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Participatory budgeting in scotland

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Presentation to São Paulo city public servants (January 2019). Covers (1) levels of government, from EU to Scottish community councils; (2) the presenters' involvement in participatory budgeting and related research; (3) participatory budgeting in Edinburgh; (4) LeithChooses as an example of participatory budgeting in Scotland; (5) the history and future of participatory budgeting in Scotland; (6) references and sources

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Participatory budgeting in scotland

  1. 1. 1. Levels of government 2. Sidebar: Bruce’s involvement 3. Participatory budgeting in Leith & Edinburgh 4. Leith Chooses 2018-19 5. Participatory budgeting in Scotland 6. References and sources Participatory Budgeting in Scotland
  2. 2. Levels of government (1) picture source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member_state_of_the_European_Union 28 countries in EU Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czechia Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom
  3. 3. Levels of government (2) picture source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coun tries_of_the_United_Kingdom 4 nations in the United Kingdom Parliament in London is parliament of all UK, but there is devolution to: • Scottish Parliament • National Assembly for Wales • Northern Ireland Assembly (inoperative since 2017) Only UK parliament can make laws on reserved matters. All other matters are devolved to Scotland. • Scotland Act 1998: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/46 • Scotland Act 2012: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2012/11/content s/enacted • Scotland Act 2016: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/11/content s/enacted • Social Security (Scotland) Bill 2018:http://www.parliament.scot/S5_Bills/Social%20 Security%20(Scotland)%20Bill/SPBill18BS052018.p df
  4. 4. Levels of government (3) picture source: https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/933/0041318. pdf 1 Aberdeen City 2 Aberdeenshire 3 Angus 4 Argyll & Bute 5 Clackmannanshire 6 Dumfries & Galloway 7 Dundee City 8 East Ayrshire 9 East Dunbartonshire 10 East Lothian 11 East Renfrewshire 12 Edinburgh, City of 13 Eilean Siar 14 Falkirk 15 Fife 16 Glasgow City 17 Highland 18 Inverclyde 19 Midlothian 20 Moray 21 North Ayrshire 22 North Lanarkshire 23 Orkney Islands 24 Perth & Kinross 25 Renfrewshire 26 Scottish Borders 27 Shetland Isles 28 South Ayrshire 29 South Lanarkshire 30 Stirling 31 West Dunbartonshire 32 West Lothian 32 Local Authorities in Scotland
  5. 5. Levels of government (4a) Within Edinburgh Council area: 4 localities Source: https://edinburghcouncil.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=9dfa229ba4004f7ca642ed3bd9702094
  6. 6. Levels of government (4b) Within Edinburgh Council area: 12 Neighbourhood Partnerships picture source: https://edinburghcouncil.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=9dfa229ba4004f7ca642ed3bd9702094
  7. 7. Levels of government (4c) Within Edinburgh Council area: 17 council wards picture source: https://edinburghcouncil.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=9dfa229ba4004f7ca642ed3bd9702094
  8. 8. Levels of government (4d) picture source: http://socprojects.napier.ac.uk/is/Edinburgh/ 46 community councils in Edinburgh (2012) But 4 were inactive Data at • 2012:https://communitykn ectdotnet.files.wordpress. com/2018/09/2012-v3-7- add-doi.pdf • 2014: https://www.napier.ac.uk/~ /media/worktribe/output- 180234/cruickshank2pdf.p df 1369 community councils in Scotland, but 213 were inactive (2012)
  9. 9. Sidebar: Bruce’s involvement Research into social aspects of IT use by community councils • Summer 2012: ‘community councils online’ • Autumn 2012: MSc project – what are the promoters and barriers to CCs using the internet? • Spring 2013: community councils locator web-map • Summer 2014: ‘community councils online’ • 2015-2016: digiCC workshops • Late 2016 to 2017: ‘information literacy for democratic engagement’ projects Activism • Taking minutes and running websites for • Leith Central CC since 2012 • Leith Harbour & Newhaven CC since 2014 • New Town & Broughton CC since 2014 • Also Community Councils Together on Trams (2018) • Scottish approach to mainstreaming PB and draft PB charter • Scottish Government Open Government Action Plan • Online Identity Assurance and e-voting • Wanted to be involved in IT around PB
