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Teaching narrative writing for large EFL university classes in Japan:
June 4, 2005
Ritsumeikan Univ.Kusatsu campus

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  • JALTCALL2005

    1. 1. 1.0 Presentation Title: <ul><li>Teaching narrative writing for large EFL university classes in Japan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A report on a 5 year field study on using videos, a Group Mailing List and Groupware on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Info of the presenter/ panelist: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>YASUDA, Masami, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kwansei Gakuin Univ., </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>http://myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/myindex.html June 4 , 2005 Ritsumeikan Univ. Kusatsu campus
    2. 2. 1.1.1 Abstract: <ul><li>Teaching EFL writing is very hard, as the class size is often very large and grading requires a lot of time and energy on the part of instructors. </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1.1.2 Abstract: <ul><li>Before entering university, students have little experience in writing a paragraph in the target language of English. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost every student has been trained how to translate Japanese into English. </li></ul>
    4. 4. 1.1.3 Abstract: <ul><li>In typical writing classes, active class participation is not encouraged or is not feasible, </li></ul><ul><li>as an instructor is quite busily grading only some and pre-assigned group work. </li></ul>
    5. 5. 1.1.4 Abstract: <ul><li>In short, the students do not necessarily appreciate the actual process of correction by an instructor, nor important focus on form grammar lectures. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning becomes unfortunately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a passive one, resulting in learning grammar or about the target language. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 1.2.1 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>The paper reports on a five year field study that resulted in much success, on teaching writing for large EFL university classes in Japan. </li></ul>
    7. 7. 1.2.2 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>To overcome many physical and psychological difficulties such as the above mentioned, </li></ul><ul><li>several technological approaches have been implemented in actual classroom setting. </li></ul>
    8. 8. 1.2.3 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>Namely, we made the use of </li></ul><ul><li>videos, </li></ul><ul><li>a Group Mailing List </li></ul><ul><li>and Groupware on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>These gadgets are not necessarily new tricks. </li></ul>
    9. 9. 1.3.1 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>First of all, the focus of writing has been targeted to </li></ul><ul><li>'narrative' writing, </li></ul><ul><li>rather than </li></ul><ul><li>'expository' paragraph writing, </li></ul><ul><li>nor </li></ul><ul><li>translation. </li></ul>
    10. 10. 1.3.2 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>That is, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>instead of teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>how to translate Japanese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>into English by sentences, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the class focused on the teaching of </li></ul><ul><li>how to narrate the story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on the video. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 1.3.3 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>A choice of a video can be made from among </li></ul><ul><li>many commercially available authentic videos, </li></ul><ul><li>but </li></ul><ul><li>the class adapted </li></ul><ul><li>a couple of EFL videos, </li></ul><ul><li>considering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the level of the class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the time allotment. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 1.4.1 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>Weekly assignments were given </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to 5 to 6 pre-selected groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>consisting of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>three to five students. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 1.4.2 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>Each class covers </li></ul><ul><li>about 5 minute segment of video story, after when </li></ul><ul><li>these 5 to 6 pre-selected groups of students are to write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>narrative summary story </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 1.4.3 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>in 10 to 15 sentences, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as their group homework, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>which shall be submitted to the instructor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>via a Group Mailing List. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 1.4.4 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>The instructor will then reply with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some corrections and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>via the same Mailing List, </li></ul><ul><li>so that </li></ul><ul><li>other students in the same class </li></ul><ul><li>will receive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both the submitted and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corrected mails. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 1.4.5 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>Groups of students whose work has been approved, </li></ul><ul><li>will in turn proceed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to share the corrected version </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with their members, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and will be ready </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to recite the story as a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>without reading the scripts. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 1.4.6 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>All the E-mail work will be stored in the Groupware on the Internet, </li></ul><ul><li>where students can browse </li></ul><ul><li>the submitted and </li></ul><ul><li>corrected pieces of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not only their group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but others, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>as well as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>other documents and announcements. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 1.4.7 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>Finishing successively </li></ul><ul><li>these cycles of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weekly E-mail correction and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oral presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>of the narration for each lesson, </li></ul>
