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Contemporary Performance DFK2


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DFK 2 / University of Pretoria
Drama Dept

Published in: Education
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Contemporary Performance DFK2

  1. 1. Performance Performance Debates over the nature of the actor's presence have been at the heart of key aspects of theatre practice and theory since the late 1950s and are a vital part of the discourses surrounding avant-garde and postmodern performance. These debates explore terms essential to the theatrical event, addressing the spectator's encounter with the performer, the actor's "authenticity", "aura", "authority" and self-awareness and relationships between "live" performance and its mediation, documentation or trace. Experimental theatre's engagement with video and new media has further heightened the importance of these issues. (
  2. 2. Unpack what you have just read?
  3. 3. Terms: lexicographic and philosophical (and the gaps in between) <ul><li>PER > THROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>FORM > ARRANGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>The furnishing of the form,to carry out fulfill a function; execute, accomplish;construct, complete. </li></ul><ul><li>PARFOURNIR (furnir) </li></ul><ul><li>A formal presentation of ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>Performable /Performable/ Performative : Performance - quality / ability / the essence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Is performance? <ul><li>The accomplishment of an action. </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of an action </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of an action </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of an action </li></ul><ul><li>Drama: Action </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre: SEEING THE ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>Performance+Action=? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Through the gaps we form analysis <ul><li>Deconstruct performance </li></ul><ul><li>Read the signs: semiology </li></ul><ul><li>What is total performance? </li></ul><ul><li>What is un performable? </li></ul><ul><li>Can performance be a hybrid of things? </li></ul><ul><li>The body in performance </li></ul><ul><li>Time/Place/Space function in performance </li></ul><ul><li>Social relevance in performance </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lexicon:Philosophical >Analysis Interpret Experience
  7. 7. Excavating experience <ul><li>Locating speech + gesture + tone + style + discourse +choices +words + movement + place/space/time. </li></ul><ul><li>Informative (Information we are receiving) </li></ul><ul><li>Reception Theory: how an audience understands the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Codes - ( Western and “OTHER”) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the self and the collaborative. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Two Questions:
  9. 9. One. Is performance multi-disciplinary encompassing the fields of theatre, film, video and television and others…? (what are these others?)
  10. 10. Two Does performance frame time and space as singular and unrecoverable?
  11. 11. Goffman and performing everyday <ul><li>American sociologist </li></ul><ul><li>The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Performance is activity and encounter which occurs during a marked time and space, mutually observed by performer and audience and influencing both observer and performer. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the value in a social activity that is often marked off from the flow of surrounding events? </li></ul><ul><li>What is real in the everyday performances of life </li></ul><ul><li>What is the benefit of a performance(for others or for self) </li></ul><ul><li>Draws on the dramaturgical: (metaphor and analogy from theatre/drama) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Goffman’s Seven Points of everyday performance : <ul><li>FRONTING: fixed, external as a location and the personal as the mask. Often give performance definition. </li></ul><ul><li>DRAMATIC REALIZATION: highlighting or distracting the performance activity. The “doing” </li></ul><ul><li>IDEALIZATION: political, positive and negative </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTENANCE OF EXPRESSIVE CONTROL: technique (internal and external) </li></ul><ul><li>MISREPRESENTATION: why do we lie? Concealment </li></ul><ul><li>MYSTIFICATION: mystery and non mystery </li></ul><ul><li>REALITY AND CONTRIVANCE: conscious and unconscious truth- “we all act better then we know how.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. How do we get to here? <ul><li>Where theory influences practice and practice influences theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Goffman’s dramaturgical approach drawing on drama as metaphor similarly drama/theatre taking on performance not only as social phenomena but as a theatrical event, drawing on principles from other disciplines…(study of social behavior and culture.) </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent is contemporary school of thought or discipline is attached to a philosophy. </li></ul>
  17. 17. GODS MAN ?