  10. 10. Participatory budgeting in Leith and Edinburgh Leith Chooses/Leith Decides is a long-standing example of how PB works in Scotland 2010 to 2017 • Leith Decides (Leith Neighbourhood partnership area) • £44,000 in 2016, only from Leith NP 2018: Leith Chooses • £118,000 from Leith NP and Scottish Government • Community choices money obtained by Leith Links community council • (part of £1·5 million Scottish Government ‘Community Choices’ fund 2019: Leith Chooses • £44,000, only from Leith NP Edinburgh – other examples • Voice your choice (employability projects) • The big vote part (services) • A city free from Islamophobia (£40,000, run by Police Scotland)
  11. 11. Leith Chooses 2018-19 (1) • Run by small steering committee • Chair: green councillor for Leith Walk ward • 2 council staff • 6 community volunteers (all but one live in Leith) from Leith Community councils • £44,000 total • Grants up to £5000 • Small projects designed to address inequalities, under two themes: • Food: preventing and/or mitigating hunger; growing, cooking, educating about food; providing or distributing food to people suffering from food inequality; education and/or support of people affected by alcohol issues • Supporting vulnerable people: children, older people, disabled people, homeless people, vulnerable families/single parents, refugees, domestic abuse victims, isolated minorities etc. • Voting by anyone aged 8 or older who lives, works, studies or volunteers in Leith
  12. 12. Leith Chooses 2018-19 (2) Rules • Only one application per group • One-day mass community voting event • Applications are only open to constituted groups • No online or postal voting, but information about the projects will be available online in advance of voting day. • Special arrangements offered to help people attend and vote, in case of disability or other barriers. • Extra ‘boost’ vote available for projects that strongly engage with or support minority ethnic communities Illustration by Ash Pryce, based on an original idea by Craig Froehle; hat-tip to IISC and Angus Maguire)
  13. 13. Leith Chooses 2018-19 (3) Issues (as I see it) • Run by volunteers • 25,000 people live in Leith but only 1000 voted last year • Can’t tell who voted online only, in-person only, both online and in person • Trusted that online voters lived in Leith (postcode ‘test’) • 4 votes per person per room – but hard to verify • No need for proof of age • Concern that big (= well-funded) organisations monopolised votes • Elephant in room: Edinburgh council budget is £950 million • £249 million from council tax • £346 million from grants (Scottish Government) • £355 million from non-domestic rates • Leith Chooses allocates less than 0·005% of Edinburgh Council’s budget! Source: http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/downloads/file/11418/audited_annual_accounts_2017-2018
  14. 14. Participatory budgeting in Scotland (1) • First generation (up to 2016) picture source: http://whatworksscotland.ac.uk/publications/review-of-first-generation-participatory-budgeting-in-scotland/
  15. 15. • Second generation based on Scottish Government’s community choices fund • 2016-17: £2 million • £300k on national programme • £200k 'Impact Accelerator’ • £750k: public authority PB processes • £750k: community organisations’ PB processes Detail available at https://static1.squarespace.com/static/558172f0e4b077ee5306aa83/t/59df 4df7197aeac813c1ffb1/1507806721119/Community+Choices+2016- 17+Report.pdf Participatory budgeting in Scotland (2)
  16. 16. Participatory budgeting in Scotland (3) • Second generation based on Scottish Government’s community choices fund • 2017-18: £1.5 million • £750,000 for Public Authorities (Local Authorities and other Public Bodies • £750,000 for community organisations and community councils. • Detail available at https://www.scdc.org.uk/news/article/community- choices-fund-201718-announced • 2018-19 • £750,000 • particularly for deprived areas • Detail available at https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/ form/2018/06/community-choices-fund-guidance-and-application- forms/documents/e4ebb234-5042-4404-b175- e206a19c50ce/e4ebb234-5042-4404-b175- e206a19c50ce/govscot%3Adocument
  17. 17. Participatory budgeting in Scotland (4) The current Scottish model of PB (in my experience) 1. Scottish Government allocates some money 2. Local authorities and community organisations bid for money to distribute via their PB processes 3. Successful bidders invite other organisations to submit projects to the bidders’ PB processes 4. Information about the projects may be published online. 5. Citizens vote, mostly in person, at voting events. 6. Results are published, and projects take place 7. At the end of the year, some follow-up or due diligence is done. Questions 1. Where is the deliberation? 2. Who participates? 3. What happens to the follow-up/due diligence data?