    19. 19. 1.4.8 Abstract: 2 <ul><li>every student will then </li></ul><ul><ul><li>write, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get graded, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>re-write and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recite the narrative story </li></ul></ul><ul><li>for the whole video story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on cassette tapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>watching a digested video story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of about 8 and half minute long. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 1.5.1 Abstract 3 <ul><li>The paper will report on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the syllabus, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lesson plans, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with examples of </li></ul><ul><li>students' actual weekly E-mail work, and </li></ul><ul><li>audio narration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of final project work. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 1.5.2 Abstract 4 <ul><li>It will also introduce classroom setup and software, as well as IT tools, most of which are free services. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the syllabus design to be presented is still developmental, suggestions and discussion from the floor will be much appreciated. </li></ul>
    22. 22. 2.0 Introduction - L2 writing <ul><li>Dichotomies/Dilemmas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency and accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrastive rhetoric debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process vs. Product debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback and error correction </li></ul></ul>cf. Casanave, Christine Pearson. (2004) Controversies in second language writing. Ann Arbor, Michigan:Univ. of Michigan June 3-5, 2005
    23. 23. 2.1.1 Kinds of questions to pose <ul><li>How can we focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rather than </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning about English </li></ul><ul><li>The place of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar learning and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correction. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 2.1.2 Kinds of questions to pose <ul><li>How can we put </li></ul><ul><ul><li>communicative aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in classroom - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with or without the use of E-mails? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. 2.1.3 Kinds of further questions to pose <ul><li>How can we have </li></ul><ul><li>interactive drills, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>so that students can actively participate in class? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can we create </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ autonomous learning” environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with Group work? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. 3.0 “Teaching narrative writing in large EFL classes” <ul><li>I would like, now, to present my own experience of “ Teaching narrative writing ,” </li></ul><ul><li>for oral and written communications in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;regular&quot; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EFL classes </li></ul><ul><li>on a Japanese university level. </li></ul>
    27. 27. 3.1 The class needs and purposes <ul><li>At the Law Dept, at Kwansei Gakuin Univ., we offer two classes each for the two year required English courses. </li></ul>
    28. 28. 3.2 two kinds of classes for each year <ul><li>Roughly speaking, one is for reading, and the other for communication. The credit hours of English total to 8 hours out of 16 hours in foreign language requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1987, we adopted a semester course for English, and since 1998 for all foreign language classes. </li></ul><ul><li>The classes where I adopted “Video Narrative Writing via E-mail&quot; are not specialized classes such as &quot;information English&quot; or &quot;advanced&quot; classes, but the general 'regular' EFL classes. </li></ul><ul><li>And these classes are named as &quot;English Otsu&quot; in Japanese, which places an emphasis on oral and written communication. </li></ul>
    29. 29. 3.3 Video Textbooks <ul><li>It took me almost two years with trials and errors to come up with feasible lesson plans, which can be used for not 'special' or advanced', but 'regular' general English classes on a university level. </li></ul><ul><li>I have adopted a well-received Video textbook entitled: (Oxford University Press) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mysery Tour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jericho Conspiracy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. 4.0 Examples of actual lesson plans - 90 min. <ul><li>Cycle - 3 classes to cover two chapteres </li></ul><ul><li>Day 1 – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction Preview TF Questions - 5 min. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview with digested video - 5 min. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview with full version video - 10 min. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension checkups (TF) - 5 min. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show and stop with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation (Vocabulary, Grammar, Culture) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questions and Answer drills - 60 min. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Day 2 ( a week after) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview with digested video - 5 min. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail grading – via ML - over the weekend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group presentation for approved work 30 min. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Day 3 ( 2 weeks after) - same as Day 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group presentation for approved work 30 min. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quizzes on each chapter: Who said what? Take home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final Project – last two weeks – grading, recitation, record </li></ul>
