1
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B.A (Geo,), B.Ed, M.Ed,
     Ph.D (Pedagogy)
University of Tsukuba, Japan




             3
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အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
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အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး

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အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. B.A (Geo,), B.Ed, M.Ed, Ph.D (Pedagogy) University of Tsukuba, Japan 3
  4. 4. txl; cGifhjyKcsuf þjrefrmbmomjyefpmwrf;tm; rl&if;rysuf rnfolrqdk? rnfonfhtoif;tzGJYrqdk? rnfonfh vlrsKd;rqdk? rnfonfhbmom0ifrqdk? rnfonfhEdkifiHurqdk vGwfvyfpGmjzifh ykHESdyfxkwfa0a&mif;cscGifhay;ygonf/ bmomjyefqdkol? wnf;jzwfol? xkwfa0olrsm;xHrS cGifhjyKcsuf awmif;cH&efrvdkyg/ pm½Iolrsm;tm; tpOfav;pm;vQuf a'gufwm,mprD;efAif;efaohtAÁ'kv’m[f 4
  5. 5. þpmtkyfjzifh &&SdrnfhtusKd;p0g;Afukokdvfaumif;rIrsm;udk tv’m[ft&SifjrwftrdefYawmfcH,loGm;&SmNyDjzpfaom zcifBuD; tAÁ'kv’m[f? rdcifBuD;&mbD,mESifh tm&f0gtaygif;tay: tdqGmavp0g;Af ydkYoyg/ a'gufwm,mprD;ef Aif;efaoh tAÁ'kv’m[f 5
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  7. 7.                         7
  8. 8. jrefrmbmomjyefqoltrSmpm dk tvGefw&moem;Muifem n§mwmawmfrlaom? teEÅ*½kPm&Sifjzpfawmfrlaom? tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf emrawmfjzifh tpjyKyg/ cspfvSpGmaom pm½Iol --------- jrefrmrGwfpvifrfavmuwGif?acwfESifhtnDpmayrsm;xGufay:vmaeonfhtwGufaumif;aomtvm;t vm jzpfygonf/ þacwf? þavmuBuD;udk vlwdkYrS IT acwf? Knolwledge Age acwfponfjzifh trnfrsm;wwfí trsKd;rsKd;ac:a0:Muaomfvnf;? rajymif;vJaomtajccHoabmt&ajym&rnfqdkvQif þacwfudk pumwifacwf (Screening Age)[kac:oifhygonf/ rnfonfht&mudk pumwif ygoenf;/ ar;p&mar;cGef;jzpfygonf/ rnfonfht&mudk pumwifoenf;qdkvQif vlom;onf vlom;yDoygavm[laom vlom;t&nftaoG;rsm;teufrS vlom;yDojcif;(Humanity)[laom t&nftaoG;udk pumwifMunfhaomacwf[k ac:oifhygonf/ pm½Ioltm;vkH;odxm;NyD;onhftwdkif;? urÇmhEdkifiHtoD;oD;touudk taMumif;trsKd;rsKd;ESifh ajcqefY oGm;vmMuonfh a½Tjrefrmrsm;tm;vkH;owdjyKrdMuonfhtcsufrSm ,aeYwdk;wufxGef;um;vSygonf[l aomEdkifiHrsm;wGif ½kyf0wÅKypönf;rsm;xl;jcm;qef;jym;vmrI? vlrIpD;yGm;a&;tajctaersm; wdk;wuf zGYHNzdK;rIrsm; taMumif;t&if;cHrSm todynmzGYHNzdK;vmjcif;aMumifh[laomtcsufjzpfonf/ rSefygonf/ tjrifhydkif;rSvlrsm;(Highly Educated) ajymqdkaeMuonfrSm todynmESifhqdkifaom zGYHNzdK;wdk;wufrI qdkif&mpHEIef;wpfckrSm Culture [laom ,Ofaus;rIyif jzpfygonf/ bmomjyefqdkoltaeESifh EdkifiH&yfjcm;a'owpfcsKdUwGifaexdkifbl;jcif;aMumifh owdjyKvmrdaomtcsufrSm ,aeYtcsdefwGif wdk;wufcsrf;omaomEdkifiHol? EdkifiHom;rsm;,Ofaus;rIonf jrifhrm;oa,mifjzpfoGm;jcif; jzpf ygonf/ þurÇmajrwGif rajymif;vJaomtajccHoabmw&m;BuD;wpf&yfrSm aiGaMu;&wwf csrf;om aomoludk vl,Ofaus;tjzpfcH,lusifhokH;Mujcif;jzpfygonf/ tvG,fqkH;Oyrmav;wpf&yfay;ygu urÇmhukvor*¾BuD;udk pDrHcs,fvS,faeonfh vkHNcKHa&;aumifpD(Security Council)wGif pDrH jc,fvS,faeonfh tNrJwrf;tzGJY0if[kac:qdkaeMuaom BuD;ig;BuD;[lonfhEdkifiHrsm;rSm aiGaMu;csrf;om aom? tiftm;tzufzufrS awmifhwif;aomEdkifiHBuD;rsm;jzpfNyD;? 4if;EdkifiHrsm;MoZmtmPmtwdkif; vdkufemaqmif½GufaeMu&ayonf/ jyefícsKyf&rnfqdkaomf ,aeYvltzGJUtpnf;wpfckcsif;wGifomru EdkifiHtoD;oD;wGifrqdk urÇmBuD;wpfckvkH;udk todynmtm;jzifh a½SUwef;a&mufaom? Opöm"e<u,f0 csrf;omaom? tzufzufrS tiftm;awmifhwif;aom vlwpfpkrSu BudK;udkif cs,fvS,faeMujcif;om jzpfygonf/ xdktcgwGif trSefwu,f todynmacwfa&mufaeygNyD? tdkifwDacwfa&mufaeygNyD[k ajymEdkifyg onf/ txufyg vlwpfpkwGif tdkifwDESifh ynm½SdMuygonf/ odkYaomfjim;vnf; xdkuJhodkY ynm jynfhpkHolrsm;? tvGef ,Ofaus;ygonfqdkaomvlrsm;uyif urÇmha'otoD;oD;wGif pdk;rdk;tEdkifusifh AdkvfusrIrsm;udk OD;aqmifaecJhMuygonf/ Oyrm- tar&duef-tD&wfppfyGJ? tar&duef-tmz*ef 8