  18. 18. OVERVIEW <ul><li>HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>EVENT </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>PHILOSOPHY </li></ul><ul><li>DATES </li></ul><ul><li>A FRAMEWORK </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre histories, Zarilli,P. (2006) and Living theatre, Wilson,E and Goldfarb,A. (2004) </li></ul>
  19. 19. THE MODERN AGE OF EMPIRES <ul><li>1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Age of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism…Colonialism(Europe, Britain and America) </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre: a plane of reassurance. (dialogue between realism and symbolism) </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Jarry’s UBO ROI premieres at </li></ul><ul><li>The Theatre l ’ Oeuvre in Paris and causes a riot. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Plane of reassurance Plane of reassurance Realism Symbolism
  21. 21. Ubu disrupts plane! Plane of reassurance Realism Symbolism ubu
  22. 22. Ubu to Godot <ul><li>1896 </li></ul><ul><li>1900 </li></ul><ul><li>1914 </li></ul><ul><li>1917 </li></ul><ul><li>1924 </li></ul><ul><li>1938 </li></ul><ul><li>1939 </li></ul><ul><li>1945 </li></ul><ul><li>1954 </li></ul><ul><li>UBU </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism/cabaret </li></ul><ul><li>DADA. WW1 </li></ul><ul><li>Russian revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Breton heads surrealist in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre and Double published. </li></ul><ul><li>WW2. Freud dies in London. Brecht in exile. </li></ul><ul><li>Auschwitz </li></ul><ul><li>GODOT Beckett </li></ul>
  23. 23. AFTER AUSCHWITZ <ul><li>Thedore Adorno (Frankfurt School)- </li></ul><ul><li>Critical theory/Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Absurdism (Out of tune) </li></ul><ul><li>Goffman and the dramaturgical approach </li></ul><ul><li>Jerzy Grotowski founds Theatre Laboratory, phrases Poor Theatre and performance of Akropolis about Auschwitz. </li></ul><ul><li>“ To write after Auschwitz is barbaric” </li></ul><ul><li>Beckett, Pinter, Genet and Ionesco. </li></ul><ul><li>Schechner and Environmental theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Brook directs MaratSade and writes Empty Space. </li></ul>
  24. 24. VIETNAM TO VIDEO <ul><li>Vietnam: Rise of Cultural Activism </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse theory: to deconstruct social systems like control- power, representation, texts… </li></ul><ul><li>Feminism and intertext </li></ul><ul><li>Television: Information and techno culture </li></ul><ul><li>American Avant Garde Movement is defined: Happenings: Cage and Kaprow,Living Theatre, Open Theatre, Chaikin, Shepard to Wooster </li></ul><ul><li>Barthes, Foucault,Said,Hall.. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender performativity- Butler. (Cixous) </li></ul><ul><li>Live performance/Video performance: </li></ul><ul><li>DIGITAL. </li></ul>
  25. 25. #1Observations (23/2/07): <ul><li>What constitutes a performance? Observation?/Inter-subjective narrative? </li></ul><ul><li>Distance: framing performances intensifies (heightens performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Performance and intent </li></ul>
  27. 27. ALFRED JARRY <ul><li>“ ITS NOT ABOUT BEING ITS ABOUT </li></ul><ul><li>BECOMING…” </li></ul>
  28. 31. 1896 <ul><li>PLANE OF REASSURANCE </li></ul><ul><li>BELLE EPOQUE </li></ul><ul><li>ABJECTION (highlighting thru degradation) </li></ul><ul><li>INVERSION: SUBVERSION </li></ul><ul><li>SATIRE: PARODY (ridicule to expose:self referential wit) </li></ul><ul><li>APOLLONARIAN VS DIONYSIAN </li></ul>
  29. 32. UBU ROI (1896) <ul><li>Theatre L’Oeuvre (Paris) </li></ul><ul><li>Order vs. Chaos (Apollo vs. Dionysian) </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos: reckless, derivative, pace:speed,punning,farce. </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Stock types, the puppetry </li></ul><ul><li>Vulgarity/ Base / Dionysian / Scatological </li></ul><ul><li>History is being smashed- Violence (A violent farce) </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion (Kingship);Rabelais and the carnival. </li></ul><ul><li>See chapter A Melzer, 1976, Avant Garde Performance in Paris (p108-120) for details into before UBU and its aftermath. </li></ul>
  30. 33. ALFRED JARRY:how to make the real unreal and the unreal real <ul><li>Living the DREAM: state of hallucination fixed between dreaming and living, night and day. </li></ul><ul><li>Science balances chaos, conduit of unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>-SCIENCE (to take the study of theatre seriously) invented scientific theory beyond the metaphysical to the pataphysical. (nonsense explaining fact) (imaginary solutions) striving towards “ethernity” meeting place of pure ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Science=adventure that enabled transcendence= theatre= (time machine) </li></ul><ul><li>Famous character based on his science teacher from high school Monsieur Herbert inspired Pa Ubu. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Of the futility of the theatrical of the theatre (1896) <ul><li>Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>The public (serving the theatre//) </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy of tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Placard </li></ul><ul><li>Mask </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Kaleidoscope of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Towards a peoples theatre </li></ul>