    31. 31. 4.1 Homework - sample work separate <ul><li>Error Correction, feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mails – Group work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewrites until approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadline: Each Friday evening 20:00 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final Project – 8 ½ min. digested video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of stationary file - word processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group (All chapters execept the last one) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual work (last chapter) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Course grading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group and Individual work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online quizzes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final exam - Only 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Winning the students’ trust that their work is being graded with feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by the second or third round </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-Mail archieves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo Group site: http://groups.yahoo.co.jp/mygroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://groups.yahoo.co.jp/group/Eng1z_KGLaw/files/Emails.f/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index page: http://myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/eng1z.f/Emails.f/Emails_all.html </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. 5.0 Students’ work: Video narration <ul><li>E-mail work </li></ul><ul><li>Video - Separate video ouput (OHC) </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Recording </li></ul>
    33. 33. 6.0 IT tools which are mostly free services. <ul><li>Internet Browser: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer - both on Windows and Macintosh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-mails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlook Web Access, Outlook Express/Netscape Communicator on Windows or Eudora Pro on Macintosh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor: Eudora Pro on Macintosh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mailing List: no campus support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 2002 - started using Yahoo Group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You can compile E-mail aliases from student master files </li></ul><ul><li>Email listing page- Video - Narration work /public_html/eng1z.f/Emails.f/ - PWD needed </li></ul>
    34. 34. 7.0 Servers <ul><li>Internet Server - off campus - freeweb provider with FTP - free server space </li></ul>Personal files: Students and Instructors Virtual Server - mail file and other documents – can be accessed to from home, too. https:// webmail.kwansei.ac.jp / Instructors’ notes, homework files Only on campus - intranet http://myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/myindex.html
    35. 35. 7.1 Outlook Web Access: <ul><li>Mails: Web mail (IMAP), </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Files: Z drives </li></ul><ul><li>BBS: Public Folders </li></ul>https:// webmail.kwansei.ac.jp /
    36. 36. 7.2 BBS - Bulletin Board <ul><li>On-campus BBS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not quite helpful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not so useful. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So, instead of school BBS, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free BBS service (aaacafe) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo Group </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. 7.3 Public Folders (BBS)
    38. 38. 7.4   Off-campus BBS - aaacafe   and others <ul><li>URL: http://myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/bbs_f/bbs100104.html </li></ul><ul><li>URL: aaacafe.ne.jp - free </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www2.aaacafe.ne.jp/free/myasuda/main.bbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www2.aaacafe.ne.jp/free/myasuda/eng1z.bbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www2.aaacafe.ne.jp/free/myasuda/eng2z.bbs </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. 7.5 On-line quizzes authoring and delivery - QUIA and others <ul><li>QUIA - (login name: myasuda_kg) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.quia.com / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QUIA - stores students' logs and grades, but not item answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class portal page URL: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.quia.com/pages/masamimystery.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.quia.com/pages/masamijericho.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor mode: http://www.quia.com/servlets/quia.web.QuiaWebManager?tagModuleType =10400 </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. 7.6 Mailing List - pseudo groupware <ul><li>Yahoo eGroup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// groups.yahoo.co.jp/mygroups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other BBS - Groupware, etc. (Requires PIN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cgi.f11.aaacafe.ne.jp/~myasuda/treebbs/tree.php?mode=root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>画像メモ (Requires PIN) http://cgi.f3.aaacafe.ne.jp/~myasuda/gazoubbs/gazou.php </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. 8. Questionnaire – Online form <ul><li>Online questionnaire   (Requires PIN)   – hit return if error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>https:// webinfo.kwansei.ac.jp /active/login </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. 8.1 Questionnaire – Result 7/2004 - 2004 Spring Freshmen Classes <ul><li>Excel file: ( n=12) Server: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/JALT2005.f/QuestionnaireIZ07310both.xls </li></ul>
    43. 43. 9.0 Projects in progress <ul><li>Wiki pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BBS links: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/bbs_f/bbs100104.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabus pages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.wikihouse.com/myasuda/index.php?Adv -Comp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki and HTML page: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World clocks: http://www1.atwiki.jp/myasuda/pages/16.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HyperLink wiki page: (Requires PIN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://f3.aaa.livedoor.jp/~myasuda/tiddlywiki02/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki page: (Requires PIN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://f3.aaa.livedoor.jp/~myasuda/pukiwiki14/pukiwiki.php </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. 9.1 Projects in progress <ul><li>Wiki and ML combined: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// qwik.jp/myasuda/FrontPage.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing list experiment result: http://qwik.jp/myasuda/8.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML of Wiki ML experiment: http://www1.atwiki.jp/myasuda/pages/22.html </li></ul></ul>WELL Project Presentation 2004 and others <ul><li>Portfolio: WELL projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/032205.f/ </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. 9.2. Other Projects in progress: automatic scrolling, dictionary lookup <ul><li>Use of JavaScript </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagged dictionary lookup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic authoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic scrolling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual or timed reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pages to search by strings of texts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tohoho CGI engine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>text2speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robot reading texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eBook authoring </li></ul></ul>Seasonal games