  9. 9. epöwefppfyGJ? ½k½S-a*smf*sD,mppfyGJ? tpöa&;-ygvpöwdkif;ppfyGJrsm;wGif awGY½SdEkdifygonf/ urÇmh ukvor*¾BuD;rSvnf; emrnfomusefawmhNyD;? bmrS pGrf;aqmifay;Edkifjcif; r&Sdawmhacs/ xdkYaMumifh ynmwwf,Ofaus;Muygonfqdkaomvlrsm;uyif vlrqefaom? t½kdif;qefaom? t½kdif; 0g'(barbarism)tm; usifhokH;aeMuonfudk awGYjrifMu&ygonf/ vlYobm0t& rdrdu vl½kdif;jzpf onfudk tajzaumif;ay;&ef OmPfeD? OmPfeufokH;MuonfrSm obm0yif jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh xdk vl½kdif;BuD;rsm;uyif tjcm;aomvlrsm;udk vl½dkif;emrnfwwfí vufn§dK;xdk;wwfMuonfrSm "r®wm yif/ vl½kdif;rsm;u tkyfpkzGJYMuonf/ ulnDMuonf/ ½kdif;yif;Muonf/ pnf;vkH;Muonf/ nDnmMu onf/ igESifhrwl igh&efolvkyfwwfvmMuonfponfhjyoemrsm;tusKd;qufwpfckrSm tjypfrJholrsm; tm; trnftrsKd;rsKd;ay;? acgif;pOftrsKd;rsKd;wwfí tEdkifusifh pdk;rdk;Adkvfusjcif;omjzpfonf/ urÇmESifht0Srf; xdkuJhodkY tEdkifhusifh pdk;rdk;AdkvfusrIrsm;udk ykHo@meftrsKd;rsKd;ESifh ae&mtrsKd;rsKd;wGif awGYEdkifygonf/ 4if;wdkYrSm EdkifiHa&;t& ppfyGJqifETJjcif;? pD;yGm;a&;qufEG,frI jzwfawmufjcif;? vlrIa&;t& ypfy,fjcif;--- ponfhponfh ykHo@mefrsKd;pkH½Sdygonf/ 4if;wdkY &vm'fwpfckrSmum; vlYtcGifhta&;ac: vlYtcGifhtvrf;rsm;udk csKd;azmufjcif;yifjzpfonf/ urÇmhukvor*¾ vlYtcGifhta&;aMujimpmwrf; (Universal Human Rights) wGif trsm;ESifhqdkifaom vlYtcGifhta&;rsm; udk pdefpDaompum;&yfrsm;ESifh urÇmodatmifaMujimxm;aomfvnf; trSefwu,f vlYtcGifhta&; csKd;azmufcHae&onfhudp&yfrsm;udkrl tqdkyg,Ofaus;odrfarGY ynmwwfvSygonfqdkaom? wuúEdkvdk*sD ö enf;ynm&yfrsm;zGHYNzdK;ygonfqdkaomvlrsKd;BuD;rsm;u ESmap;aeMuygonf/ rsufpdrIefaeMuygonf/ em;yif;aeMuygonf/ tqdk;0g;qkH;jypfrSwfrSmum; uREkfyfwdkY cspfvSpGmaomtjypfrJhrGwfpvifrfrsm;om jzpfMuygonf/ taemufwdkif;rD'D,mrsm; xdk;ESufcsufwpfckrSm tpövmrftm; vlYtcGifhta&;csKd;azmufaombmom? rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; vlYtcGifhta&;uif;rJhaeaom? qkH;½IH;aeaomvlom;rsm;[k ykHazmfaeMujcif;yif jzpfonf/ þonfrSm tvGef 0rf;enf; aMuuGJzG,f&maumif;aom? &ifemp&maumif;aomjzpf&yfrsm; yif jzpfonf/ vludk vlvkd rjrifwwfMuaomolrsm;u vlom;tqefqkH;? vludkvlvdkjrifaom? vlYtcGifhta&; tjynfht0ay;aom tpövmrfESifh vlYtcGifhta&; tjynfht0&½Sdaeaom rGwfpvifrfrsm; udk udk,fxdvufa&mufESdyfpufolu ESdyfpuf? wzef tdkif'D,mtm;jzifh wdkufcdkufMuollrsm;u wdkufckduf jyKvkyfae Muygonf/ þpmwrf;udk a&;om;xkwfa0aom 'gtf0[ftu,f'rD (ygupöwefEdkifiH) &nf½G,fcsufrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;twGufomru? rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaom tjcm;bmom0ifnDaemifrsm;twGufyg &nfpl;í tpövmrfomoemESifhywfoufonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ckdifrmaom taxmuf txm;rsm;jzifh t&Sdudk t&Sdtwdkif;? trSefudk trSeftwkdif; wifjyxm;aompmwrf;wpfapmif jzpfyg onf/ tvf-[rf;'kvdv’m[f? csD;rGrf;jcif; axmyem[l[lorQonf tv’m[ft&SifjrwftzdkYom jzpfawmfrlonf/ þodkY &nf½G,fcsufaumif;xm;&Sdaom 'gtf0[ftu,f'rDonf t"GefY&Snf wnfNrJygapaomf0f/ 4if;vkyfief;rsm;tay: t&Sifjrwf tvkdwlrI&Sdygapaomf/ uREkfyf tawGYtBuKHt& vlom;wdkYbmombm0t& vlom;onf ta0;&Sd tjcm;vlom;rsm; pm;? 0wf? aerI "avhp½kdufrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;Mu? pyfpkwwfMuaomfvnf;? twlwuG aexdkifMuol tcsif;csif;? Oyrm- rdrd rdwfaqG,kHMunfrI? ,Ofaus;rIESifh vlrIa&;ausmaxmufaemufcH tajctaet&yf&yfudk avhvm oif,l&ef tm;xkwfBudK;yrf;rIr½Sd? pdwf0ifpm;rIr&SdMuacs/ wenf;tm; jzifhqdk&aomf twlwuG ,SOfwGJaexdkif Muolrsm;tcsif;csif; wpfOD;taMumif;udk wpfOD;wpfOD;od&ef BudK;pm;rIr&Sd/ em;vnf&efBudK;pm;rI uif;rJhjcif;rsm;aMumifh em;vnfrIvGJrSm;jcif;? 'Gd[oHo,rsm; 9