  32. 35. The chaos of Jarry <ul><li>Alcoholism- Absinth </li></ul><ul><li>Embodies Ubu-eccentricity </li></ul><ul><li>Writing above everyone's head </li></ul><ul><li>Pataphysics: solutions of how's things ought to be like a time machine </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>1907: Dies at 34 from TB. </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy of Ubu and Jarry - to question the social role of theatre, possibilities of experimentation, improvisation subversion and the unconscious (The Savage God) through transgression and breaking the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspires the Avant-Garde Movement as a figure in life and art. </li></ul>
  33. 36. AVANT-GARDE <ul><li>Marching forward breaking away from unit:(military term) </li></ul><ul><li>First used in its context of breaking from tradition by Henri de Saint-Simeon in 1825 </li></ul><ul><li>At one of Jarry’s banquets guests from the Paris art and literary circle demonstrated how they could make the river sound with commands of forward march (Shattuck, R. The Banquet Years. 1955). </li></ul>
  34. 37. From “The Theory of the Avant-Garde” (Renato Pogglio.1968) <ul><li>Activism </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonism: provocative </li></ul><ul><li>Making the inner chaos sacred </li></ul><ul><li>Nihilism </li></ul><ul><li>States of crisis: agonism </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligentsia </li></ul><ul><li>Elitism </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation: Public </li></ul>
  35. 39. Dada Manifestos <ul><li>Dada is a tomato/dada is a spook/dada is a chameleon of rapid, interested change. Dada is never right. Dada is soft boiled happiness. Dada is idiotic. Dada is life. Dada is that which changes. Dada means nothing. Everything is Dada. </li></ul><ul><li>We recognize no theory. </li></ul><ul><li>We had lost confidence in our culture. Everything had to be demolished. We would begin again after the &quot; tabula rasa &quot;. At the Cabaret Voltaire we began by shocking common sense, public opinion, education, institutions, museums, good taste, in short, the whole prevailing order. </li></ul>
  36. 40. Tristan Tzara vs Andre Breton (vs Antonin Artaud) <ul><li>1919: Automatic Writing; Magnetic Fields: ‘Write quickly without any preconceived subject, fast enough so that you will not remember what you’re writing and be tempted to reread what you have written.” </li></ul><ul><li>Theatrical public disputes between different factions. </li></ul><ul><li>1922 Congress of Paris of the Modern Spirit: an attempt to stem the confusion of Impressionism, Unanimism,Fauvism,Simultanism,Cubism,Orphism, </li></ul><ul><li>Futurism,Expressionism,Purism and Dada </li></ul><ul><li>1924. Surrealist Manifesto. The office of Surrealist research opens in Paris, manned by one Antonin Artaud.(leaves a month later) - rift with Breton </li></ul><ul><li>1927 Artaud founds Theatre Alfred Jarry. </li></ul>
  37. 41. Example from Surrealist Movement <ul><li>Un Chien Andalou (The Andlusian Dog) produced from with surrealist movement in 1929. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of dreams between artist Salvador Dali and Spanish film director Luis Bunuel. </li></ul>
  38. 42. Observations 26/2/07 <ul><li>Notions of order and chaos (Binary perspectives performance) </li></ul><ul><li>The mask for Jarry was more than expression of the internal it unearthed the internal. </li></ul><ul><li>Gyroscope and Kaleidescope comparisons in acting (see images) </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionism spread to America in 1920s: Eugene O Neil (Desire Under Elms)and Sophie Treadwelll (Machinall) </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematographic theatre re-appropriate cinematic text in performance? (see Lehman reference (Lehman 114-115) </li></ul><ul><li>Beckett (Happy Days) and last scene of Un Chien Andalou. </li></ul>
  39. 43. Jarry’s Kaleidoscope and Gyroscope of emotion <ul><li>K= emotion chaotic. Order through chaos. Drawn form sight. </li></ul><ul><li>Gyroscope: focused, movement around one point. </li></ul><ul><li>Can these two objects work together? </li></ul>
