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  1. 1. Effective feedback for written submissions
  2. 2. What are your biggest frustrations about providing feedback?
  3. 3. Answer the “big questions” Explore the hallmarks of effective feedback Reflect on current feedback practices Consider various (different?) ways of providing effective feedback • Enjoy the opportunity for professional learning and dialogue • • • • GOALS FOR TODAY
  4. 4. THIS WORKSHOP AIMS TO ANSWER BIG / IMPORTANT QUESTIONS For example: How come cartoon characters never change their clothes?
  5. 5. If you put a chameleon in a room full of mirrors, what colour would it turn?
  6. 6. Are we maximising the feedback we are giving our students? Are we using the time we take to provide feedback effectively? At the end of the day who is doing the more work? Or perhaps …
  7. 7. The person providing the feedback is growing the most dendrites
  8. 8. • We work hard • We are time poor • The more time we can save marking – the more time we have to prepare meaningful & effective lessons • Feedback is important! Premises
  9. 9. Hattie’s metaanalyses & influences on Achievement
  10. 10. Activity: RANK THESE 12 EFFECTS  Open vs. traditional classes  Video/Audio-visual methods  Cooperative learning  Individualised instruction  Mentoring  Shifting schools  Homework  Student-teacher relationships  Feedback  Acceleration  Teachers challenging students  Reading Recovery
  11. 11. ANSWERS: Acceleration .88 (1) Feedback .73 (2) Student-teacher relationships .72 (3) Teachers challenging students .64 (4) Reading Recovery .50 (5) Cooperative learning .41 (6) Homework .29 (7) Video/Audio-Visual Methods .22 (8) Individualised instruction .22 (9) Mentoring .15 (10) Open vs. traditional classes .01 (11) Shifting schools -.34 (12)
  12. 12. HOWEVER
  13. 13. Dylan Wiliam • Did you know feedback can have negative impacts? • Indeed, Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative:
  14. 14. One well known study: • 264 low and high ability grade 6 students in 12 classes in 4 schools; analysis of 132 students at top and bottom of each class • Same teaching, same aims, same teachers, same classwork • Three kinds of feedback: scores, comments, scores+comments Achievement Scores Comments Attitude no gain High scorers : positive Low scorers: negative 30% gain High scorers : positive Low scorers : positive Feedback has complex effects [Butler(1988) Br. J. Educ. Psychol., 58 1-14]
  15. 15. Responses Achievement Scores Comments Attitude no gain High scorers : positive Low scorers: negative 30% gain High scorers : positive Low scorers : positive What do you think happened for the students given both scores and comments? A. B. C. D. E. Gain: 30%; Attitude: all positive Gain: 30%; Attitude: high scorers positive, low scorers negative Gain: 0%; Attitude: all positive Gain: 0%; Attitude: high scorers positive, low scorers negative Something else [Butler(1988) Br. J. Educ. Psychol., 58 1-14]
  16. 16. Effective feedback needs to move people forward!
  17. 17. Response type Feedback indicates performance… exceeds goal falls short of goal Change behavior Exert less effort Increase effort Change goal Increase aspiration Reduce aspiration Abandon goal Decide goal is too easy Decide goal is too hard Reject feedback Feedback is ignored Feedback is ignored Getting feedback right is hard
  18. 18. FEEDBACK ‘the student makes an emotional investment in an assignment and expects some “return” on that investment’ - Higgins et al 2001, p272 “It’s not giving the assessments [that is important]; it’s about doing something with the results.” - Douglas Reeves (2005)
  19. 19. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS What do we currently say about student work? How do we say it? How much notice do they take? How much does this feedback help them to actually learn? • How well does this feedback relate to students’ evidence of achievement of the intended learning outcomes? • How efficient is it for us? • What do you find to be effective? • • • •
  20. 20. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS CTD • How do we stop students from seeing feedback as little more than editing? • How do we give students a clear message about what they must do to improve future work? • In some cases students don't read or take the advice that is given (and are not required to do so). How might we require them to do anything with this feedback?
  21. 21. • Key idea: feedback should • cause thinking • provide guidance on how to improve • Comment-only grading • Focused grading • Explicit reference to mark-schemes and scoring guides Feedback that moves learning on
  22. 22. • When we mark do we give mixed messages? • Dilemma: you have a glaring grammatical error in front of you BUT this error does not relate to the criteria – do you comment on it? • How focused are we on the criteria? Queries
  23. 23. • Suggestions on how to improve • ‘Strategy cards’ ideas for improvement • Not giving complete solutions • Re-timing assessment • (eg two-thirds-of-the-way-through-a-unit test) Feedback that moves learning on
  24. 24. • Students assessing their own work • with rubrics • with exemplars • Students being trained as markers Students as owners of their learning