  10. 10. rMumcPjzpfay:avh&SdNyD;? ,if;tao;trTm; 'dG[oHo, rsm;rS vlrsKd;a&;y#dyu© (Racial Conflicts) txdBuD;xGm;NyD;? rsKd;wkef;owfjzwfjcif;? jynfwGif;ppfjzpfyGm;jcif;ponfhtajctaetxd BuD;xGm; us,fjyefY vmwwfMuonfrSm urÇmwvTm;wGif Oyrmtajrmuftrsm; &Sdaeygonf/ þtrSmpmtpwGifqdkcJhaom pumwifacwf (Screening Age)qdkonfrSm vlESifh vlYwd&dpämefudk pumwifppf aeaomumv[k qdkvdkcsifygonf/ wenf;qdk&aomf urÇmhaemufqkH; w&m;pD&ifrnfhaeYwGif tNyHK;ESifh &Sifjyef xajrmuf&rnfh vlqefaomvlESifh xdkaeYwGif nK§d;csKH;NyD; pdwftm;i,fpGmxajrmuf&rnfh vlrqefaomvludk pumwifppfaeaomumvvnf;jzpfygonf/ uREkfyfwdkY rGwfpvifrfrsm;onf tpövmrfhenf;usb0wnfaqmufa&;wGif tcsif;csif; wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; taqGcifyGef;rsm;jzpfMuaomaMumifh wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; az;rulnD oGefoifvrf;nTefMu&ayrnf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf rdefYawmfrlxm;onfrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;ESifh rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;twGuf 'gtf0[ftu,f'rDrS xkwfa0onfh ]]tpövmrfhabmifwGif;rSvlYtcGifhta&;}}[laom (Human Rights in Islam)[laompmwrf;udk bmomjyefqdk jrefrmrIjyK a&;om;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf/ þpmwrf;udk zwf½Iavhvm okH;oyfjcif;tm;jzifh jynfh0 pkHvifvSaom tpövmrfomoemtvSw&m;udk av;pm;tyfaomzwf½Ioludk,fwdkif em;vnf cHpm;EdkifNyD;? tjcm;aomrdwfaqGrsm;udk 'gtf0[fjyK&mwGifvnf; tvGefyif tokH;0ifayvdrfhrnf/ pumwifppfaq;aomumvwGif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf pdppfvdkufaom pumxJwGif nyfusef? wifusefvdkygu vlyDoaom? rGwfpvifrfyDoaomoljzpfatmif BudK;pm;tm;xkwfMuygpdkY/ 10
  11. 11. rSwfcsuf/ / þpmwrf;yg taMumif;t&mrsm;udk rlvpmwrf;&Sif a&;om;wifjyrIrsm;twdkif; tpövmrf vlYtcGifhta&;udk wduspGmbmomjyefqdk jrefrmrIjyKjcif;rSty rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,muf? rnfonfh tzGJYtpnf;wpfckudkrQ &nf½G,fíapmif;ajrmif; jypfwif? a0zef½IHUcsxm;jcif; r&SdygaMumif; 0efcHtyfygonf/ pm½Iolrsm;tm; tpOfxm0&av;pm;vQuf a'gufwm,mprD;ef Aif;efaoh tAÁ'kv’m[f 27 - 12 - 2007 11
  12. 12. jrefrmbmomjyefqdkrItm; wnf;jzwfol trSmpm tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf u½kPmawmfrS ESifxkwfjcif;cHcJh&aom ½IdifoGmefrm&fewfaESmuf,Suf zsufpD; jcif;[lorQrS uif;vGwfyg&ef tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfyg;ü cdkvIHyg/ tvGefw&moem;Muifemn§mwmawmfrlaom? txl;oem;awmfrlaomtv’m[ft&Sifjrwfemrawmf jzifh tpjyKyg/ cspfcifav;pm;&wJhpm½Iol ,ckrdwfaqGvufxJwGif a&muf&SdaompmtkyfrSm ygupöwefEdkifiHrS ygupöwefEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m tpövmrfh tzGJYcsKyftm; pwifwnfaxmifol? xdktzGJUcsKyf yxrOD;qkH;trD;&fOuúXBuD;jzpfcJhol armfvmem tAlttfvmarmf'l'DocifjyKpkcJhonfh ]Human Rights in Islam} qdkonfhusrf;i,ftm; jrefrm rGwfpvifrftrsKd;orD; ynm&SifwpfOD;jzpfaom q&mrBuD;a'gufwm,mprD;ef Aifefaoh tAÁ'kv’m[frS jrefrmrIjyKxm;onfh ]tpövmrfhabmifwGif;rS vlYtcGifhta&;}[lonfh usrf;i,fav;yif jzpfygonf/ rl&if;jyKpkol pma&;q&mBuD;onf jrefrmjynf&Sd rGwfpvifrfavmuwGifru rGwfpvifrfurÇmwcGifwGif vnf; tvGefyif ausmfMum;xif&Sm;vSygonf/ eADwrefawmfrsm;rSty vlom;wdkif;wGif trSm;udk,fpD &SdMuouJhodkY? tjypfudk,fpD&SdMuayonf/ odkYaomfqG[mAm[fom0uBuD;rsm;? qG[mADom0dumrBuD; rsm;onfum; r[fzl;Zf[kac:onfh tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfxdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufjcif;cH&aomolrsm;jzpf onfomru xdkolrsm;ESifhywfoufí tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf auseyfESpfNrdKUawmfrlcJhNyD; jzpfaMumif;udk vnf; usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif tv’m[ft&Sifudk,fawmfwdkif rdefYawmfrlxm;NyD;jzpfayonf/ ynm&Sif BuD;rsm;onfvnf; vlom;rsm;yifjzpfMuay&m rrSm;aoma&SUae? raoaomaq;orm;r&SdouJhodkY &Hzef &HcgwGif rSm;wwfMuayonf/ odkYaomf ,if;trSm;rsm;onf tpövmrfhaomif[D;'fw&m;ESifhqefYusif aom trSm;rsm; rjzpf&efrSm tvGefyifta&;BuD;vSayonf/ useftrSm;rsm;udkum; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf tvdkawmfwlygvQif xdkynm&Sifrsm;onf cGifhvTwfjcif;cHMu&ayrnf/ uRefawmfwdkYtaeESifh xkdynm&Sif BuD;rsm;twGuf t&SifjrwfxHawmfyg;wGif vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifh yefMum;Mu&ayrnf/ ,aeYrsufarSmufumvwGif ynm&Sifrsm;tm; raumif;ajymqdka&;om;rIrsm; aygrsm;vmaeayonf/ uRefawmfwdkYonf ynm&SifBuD;rsm;trSm;rsm;udk &SmazGjcif;bufü tm;oefaeMuaomfvnf; xdk ynm&Sifrsm; jyKpka&;om;cJhaom ynm&yfrsm;rS tusKd;cHpm;&efudkrlum; arhavsmhaeMuayonf/ uRefawmfwdkYtaeESifh jyKvkyfoifhonfhudprSm xkdynm&SifBuD;rsm; jyKpkcJhaomusrf;*efrsm;udk ö aoaocsmcsm avhvmíokawoevkyfoifhayonf/ rSm;aeonfhtcsufrsm;udk rSefatmif xyfrHjyifqif í rsufarSmufavmuESifh o[Zmwjzpfatmif vkyfMu&rnfum; uRefawmfwdkY rsufarSmufumv&Sd tmvifrfynm&Sifrsm; wm0efyifjzpfayonf/ yk*d¾Kvfa&;rkef;wD;rIaMumifh omoemudk ckwkH;vkyfí ykyfxD;? ykyfrwyfjcif;rsm;udk a&SmifMuOfoifhayonf/ uRefawmfwdkYonf rdrdudk,fwdkif avhvmqef;ppf okawoevkyf&rnfhtpm;? wqifhpum;? wqifhMum;íajymqdkaeMujcif;jzpfayonf/ þed'gef;udk uRefawmf tb,faMumifha&;ae&ygoenf;/ tcsKdUpma&;q&mrsm;onf tAlttfvmarmf'l'DtrSm; tcsKdUudk xkwfjyvQuf tAlttfvmarmf'l'Dtm; tpövmrfhynm&Sifrsm; pmrsufESmrS z,f&Sm;jypfvdkaeMu ayonf/ uRefawmftxufwGif qdkcJhovdk ynm&Sifrsm;wGif csKdU,Gif;csufrsm;? rSm;,Gif;cRwfacsmfrIrsm; &SdwwfMuygonf/ urÇmhtmvifrfynm&Siftausmftarmfrsm;rS taumif;qkH;aomozfpD;&f (uk&ftmef tvif;jyusrf;)[k owfrSwfxm;onfh ausmfMum;vSaom ozfpD;&f tdAfaeYudqD;&fwGifyif trSm;t,Gif; tcsKdY yg&SdcJhayonf/ xdktrSm;t,Gif;rsm;udk z,f&Sm;jcif; okawoetm; ½IdifcfqGzD;tk&f&[rmefESifh 12
  13. 13. ynm&Sifwpfpk pkaygif;um ]rdqGfbm;[kvfrkeD;&f zD;o[fZD;Af tdAfeduqD;&f}[laomtrnfjzifh aqmf'D tma&;AD;,m;EdkifiH? &d,m;'fNrdKU&Sd 'g½kvfpvmrfykHESdyfwdkufrS &dkufESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf/ ,if;pmtkyfudkyif 'g½kvfpvmrfykHESdyfwdkufrS t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh jyefqdkí twGJq,fwGJcGJum xkwfa0cJhaMumif; od& ayonf/ xdkYjyif tl&f'lbmomjyefvnf; &SdaeNyD[kodMu&ayonf/ ynm&SiftAlttfvmarmf'l'Da&;om; jyKpkcJhonfh pmtkyf? pmwrf;tcsKdUudkvnf; aqmf'Dtma&;AD;,m;EdkifiHwGif ½dkufESdyfxkwfa0jzefYcsdaeyg onf/ aqmf'Dtma&;AD;,m;EdkifiHwGif tpövmrfhw&m;awmfESifh qefYusifaom? rudkufnDaompmtkyf? pmwrf;? usrf;*efrsm;udk &dkufESdyfxkwfa0avh r&Sdyg/ ,if;taMumif;ESifh ywfoufNyD; uRefawmfonf uRefawmfq&mwpfOD;tm; ar;jref;cJhbl;ygonf/ q&mcifAsm... tdE´d,jynfESifh jrefrmjynfrS tdkvrm ynm&SiftcsKdUonf tAlttfvmarmf'l'Dtm; vrf;rSm;aeaomoltjzpf owfrSwfxm;Muygonf/ xdkYjyif olwdkYonf armf'l'Dqyf pmtkyf? pmwrf;rsm;udk rdrdwdkYudk,fwdkif rzwf½IMuouJhodkY ¤if;wdkYESifh eD;pyfaomolrsm;udkvnf; rzwf½IMu&ef wdkufwGef;vQuf &Sdygonf/ odkYaomfvnf; aqmf'D tma&;AD;,m;EdkifiH&Sd cdkifrm pdwfcs&aom ykHESdyfwdkufrsm;rS pdkif,'ftAlttfvm