  40. 44. Aberration <ul><li>Distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Departure </li></ul><ul><li>Rupture between things and words, between ideas and things between signs and states of being </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of consciousness means dividing it. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting across: boundaries (the work of stories) cutting across from work to text and text to work </li></ul>
  41. 45. 1896 1914 1945 AV DADA S A
  44. 48. ARTAUD CONTEXT: 1896-1948 <ul><li>Born 1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Actor in Paris 1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>Surrealist Bureau of research 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre Alfred Jarry 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>ARTUAD: Bali Expo 1931 </li></ul><ul><li>A Theatre of Cruelty and Cenci 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>1936-1943/Assylum </li></ul><ul><li>A Theatre and its Double 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Death 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>1896- Ubu Roi </li></ul><ul><li>1914 WW1 </li></ul><ul><li>1916 DADA </li></ul><ul><li>1917 RUS. REV. </li></ul><ul><li>1918 WW1 ends </li></ul><ul><li>1933 Nazis </li></ul><ul><li>1936-39 Spain Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>1939 WW2 </li></ul><ul><li>1945-Auschwtiz/Hiroshima </li></ul>
  45. 54. Lot and his daughters <ul><li>This medieval painting hangs in the Louvre </li></ul><ul><li>Painted by van Leyden (Dutch in) </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul><ul><li>Transgression of catastrophe and incest </li></ul><ul><li>Elements in painting: </li></ul><ul><li>The red tent with suggestive semi parted curtains/ </li></ul><ul><li>Formal symmetry among chaos </li></ul><ul><li>The heightened transgression: the focus. (ambiguous?) </li></ul><ul><li>Visual drama ; non verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Plato’s cave: construct of narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Painting is what theatre should be </li></ul><ul><li>Can Theatre speaks its own language </li></ul><ul><li>Surviving an event can also support this kind of framed repose, in re-consideration of the disruption and possible further transgression even disaster. </li></ul>
  46. 55. Plato's cave <ul><li>Shadows of reality become reality </li></ul><ul><li>Prisoners in a cave watch only the shadows of the objects believing the are real - not knowing real cause of shadows. </li></ul>
  48. 58. REDEFINE THEATRE <ul><li>FUNCTIONS AS A PURGE OF EXCESS </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL THEATRE: Physical,visual, non-verbal, transcendental, violent, cruel. </li></ul><ul><li>DOUBLE=Mirror not through mimesis but through channel of inner self </li></ul><ul><li>INTERPRETATIVE GENERATION OF ARTAUD’S WRITING. </li></ul><ul><li>(SEE Routledge Theatre and Performance Allain and Harvie, 2006). </li></ul>
  49. 59. Surrealism: Transcendence <ul><li>Passionate anxiety: Schizophrenia. </li></ul><ul><li>Actor in Paris: screen and stage </li></ul><ul><li>Artaud enthusiastic leader of surrealism: “mind turning back on itself” </li></ul><ul><li>Rift with Surrealism, Breton’s rejection of theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>Sees Balinese display/performance/tourism: misinterpretation inspiration: West Vs East </li></ul><ul><li>Writes play The Cenci. </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre of Cruelty </li></ul><ul><li>Travels to Mexico: transcendence of the primitive. </li></ul>
  50. 60. The Cenci <ul><li>Historical reference/myth </li></ul><ul><li>Incest/violence </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption: the body (driven by internal evil: a fountain of hatred) </li></ul><ul><li>A villain with conscience: different between villains on stage and in real life is that villains in real life say less and do more while we talk endlessly and do very little. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to set a balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic melodrama except there is heightened symmetry- precision(cruelty ) </li></ul>
  51. 61. Artaud prophet: madman <ul><li>Redefine theatre as purgation and restorative of spirit </li></ul><ul><li>The salvation of the primordial </li></ul><ul><li>Magic/ Ritual - the subterranean- what lurks beneath the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Method of Cruelty: is of discipline, rigor, endurance and submission of necessity. </li></ul><ul><li>Total theatre: Consumption of the Word: Extirpate the power of mono-voice and enslave interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Awaken the spectator </li></ul><ul><li>Non language: symbolism,gesture,sound and rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>To reach metaphysics through shock and violence </li></ul><ul><li>Travels to find this transcendence-Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Then Ireland:apprehended as madman and interned in asylum in France for ten years. </li></ul>
