. Patient age
  34. 34. Lifestyle
  35. 35. Childbearing potential
  36. 36. Other medications</li></li></ul><li>Factors That Influence Response to Medication<br /><ul><li>Consistent use
  37. 37. Inadequate dosage or ineffective medication
  38. 38. Drug factors
  39. 39. Disease</li></ul>Seizures do not<br />respond (20%)<br />Seizures eliminated<br />(50% of people)<br />Seizures markedly<br />reduced (30%)<br />
  40. 40. Tolerating Medications<br />Most Common Side Effects<br /><ul><li>Rash
  41. 41. Clumsiness
  42. 42. Drowsiness
  43. 43. Irritability
  44. 44. Nausea
  45. 45. Side effects may be related to dose
  46. 46. Care must be taken in discontinuing drug due to risk of seizure recurrence</li></ul>Warning Signs of Possible <br />Serious Side Effects<br /><ul><li>Prolonged fever
  47. 47. Rash, nausea/vomiting
  48. 48. Severe sore throat
  49. 49. Mouth ulcers
  50. 50. Easy bruising
  51. 51. Pinpoint bleeding
  52. 52. Weakness
  53. 53. Fatigue
  54. 54. Swollen glands
  55. 55. Lack of appetite
  56. 56. Abdominal pain</li></li></ul><li>Surgery<br />Factors influencing decision<br /><ul><li>Likelihood seizures are due to epilepsy
  57. 57. Likelihood surgery will help
  58. 58. Ability to identify focus of seizures
  59. 59. Other treatments attempted
  60. 60. Benefits vs. Risks</li></li></ul><li>Vagus Nerve Stimulation<br /><ul><li>Device is implanted to control seizures by delivering electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve in the neck, which relays impulses to widespread areas of the brain
  61. 61. Used to treat partial seizures when medication does not work </li></ul> Courtesy of Cyberonics 2007<br />
  62. 62. Ketogenic Diet<br /><ul><li>Based on finding that starvation -- which burns fat for energy -- has an antiepileptic effect
  63. 63. Used primarily to treat severe childhood epilepsy, has been effective in some adults & adolescents
  64. 64. High fat, low carbohydrate </li></ul> and protein intake<br /><ul><li>Usually started in hospital
  65. 65. Requires strong family commitment</li></li></ul><li>Epilepsy in Women<br /><ul><li>Hormonal effects
  66. 66. Hormonal changes during puberty, menopause, and the monthly cycle may affect seizure frequency
  67. 67. Polycystic ovary syndrome
  68. 68. Sexuality & contraception
  69. 69. Sexual dysfunction
  70. 70. Birth control pills may be less effective
  71. 71. Pregnancy & motherhood
  72. 72. Need to continue medication
  73. 73. Slight increased risk for birth defects</li></li></ul><li>Epilepsy in Older Adults<br /><ul><li>Epilepsy is common in the elderly, and is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed
  74. 74. Older people face increased treatment risks
  75. 75. Maintaining independence is a challenge after the diagnosis of epilepsy</li></li></ul><li>Groups at Increased Risk for Epilepsy<br /><ul><li>About 1% of the general population develops epilepsy
  76. 76. The risk is higher in people with certain medical conditions:
  77. 77. Mental retardation
  78. 78. Cerebral palsy
  79. 79. Alzheimer’s disease
  80. 80. Stroke
  81. 81. Autism</li></li></ul><li>Classifying Epilepsy and Seizures<br /><ul><li>Classifying epilepsy involves more than just </li></ul> seizure type<br /><ul><li> Seizure types:</li></ul>Partial Generalized<br />Simple Complex Absence Convulsive<br />Consciousness<br />is maintained<br />Consciousness<br />is lost or impaired<br />Altered awareness<br />Characterized by<br />muscle contractions<br />with or without loss<br />of consciousness<br />
  82. 82. Tools to Confirm the Diagnosis of Epilepsy<br /><ul><li>EEG
  83. 83. Imaging Scans</li></li></ul><li>Epilepsy in Infants & Young Children<br /><ul><li>Balancing normal development and the special concerns of epilepsy
  84. 84. Good parenting skills
  85. 85. Childcare
  86. 86. Effects on brothers and sisters
  87. 87. Early childhood intervention </li></ul> services<br />
  88. 88. Epilepsy in Children Aged 6-12<br /><ul><li>Handling feelings
  89. 89. Family relationships
  90. 90. Safety
  91. 91. School and childcare
  92. 92. Developmental stages</li></li></ul><li>Epilepsy in Teens & Young Adults<br /><ul><li>Assuming responsibility
  93. 93. Dealing with feelings
  94. 94. Friends and social pressures
  95. 95. School
  96. 96. Driving
  97. 97. Drinking
  98. 98. Dating
  99. 99. Employment</li></li></ul><li>Other Treatment Approaches<br /><ul><li>Behavioral therapy
  100. 100. Biofeedback
  101. 101. Relaxation
  102. 102. Positive reinforcement
  103. 103. Cognitive therapy
  104. 104. Aromatherapy</li></li></ul><li>National and Community Resources<br /><ul><li>The Epilepsy Foundation
  105. 105. Local affiliates
  106. 106. Website:
  107. 107. Medic Alert Foundation
  108. 108. Social Security Administration
  109. 109. Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities
  110. 110. US Dept of Education
  111. 111. State Offices
  112. 112. Vocational Rehabilitation
  113. 113. Protection and Advocacy
  114. 114. Division of Developmental Disabilities</li></li></ul><li>Thank You,Myeshi Briley Personal Note: <br />I would like to thank you for your time and support in reading the information to learn more about epilepsy. Please share the information with others. I support a variety of charitable organizations through the world. My passion is research that would one day find a cure for epilepsy. I am also an advocate for helping children/ adults with life skills once diagnosed with epilepsy. <br />