armf'l'D ozfpD;&f (uk&ftmeftvif;jyusrf;)ESifh tjcm; pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;? aqmif;yg;rsm;udk xkwfa0 jzefYjzL;aeygonf/ xdktcg q&mrS ]pdkif,'ftAlttfvmarmf'l'Donf rdrda&;om;pD&ifcJhonfh ozfpD;&f (uk&ftmeftvif;jy usrf;) jzpfonfh ozf[D;rkvfuk&ftmefwGif trSm;tcsKdUyg&SdcJhonfrSm rSefuefygonf/ Oyrm – eADwrefawmfrsm;onf tjypfuif;pifaomvlom;rsm;(rtfpGef)rsm;r[kwfMu[k olrSa&;om;cJhygonf/ ,if;uJhodkY tcsKdUtrSm;rsm;udk remvdk0efwdkpdwf&Sdaomolrsm;u ykHBuD;csJUum armf'l'Dqyfa&;om;cJhonfh usrf;rsm;? pmtkyf? pmwrf;rsm;tm;vkH;udk yifv,fxJwGif vTwfypfvdkuf&awmhrvdkvdk? rD;bJ ykH½IdUvdkuf& awmhrvdkvdk ajymqdkaeMuonfudk uRefawmfodygonf/ ,if;tdE´d,ESifhjrefrmjynfrS tdkvrmomoemY ynm&Sifrsm; pdk;&drfjcif;uvnf; twdkif;twmwpfcktxd rSefuefygonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf rsufarSmufacwfwGif "r®EÅ&m,frsm;onf pmayrsm;? pmtkyf? pmwrf;rsm;udk tajrmuftrsm; a&;om; xkwfa0vQuf&Sdygonf/ omoemhtdvifrftajccHynmrwwfuRrf;aomolrsm;onf trSm;ESifh trSefudk a0zef ydkif;jcm;EdkifpGrf;r&Sdojzifh tawG;tac:? t,ltqcRwfacsmfwdrf;yg;rIrsm;jzpfay:vmEdkifygonf/ ,ck aqmf'Dtma&;AD;,m;EdkifiHwGif ykHESdyf xkwfa0aeonfhpmtkyfrsm;rSm vdktyfvQifvdktyfovdk jyefvnf pDppfwnf;jzwfxm;ygonf/ tawG;tac:? t,ltqcRwfacsmfwdrf;yg;rnfhtEÅ&m,fr&Sdyg/ t&m&mwGif w&m;rQwrI&SdMu&rnf/ trSm;udk trSm;vdkY azmfxkwf0HhouJhodkY trSefudkvnf; trSef[k csD;usL;&J&jcif;onf vlolawmfaumif;wdkY]xkH;}yifjzpfayonf}[k ajzMum;cJhygonf/ vlawmf vlaumif;wdkYxkH;udk ESvkH;rlí uRefawmfwdkYtaeESifh vdkufemusifhokH;tyfay‫ ‏‬nf/}o ,ck pm½Iolvuf0,fwGif a&muf&Sdaeaom ]tpövmrfhabmifwGif;rS vlYtcGifhta&;}qdkonfh bmomjyefusrf;i,fonf tpövmrfhtajccHtaxmuftxm;rsm;jzpfaom usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef? pGefem[f? td*sfrm[fESifh ud,m;pfwdkYESifh udkufnDaom usrf;i,fjzpfygonf/ pm½IoltaeESifh ,kHMunfpdwfcspGm zwf½Iavhvm jzefYcsdydkYcsEdkifygonf/ bmomjyefqdk&mwGifvnf; bmomjyefqdkolq&mrBuD;onf twwfEdkifqkH;BudK;pm;í bmomjyefqdkxm;ouJhodkY uRefawmfonfvnf; tpGrf;ukef pdppfwnf;jzwf xm;ygonf/ odkYaomf vlom;rsm;jzpfonfhtm;avQmfpGm tarhtrSm;yg&SdEdkifayonf/ xdkodkY yg&SdcJhyg vQif pm½IoltaeESifh rdrda&;om;xm;onfh pmtkyfozG,foabmxm;um jyifqifzwf½Iay;Muyg&ef arwÅm&yfcHygonf/ tBuHjyKpmrsm; ay;ydkYvdkyguvnf; m.m.yasinn@hotmail.com odkY ay;ydkYEdkifyg onf/ tdk - tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf? þusrf;i,ftm; a&;om;jyKpkcJhol q&mBuD;tAlttfvmarmf'l'Dociftm; vnf;aumif;? bmomjyefqdkol q&mrBuD;a'gufwm,mprD;eftm;vnf;aumif;? jrefrmbmomjyeftm; wnf;jzwfol uRefawmfhtm;vnfaumif; ESpfb0? ESpfXmewGif aumif;jrwfvSonfhtpm; csD;jr§ifh ay;oem;awmfrlyg/ uRefawmfwdkY uG,fvGefoGm;NyDjzpfaom rdb? q&morm;? aqGrsKd;om;csif;rsm;? 13
  14. 14. rdwfaqGrsm;tm;vnf;aumif; vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhay;oem;awmfrlyg/ &SifoefvQuf&Sdaom rdbrsm;? q&morm;rsm;? aqGrsKd;om;jcif;rsm;? rdwfaqGo*F[rsm;udk tDrmefcdkifrmrI? Nidrf;csrf;rI? csrf;omrI? usef;rmrI? *kPfodu©m&SdrIponfh ponfh aumif;csD;tajrmuftrsm; csD;jr§ifhay;oem;awmfrlyg/ rGwfpvifrftrsKd;om;? trsKd;orD;rsm;tm; þusrf;i,fjzifh tusKd;cHpm;EdkifpGrf; csD;jr§ifhay;oem; awmfrlyg/ þusrf;i,fudk taMumif;jyKí uRefawmfwdkYtm; *s[Eémrfi&JrD;ab;rS u,fwifawmfrlí *sEéofokcbkHodkY ydkYaqmifay;awmfrlyg/ tmrD;ef tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfaus;uRef armfv0Drk[r®'f,mpD;ef ‫‏‬ 14