  52. 62. THEATRE AND ITS DOUBLE (1938) <ul><li>PLAGUE </li></ul><ul><li>METAPHYSICS </li></ul><ul><li>BALINESE THEATRE </li></ul><ul><li>ORIENT </li></ul><ul><li>TRADITION </li></ul><ul><li>MANIFESTO 1 </li></ul><ul><li>CRUELTY </li></ul><ul><li>MANIFESTO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>ATHLETICISM </li></ul><ul><li>PROFOUND ALLEGORY </li></ul><ul><li>HISTORY/ALLEGORY </li></ul><ul><li>VISUAL/SPECTACLE </li></ul><ul><li>SPECTACLE/SENSUAL </li></ul><ul><li>SENSUAL/NONVERBAL </li></ul><ul><li>NONVERBAL/RITUAL </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNIQUE </li></ul><ul><li>ATTITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>POSITION </li></ul><ul><li>BODY </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE </li></ul>
  53. 63. THE MANIFESTOS <ul><li>Recovery of own language=“break subjugation of text” </li></ul><ul><li>Language between gesture and thought of ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot of all non verbal elements”how to determine/harmonize lines of force. </li></ul><ul><li>The Inner source/inner meanings: ref and represented. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-views of sight and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitize audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Redefines roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and Lighting to affirm the new language. </li></ul><ul><li>Ritualized costume </li></ul><ul><li>Place: non theatres </li></ul><ul><li>No décor </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Total-furnishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Codes-semiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Cinema vs. Life:Action. </li></ul><ul><li>Cruelty </li></ul><ul><li>Context: Program of action </li></ul><ul><li>Myth.Primordial embodiment of form </li></ul>
  54. 64. REPRESENTATION <ul><li>ACTOR=brutal representation on stage needs to hang onto moment through inner force=sustaining and continuation </li></ul><ul><li>Crises of Representation: condemned on a stake signaling through the flames. </li></ul><ul><li>Representing the sacred/the double/the self </li></ul><ul><li>Representing cruelty not through sadism but through discipline/lucidity; “desire is cruelty because it burns of necessity, death is cruelty, The resurrection is cruelty,transfiguration is cruelty.” </li></ul>
  55. 65. Immediate influences <ul><li>Generating interpretation of performance, theatre and text. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting Artaud’s own writing now long term influence. </li></ul><ul><li>(Antonin Artaud: critical reader, Scheer) </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Brook: Theatre of Cruelty season in London in 1964 (soon after MaratSade) </li></ul><ul><li>Actor workshops:language </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Marowitz audition techniques (TDR 1966) </li></ul><ul><li>Director as creator </li></ul><ul><li>counter displacement of other elements over words </li></ul><ul><li>Self discipline:cruelty </li></ul><ul><li>Public performance (to face the violence inside) </li></ul><ul><li>Grotowski: Trans illumination/ Poor Theatre Manifesto. </li></ul>
  56. 66. My Life and times with Antonin Artaud <ul><li>Gerard Mordillat (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Documentary: Artaud and assylum </li></ul>
  57. 67. Observations 1/3/07 <ul><li>Questions around taste: if the content is to represent this what is the form? </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking tradition: what now? Breaking legacy,oppression, reassurance? </li></ul><ul><li>If Jarry is the rupture then is Artaud the spleen? After the body what remains? </li></ul>
  58. 68. ARTAUD APPLIED : After the Body: Post Modern> Post Colonial Post Structuralism Discourse Theory Brook: Theatre of Cruelty Maratsade Empty Space Grotowski American Avant Garde Body Without organs What remains? Artaud applied Is Artaud betrayed
  59. 69. AFTER ARTAUD <ul><li>1948 Artaud dead. </li></ul><ul><li>1949 Beckett writes “Waiting For Godot” </li></ul><ul><li>1949 Simone de Beauvior: “The Second Sex”- Woman is not made but born. </li></ul><ul><li>1948: End of WW2 and the aftermath of </li></ul><ul><li>Hiroshima and Holocaust </li></ul><ul><li>American Era </li></ul><ul><li>Modernism </li></ul>
  60. 70. EMPTY SPACE (Peter Brook) <ul><li>Deadly: traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Holy:internal spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Rough: popular </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate: audience </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition, Representation and Assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible making visible </li></ul><ul><li>Music making the creator </li></ul><ul><li>Artaud = purgation towards holiness </li></ul><ul><li>Artaud applied is Artaud betrayed. </li></ul><ul><li>Happenings </li></ul><ul><li>Merce Cunningham-body </li></ul><ul><li>Beckett </li></ul><ul><li>Grotowski </li></ul><ul><li>Living Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Embodiment of the spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Earth and Sky </li></ul>