  18. 18. Participatory budgeting in Scotland (5) Third generation/making it mainstream! • At least 1% of local authority budgets* will be decided through PB by the end of 2021. • https://pbscotland.scot/blog/2017/10/30/1-local-government-goal- sees-100-million-for-pb-in-communities * That is 1% of the grants from Scottish Government, not 1% of each LA’s total budget • That is around £100 million = £400 million Reals • Question: how is it to be done? • So far, ~18 of local authorities have done PB processes • What about the other 14? • Other PB processes run by community groups: amateurs/volunteers • How can this knowledge and experience be exploited? • Ideas gathered at a conference in December 2018 • My report: https://bruceryan.info/resources/mainstreaming- participatory-budgeting-event/
  19. 19. Participatory budgeting in Scotland (6) The Scottish Government’s key messages • The Scottish Government supports participatory budgeting as a tool for community engagement and as a resource to build on the wider development of participatory democracy in Scotland and has invested £6.5 million over the past four years to support and promote PB. • In Scotland, PB is better known as Community Choices because the Scottish Government’s (SG) Community Choices programme supports and promotes PB nationally. • This programme is delivered in partnership with local authorities, communities and third sector organisations, and implemented across policy areas from policing to health and social care, transport and education. • The Scottish Government will continue to work with COSLA to help local authorities reach the target of having at least 1% of their budget subject to PB giving tens of thousands of people a say in how almost £100 million will be spent.
  20. 20. Muito obrigado!
  21. 21. References and sources (1) • graphics – European Union: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member_state_of_the_European_Union – United Kingdom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countries_of_the_United_Kingdom – Scottish local authorities: https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/933/0041318.pdf – Edinburgh’s divisions: https://bit.ly/2ErrvfQ – Edinburgh’s community councils: http://socprojects.napier.ac.uk/is/Edinburgh – Equality v fairness: Ash Price (ashpryce@hotmail.com) • Bruce’s research: https://community-knect.net/projects-and-publications – 2012 survey of CCs :https://communityknectdotnet.files.wordpress.com/2018/09/2012-v3-7-add-doi.pdf – 2014 survey of CCs: https://www.napier.ac.uk/~/media/worktribe/output-180234/cruickshank2pdf.pdf • Scottish Government etc – How the Scottish Government is run: https://bit.ly/2AcEHEz – Scotland’s draft PB charter: https://bit.ly/2GoZb2l – Scottish Budget: https://bit.ly/2EuvE4q – Scottish Government Open Government Action Plan: https://bit.ly/2QVrPfx – Global Challenge Research Fund: https://bit.ly/2S1pFYZ – Official Development Assistance: https://bit.ly/2EBpOiO – Scotland Act 1998: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/46 – Scotland Act 2012: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2012/11/contents/enacted – Scotland Act 2016: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/11/contents/enacted – Social Security (Scotland) Bill 2018:http://www.parliament.scot/S5_Bills/Social%20Security%20(Scotland)%20Bill/SPBill18BS052018.pdf
  22. 22. References and sources (2) • Brazilian partners – Professor Renato de Oliveira Moraes: https://bit.ly/2A5P4d3 – Hugo Watanuki: https://bit.ly/2Ern3zu – Leandro Ramos: https://bit.ly/2Llap6I – Professor Ursula Dias Peres: https://bit.ly/2EuPRrd • PB – First generation of Scottish PB: https://bit.ly/2FbZ1tF – Second generation of Scottish PB: • 2016-17: https://bit.ly/2FbSmzK • 2017-18: https://bit.ly/2sc6OPy • 2018-19: https://bit.ly/2QtgsqW – Leith Chooses: http://www.leithchooses.net – Mainstreaming PB in Scotland (Bruce’s blog): https://bit.ly/2SRe52A – PB Scotland: https://pbscotland.scot – Draft Scottish PB Charter: https://bit.ly/2PE8XwR – 1% target for PB: https://bit.ly/2ydWAns – Anti-islamophobia PB: https://bit.ly/2gcnmTw – What is a public body? https://www.gov.scot/publications/public-bodies-in-scotland-guide/ • Community councils etc – Leith Central CC: https://leithcentralcc.co.uk – Leith Harbour & Newhaven CC: https://lhncc.org.uk – New Town & Broughton CC: http://www.ntbcc.org.uk

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