  15. 15. usrf;OD;pum; uREkfyfwkdY touf&SifaexkdifMuaom acwfumvBuD;tm; owif;tcsuftvufaygif; ajrmufjrm; pGmukd r,kHMunfEkdifavmufatmif vsifjrefvSaomtjrefEIef;jzifh o,faqmifay;aeonfh qufoG,fa&; acwfumvBuD;[k ac:qkdEkdifygonf/ owif;ESifhenf;ynmrsm; rnfrQyifrsm;jym; wkd;wufvifhupm; rdrdwkdY ywf0ef;usif&Sd vlom;rsm;tm; xkd;azmufausmfvTm; em;vnfEkdifaom pGrf;tm;&Sdrnfr[kwfyg/ uREkfyfwkdYonf vlom;rsm;tm; vlrsKd;pk? tom;ta&mif? bmompum;? ukd;uG,f,kHMunfrI? ,Ofaus;rIponfwkdYjzifh cGJjcm; ½Ijrifavh&Sdygonf/ bmomaygif;pkH? ,Ofaus;rIaygif;pkH twlwuGaexkdifMuaom vlUtzGJUtpnf;BuD;rsm;üyif &mpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm twlwuG ,SOfwGJaexkdifMuaomfvnf; uREkfyfwkdYonf rdrdwkdUESifhtwlaexkdifMuolrsm; ukd;uG,f,kHMunfrI? ,Ofaus;rIESifhvlrIa&; ausmaxmufaemufcHtajctaersm;ukd b,faomtcgurQ wkduf½kduf avhvmoif,l&ef tm;rxkwfcJhbl;yg/ þokdY twlwuG ,SOfwGJaexkdifMuolrsm; tcsif;csif; wpfOD;taMumif;wpfOD;od&ef BudK;pm;rIr&Sdjcif;? em;vnf&ef BudK;pm;rI uif;rJhcJhrIrsm;aMumifh em;vnfrIvGJrSm;jcif;? 'Gd[oHo,rsm; rMumcP jzpfay: avh&Sdonf/ taemufwkdif;wGif rGwfpvifrfrsm;ESifhywfoufaom vwfwavmaqG;aEG;rIrsm;rSm wpfrsKd;wnf; aomyHkpHESifh OD;wnfyHkazmfaeMuonf/ wpfcgu *sL;vlrsKd;qdkvQif uyfap;ESJaumfw&mrsm;? pD;yGm;a&;udk BudK;udkifjc,fvS,folrsm;tjzpf qdkprSwfjyKcJhaom umv&SdcJhygonf/ ,cktcgwGifrl rGwfpvifrf[kqdkvQifyif tpGef;a&muform;? tMurf;zuf0g'D? tajccH0g'D[ktrnfwyfcH&aomumv jzpfaeayonf/ trSefpifppf rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; ¤if;wdkY ,HkMunfudk;uG,frI? vkdufemusifhoHk;rIrsm;ESifhywfoufí wdkuf&dkufavhvm pl;prf;rI? ar;jref; pHkprf;rIrsm;rSm tvGefyifenfyg;aeayonf/ 'tf0[ftu,f'rDtaejzifh rGwfpvifrfrsm;twGufomru tjcm;bmom0ifrsm;twGufyg tpövmrf ESifhywfoufonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ½kdk;½Sif;aom?wdusaomyHkpHjzifh wdkuf½dkufwifjyay;&ef[laom tcsuf udk&nf&G,fcsuftjzpfcsrSwfcJhygonf/ tpövmrfESifhoufqdkifaom okawoevkyfief;rsm;udkvnf; pmtkyfpmwrf; txlBuD;rsm;tjzpf xkwfa0rnfhtpm; pmtkyfi,frsm;? pmpDpmuHk;rsm; ESifh vkyfief;aqmif&GufrI pmwrf;rsm; tpD&ifcHpmrsm;yHkpHjzifhxkwfa0oGm;&ef rl0g'wpf&yfcsrSwfcJhygonf/ ,ckwifjyrnfhpmwrf;rSm rGwfpvifrfxktwGufomru wpfurÇmvHk;twdkif;twmESifh &ifqdkifae&aom vlYtcGifhta&;qdkif&mjyóemudk wifjyxm;ygonf/ uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh rGwfpvifrfrsm;xHrS&&Sdaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh acwfNydKif jzpfay:aeaom jyóemtrsdK;rsdK;ay:ütajccHí tpövmrfhtaMumif;udk pDppfwifjyxm;jcif;aMumifh tpövmrfh taMumif;odvdk olrsm;twGuf taxmuftuljzpfrnf[k arQmfvifhygonf/ uREkfyfwdkYonf ,ckxkwfa0jcif;ESifhywfoufí tBuHay;csuf? a0zefcsufESifh pHkprf;ar;jref;rIrsm; tm;vHk;udk BudKqdkyg/ pm½IoltaeESifh tpövmrfqdkif&mokawoevkyfief;rsm;twGufvdktyfrnfh rnfonfh pmtkyfpmwrf; ESifh rSwfwrf;rSwf&mrsm;udkrqdkay;jcif;jzifh oifokawoeaqmif&GufrIudk ulnDvdkygonf/ taxGaxGñTefMum;a&;rSL; 'tf0[f tu,f'rD 15
  16. 16. usrf;jyKol tAlttfvmarmf'l'D udk,fa&;&mZ0iftusOf;  c&pfouú&mZf 1903 ckESpf? pufwifbmv (25)&uf ([d*s&Douú&mZf 1321 ckESpf? &*sAfv (3)&ufaeYwGif tdE´d,wdkufi,f? [kduf'&mbwfjynfe,f (,aeYtac: - r[m&m&SfMwm; jynfe,f? tl&ef*gbwfNrdKUü arG;zGm;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1918 wGif bD*sEdk;&ftl&f'lowif;pmü *sme,fvpftjzpf trIxrf;aqmifonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1920 wGif *smygyl;&fNrdKUü xkwfa0jzefYcsdaeaom wm*sfaeYpOfowif;pmwGif t,f'Dwmtjzpf cefYtyfjcif;cH&onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1925 wGif tdE´d,EdkifiHvkH;qdkif&mtdkvrmomoemhynm&Sifrsm;toif;BuD;rS xkwfa0jzefYcsdaeaom rGwfpvifrfaeYpOfowif;pm (aemifwGif - tvf-*srDtofowif;pm[k trnfajymif;cJh) wGif