  61. 71. SAMUEL BECKETT <ul><li>“ Play without words” </li></ul><ul><li>(1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Happy Days (1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Breath (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophe (1982) </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Non Verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Directions </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Pathos/ Nihilism </li></ul><ul><li>Obliqueness </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Commentary on Modern Condition,not necessarily breaking rules but using the ability of what's broken to comment as a form of intervention. </li></ul>
  62. 72. BREATH (45 seconds) <ul><li>Stage Directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Faint light on stage littered with miscellaneous rubbish. Hold about five seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Faint brief cry and immediately inspiration and slow increase of light together reaching maximum together in about ten seconds. Silence and holds for about five seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Expiration and slow decrease of light together reaching minimum together (light as in 1) in about ten seconds and immediately cry as before. Silence and hold about five seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>(Beckett, 1966) </li></ul>
  63. 73. AMERICA: 50’s <ul><li>Spread of Avant Garde; New Age and “Protector of freedom”-European exiles. (Duchamp. Ernst, Brecht, Einstein) </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson Pollack>Alan Kaprow and John Cage: Theories of chance and indeterminacy; Theatre could solve these questions through the integration art and real life: the Happenings. </li></ul><ul><li>Gertrude Stein </li></ul><ul><li>Off Broadway </li></ul><ul><li>Living Theatre founded. </li></ul>
  64. 74. John Cage <ul><li>Musician/composer>Theatre and performance </li></ul><ul><li>“Why have art when you have life?” </li></ul><ul><li>4’33” (4mins33sec) A Pianist as piano not playing music but surrounded by “silence”: the sounds around us: refocusing and restructuring world around us. </li></ul>
  65. 75. HAPPENINGS: DEFINITION <ul><li>A Happening might occur as a collection of events - performed in more than one time and place. </li></ul><ul><li>Working within the given environment </li></ul><ul><li>May occur ANYWHERE. </li></ul><ul><li>Time not framed by given traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a plan but also real and has qualities of the improvised </li></ul>
  66. 76. SOAP (1965)Kaprow Discussed only once, then performed without rehearsal or even an audience. 1st morning: clothes dirtied by urination 1st evening: clothes washed (in the sea) (in the laundromat) 2nd morning: cars dirtied with jam on a busy street cars cleaned (in a parking lot) (in a car-wash) 2nd evening: bodies dirtied with jam bodies buried in mounds at the sea edge bodies cleaned by the tide
  67. 77. GERTRUDE STEIN <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Sound/Sight/Emotion and Time vs.. Story and Action. </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Spectator in harnessing sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Influence on Cage, Foreman and Living Theatre </li></ul>
  68. 78. LIVING THEATRE <ul><li>Judith Malina and Julian Beck </li></ul><ul><li>Own spaces of performance (Lofts, living rooms, non theatrical spaces…) </li></ul><ul><li>Language - Poetry (Beat Poets) </li></ul><ul><li>Self referential </li></ul><ul><li>Artaud - ritual and breaking separations. </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Connections” - Form </li></ul><ul><li>“ Brig” - Physical- (The sit in) -Activism. </li></ul><ul><li>Living Theatre in exile and beyond.(9-11) </li></ul>
  69. 79. America: Early 60’s <ul><li>Ritual- Anthropology (Rothenburg)/Language before words </li></ul><ul><li>1964: Vietnam War>America’s involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Off Broadway: Theatre Collectives </li></ul><ul><li>The Open Theatre (Jospeh Chaiken) </li></ul><ul><li>Grotowski </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Shechner and the Performance Group </li></ul>
  70. 80. Performance Group <ul><li>Richard Shechner (New York University/TDR) </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Dionysus 69 </li></ul><ul><li>Theory>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Theatrical event=transcations,space for performance/space for audience / flexible focus /own language/text not goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Change in social order </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of Wooster Group. </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual:Anthropology influence of Victor Turner. </li></ul>
  71. 81. Post Modernism