t,f'DwmtjzpfcefYtyfjcif;cH&onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1927 wGif tvf-*sd[m'fzdvftpövmrf (tpövmrfhabmifwGif;rS *sd[m'f) qdkonfh pmwrf;tm; a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1930 wGif q&mBuD;ausmfMum;aompmtkyfjzpfonfh 'D;efed,m;ofqdkonfh pmtkyftm; a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1932 wGif o&f*sKrmEkvfuk&ftmef (uk&ftmefbmomjyef)tm; [kduf'&mbwf jynfe,fü bmomjyefqdkrIudk tpjyKcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1938 wGif tv’mr[fa'gufwmtdufAg;vfqGm[dAf tBuHay;csuft& edtm;ZftvDcef;rS rdrdydkifqdkifaom yoefukwfNrdKUtaemufbuf (5)uDvdkrDwmtuGmwGif wnf&Sdaom *srmyl;&fNrdKUü&Sdonfh (66){uus,fjyefYonfhajrtus,ft0ef;ay:wGif wnf aqmufxm;aom 'g½kvfpvmrfb@ma&;XmeodkY ajymif;a½TUcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1941 wGif tdE´d,EdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m tpövmrfhtzGJUcsKyf (*srmtofaohtpövmrD [if;'f) udk zGJUpnf;wnfaxmifí ,if;tzGJUcsKyfwGif trD;&f (OuúX)tjzpf a½G;aumuf wifajr§mufjcif;cHcJh&onf/ 16
  17. 17.  c&pfouú&mZf 1942 wGif *srmtoftzGJUcsKyf XmecsKyftm; yoefukwfNrdKUodkY ajymif;a½TUcJh onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1943 wGif ozf[D;rkvfuk&ftmef (usrf;jrwfuk&ftmeftm; odem;vnfjcif;) trnfjzifh ausmfMum;aomozfpD;&f(uk&ftmeftvif;jyusrf;)tm; pwifa&;om;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1947 wGif ygupöwef *smrmtofaohtpövmrD(ygupöwefEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m tpövmrfhtzGJUcsKyf) XmecsKyftm; vm[kd&fNrdKUodkY a&TUajymif;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1948 wGif tpövmrfhnDvmcHESifh tpdk;&tzGJYtwGuf wuf<upGmyg0if vIyf&Sm;cJh onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1948 wGif “um'D,meDjyoem”[kac:qdkonfh pmtkyfi,ftm; a&;om;cJh onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1948 wGif tpdk;&rS axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1949 wGif tpdk;&rS tzGJUcsKyf tpövmrfhnDvmcHtwGuf BuKHawGUae&aom jyoemrsm;udk jyefvnfajz&Sif;ay;jcif;tm; vufcHcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1953 wGif um'D,meDrsm;tm; twdkufcHjyKonfhtwGuf ppfckH½kH;rS q&mBuD; tm; ao'PfcsrSwfcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1953 wGifyif q&mBuD;tm; ao'PfcsrSwfcJhjcif;tm; wpfoufvkH; axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;jcif;trdefYESifh tpm;xkd;cJhonf/ aemufydkif;wGif ,if;trdefYtm;vnf; y,fzsufcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1955 wGif q&mBuD;onf rw&m;axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;jcif;rS vGwfajrmuf cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1958 wGif tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPmydkiftdkif,lAfcef;onf rm&Sm,favmOya'jzifh q&mBuD; wnfaxmifcJhonfh tpövmrfhtzGJUcsKyf(*srmtofaohtpövmrD)tm; zsufodrf;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1964 wGif q&mBuD;tm; wzefxyfrHí rw&m;zrf;qD; axmifoGif;tusOf;cs xm;jcif;cH&jyefonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1964 wGif q&mBuD;onf rw&m;zrf;qD;tusOf;csxm;jcif;rS vGwfajrmufcJh onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1971 wGif q&mBuD;onf rdrdaemufvdkuftzGJU0iftoif;om;wdkYtm; yghuf wyfrawmfESifhvufwGJí ygupöwefjynfaxmifpktwGuf wdkufyGJ0if&ef trdefYay;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1972 wGif q&mBuD; pDrHa&;om;onfhozf[Drkvfuk&ftmef(usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef tm; odem;vnfjcif;)trnf&Sd ozfpD;&f(uk&ftmeftvif;jyusrf;)rSm