  72. 82. Excavating the Post Modern? <ul><li>1966 deconstruction. 1968 Paris student riots. Europe reclaims America through the Post Modern. A time of redefining language, ideas and identity.Semiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Redefining the Post Modern: Derrida. Look at the framework of contemporary performance about breaking the rules? Or bending them like Beckett? What is the contemporary plane of reassurance? How do we disrupt this plane like Jarry’s UBU. </li></ul>
  73. 83. America after Vietnam <ul><li>Activism </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Foreman (response to 60’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Wilson (response to 60’s); “Einstein on Beach’ </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Studies: Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Judith Butler:gender is performed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Wooster Group </li></ul><ul><li>Coco Fusco </li></ul><ul><li>Mediatized Culture </li></ul>
  74. 84. The Wooster Group <ul><li>The collision of narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblage and adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Spalding Grey - autobiographical monologue </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Lacompte </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridized,mediatized:theatre,video,dance, </li></ul><ul><li>MTV THEATRE </li></ul><ul><li>Architectonic form </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  75. 85. Europe and Post Artaud <ul><li>Peter Brook: Empty Space </li></ul><ul><li>Grotowski: Towards Poor Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Ariane Mnnouchkine: Le Theatre Du Soleil </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Studies (Stuart Hall) </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Etchells and Forced Entertainment </li></ul>
  76. 86. Jerzy Grotowski <ul><li>1964 Theatre’s New Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Research? </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre as total art:synthesis(Wagner) </li></ul><ul><li>Actor-Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Education of Actor </li></ul><ul><li>Training the Holy Actor: Elimination (Cruelty) </li></ul><ul><li>Performance as profane as holy </li></ul>
  77. 87. Ariane Mnouchkine: <ul><li>Founds Theatre of the Sun,Theatre du Soleil (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>Creating occur through the collective </li></ul><ul><li>Content>Form </li></ul><ul><li>1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul>
  78. 88. Forced Entertainment <ul><li>Mediatized culture:video,performance and publication </li></ul><ul><li>1984:Sheffield, U.K </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Collective </li></ul>
  79. 89. Performing the everyday: the city <ul><li>Situations </li></ul><ul><li>Psycho geography </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Benjamin (One Way Street) </li></ul><ul><li>Excursions: Walking </li></ul><ul><li>Parades,marches,rallies </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti </li></ul>
  80. 90. City + Return to the Everyday Theatre
  81. 91. Matthew Barney <ul><li>The Crew master Cycle: The Order </li></ul><ul><li>Guggenheim Museum (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation-Redemption </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of medium:video, performance, sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>The Body: Aesthetic Athleticism </li></ul><ul><li>An event </li></ul><ul><li>The emanation of force/internal>external </li></ul>
  82. 92. Coco Fusco <ul><li>See </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Performs,installation,curates,art, text. </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Couple in the Cage”-Two Undiscovered Americans Visit the West. (Guillermo Gomez Pena) </li></ul>
  83. 93. Judith Butler <ul><li>Gender Trouble (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>The social construct of performing a role both complicit and implicit, and punished if not=example gender </li></ul><ul><li>Peformativity/Performative </li></ul><ul><li>What is performed must be understood by what is barred in the the legitimate body of the signifier:behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Queer Theory: breaking tradition> at odds with dominant and normal. </li></ul>
  84. 94. Observations 8/2/07 <ul><li>Performance: the transaction, the exchange and the document, </li></ul><ul><li>Authority/Aura and Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Post Modernism embraces the avant garde not as being similar but as another movement, part of the fluidity and experimentation. </li></ul>
  85. 95. Performing for oneself We perform all the time to/for ourselves, to others, to functions, messages, and units, to things live and plastic; if the performance is an emanation of the internal then we are negotiating this all the time. We become the authority of our performance as we consciously mark and generate this internal emanation through our own desires. When we add intent to this the performance repeats, reoccurs, satisfying the degrees of accomplishment. We can perform all of this above alone, to ourselves, in private rooms, inner chambers and minds. These performances are for and to ourselves, but yet somehow they still feel un-performable or maybe inauthentic because there is no transaction validating the operation of performance and its authenticity. Exchange illuminates the authentic. An authentic performance occurs when a transaction occurs between two or more parties. The second party even if they are unaware that they are the audience, will authenticate the emanation through an unconscious exchange. This exchange might in the end produce a document that will further authenticate the exchange. The document might be a gesture or a sound like a clap or a “boo”! Documenting will validate and invalidate the aura of the performance because of the replication in the documentation. Once again the question of documentation will return the dilemma back into the fold of the inevitable question: what constitutes a performance? What is its aura? What makes it authentic? Whose authority? These questions are motivated by some concerns in making performance not only a discipline of the art/mediatized culture but how an aesthetic of performance can also be mediated as a theatrical genre. (from
  86. 96. ARTAUD NOW <ul><li>How do we apply to Post Modern condition? </li></ul><ul><li>- discipline in training and aesthetic principle? </li></ul><ul><li>Internal is emanated through expression </li></ul><ul><li>-Locating the sacred </li></ul><ul><li>Approach to language </li></ul><ul><li>Aberration </li></ul><ul><li>Abjection </li></ul><ul><li>Aura / Authentic / Authority. </li></ul>
  87. 97. South Africa and Artaud? <ul><li>Post colonial </li></ul><ul><li>Purge the past? </li></ul><ul><li>Locate the ritual, the sacred…. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative tactics of performing. </li></ul><ul><li>Collision with global issues and experimentation. </li></ul>
  88. 98. Contemporary examples <ul><li>William Kentridge </li></ul><ul><li>Handspring Puppet </li></ul><ul><li>Ubu and the Truth Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Jay Pather </li></ul><ul><li>Peter van Heerden (BOK) </li></ul><ul><li>Brett Bailey and Third World Bunfight </li></ul><ul><li>Steven Cohen </li></ul><ul><li>InHERITAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Adrian Vlok </li></ul><ul><li>(see </li></ul>
  89. 99. Steven Cohen <ul><li>Performance artist </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Spectacle </li></ul><ul><li>Aberration </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre? Live Art? Performance Art? </li></ul><ul><li>Transgress </li></ul><ul><li>Abjection:the body separated:as work of art.(Taste) </li></ul>
  90. 100. Long Spine Dance
  91. 101. Performing without boundaries
  92. 102. Tradition
  93. 103. The real of ourselves
  94. 104. Steven Cohen (in his own words) <ul><li>Negates theory </li></ul><ul><li>Ritualized transformation:”sacrifice” </li></ul><ul><li>The performance of place </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise moment for artist </li></ul><ul><li>“ Surgery without anesthetic” </li></ul>
  95. 105. UBU&TRC Play text: “Ubu and Truth Commission” Collage of text. Adaptation Multi-media: Puppetry, Actors,Film,Sound: Collusion of text as truth As post modern Ecclectic Witnessing (see William Kentridge) Performing Forgiveness A Performative Act: Vlok: Washing of feet? Public Hearings Performed Globalized suffering
  96. 106. Performing the other of you: Ubu Soho Eckstein Princess Menorah Evita Buizedenhout The myth & the figure (parodying ourselves)
  97. 107. Jay Pather <ul><li>Collaborative ( Siwela Sonke Dance Theatre) </li></ul><ul><li>Site Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible and intangible spirit of place </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid form and styles: Post Modern. </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention/Subvert>Disrupt convention </li></ul><ul><li>Locating and introducing multi-media performance models </li></ul>
  98. 108. Peter Van Heerden <ul><li>Collaborative: (ERF 81) </li></ul><ul><li>Site Specific </li></ul><ul><li>BOK (Saamtrek)(Mock executions) </li></ul><ul><li>Live Art Installation. </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of body,language and identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual and re-enactment </li></ul>
  99. 109. inHERITAGE:mechanical man
  100. 110. Performing Applied <ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Aura- Authentic- Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Place/Space </li></ul><ul><li>Where do performances take place? </li></ul><ul><li>Museums, internet, live happenings? </li></ul><ul><li>South African context </li></ul><ul><li>Performing alone;thinking out aloud! </li></ul><ul><li>Post Modern>Post Apartheid:after the past </li></ul>