atmifjrifpGm NyD;pD;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1972 wGif q&mBuD;onf tpövmrfhtzGJUcsKyftrD;&f(OuúX)&mxl;rS EIwfxGuf ay;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1979 wGif q&mBuD;onf aq;uko&eftwGuf tar&duefjynfaxmifpkodkY xGufcGmcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1979 wGif q&mBuD;onf tar&duefjynfaxmifpküyif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf trdefYawmfudk cH,lcJhavonf/ (tifemvdv’m[d 0tifemtdvdkif;[d &m*sdtl;ef)  c&pfouú&mZf 1979 wGif q&mBuD;&kyfuvyftm; ygupöwefEdkifiH? vm[kd&fNrdKUwGif 'zef tpövmrfhenf;usoN*dKvfjr§yfESHcJhonf/ 17
  18. 18. rSwfcsuf / / q&mBuD;"gwfykHtm; rjrifbl;onfhpm½Iolrsm;jrifbl;ap&ef &nf½G,fí azmfjy xm;jcif;om jzpfygonf/ 18
  19. 19. tpövmrf EdifiHa&;qdif&muefYowfcsufrsm; k k tpövmrfEdkifiHa&;pepfonf tajccHoabmw&m;oHk;cktay:wGif tajccHxm;onf/ ,if;wdkYrSm- (1) aomif[D;'f[laom tajccHoabmw&m; (Oneness of God -udk;uG,f&mt&Sif wpfyg;wnf; wnf&Sdjcif;)? (2) &Dpmvof[laom tajccHoabmw&m; (wrefawmfjzpfjcif;)? (3) cdvmzof[laom tajccH oabmw&m; (udk,fpm;vS,fqufcHrI)wdkYjzpfonf/ aomif[D;'f[lonfrSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sifwpfyg;wnf;uom zefqif;jyKpkysdK;axmifol? xdef;odrf; apmifha&SmufolESifh pMu0VmtwGif;&Sd ouf&SdoufrJht&mcyfodrf;wdkYudkpdk;ydkifawmfrlol[k t"dyÜg,f&onf/ xdkt&Sif wpfyg;wnf;üom trdefYay;ydkifcGifh? wm;jrpfydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ c0yfudk;uG,fjcif;? emcHwnfaqmufjcif; tm;vHk;wdkYonf xdkt&Sifwpfyg;wnf;ESifhom xdkufwefonf/ trsdK;rsdK;taxGaxG txl;xl;tjym;jym;jzpfaom ouf&Sdrsm;? uREkfyfwdkY cE¨mudk,ftpdwftydkif;rsm;? twGif;uvDpmrsm;? ½kyfydkif;qdkif&m vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;tay: oufa&mufaeaom vTrf;rdk;jc,fvS,frIrsm;? tvdktavsmuf jzpfay:wnf&SdaeMuaom ½kyfw&m;rsm;tm;vHk; onf uREkfyfwdkYbmom pDrHzefwD;xm;rI[lí wpfpHkwpf&mrQr&Sdacs/ þtcsif;t&mtm;vHk;onf tEdIif;rJh xm0& udk;uG,f&mt&Sif (tv’m[f)u uREkfyfwdkYtay:tyfESif;xm;onfh tvGef&ufa&mvSonfh axmufyHh ay;urf;jcif;rsm;omjzpfayonf/ txufygtaMumif;w&m;rsm;aMumifh uREkfyfwdkYjzpfwnfaejcif; &nf&G,fcsuf? &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk qHk;jzwfowfrSwfjcif;? uREkfyfwdkYavmuDqdkif&mtcGifhtmPmESifh vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;uefYowfcsufrsm;udk uREkfyfwdkY bmomqHk;jzwf&efrSm tcGifhr&Sdacs/ xdkYtwl rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufurSvnf; qHk;jzwfay;Edkif aomtcGifhta&; r&Sdacs/ xdktcGifhta&;rSm udk;uG,f&mt&Siftv’m[fwpfyg;wnf;ESifhom oufqdkifaom tcGifhta&;jzpfonf/ udk;uG,f&mt&Sif wpfyg;wnf;&Sdjcif;[laom tajccHoabmw&m;aMumifh vlom; Oya'a&;&mowfrSwfjy|mef;rIESifh EdkifiHa&;t& tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifpdk;rI[laom todonmrsm;udk t"dyÜg,f rJhaponf/ rnfonfhyk*¾dKvf wpfOD;wpfa,muf? rdom;pkwpfpk? vlwef;pm;wpf&yfESifh vlrsdK;EG,fpkwpfpkurQ xm0&udk;uG,f&mt&Sif (tv’m[f) txufrS ae&mr,lEdkifacs/ udk;uG,f&mt&Sifwpfyg;wnf;onfomvQif tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifol? pdk;rdk; tkyfcsKyfoljzpfonf/ olynwfawmfrsm;onfomvQif tpövmrf w&m; Oya'tjzpf jzpfwnfaejcif;jzpfonf/ &dpmvof[lonfrSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sif(tv’m[f) Oya'orsm;udk uREkfyfwdkYvlom;rsm; vufcH&&Sd&m Mum;cHudkac:onf/ &dpmvof[laom wrefawmfjzpfjcif;rS uREkfyfwdkY vufcH&&Sdaomt&mESpfck &Sdygonf/ ,if;wdkY teufwpfrsdK;rSm usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefjzpfNyD; þusrf;wGif xm0&udk;uG,f&mt&Sif (tv’m[f)u ol Oya'orsm; udk tao;pdwf &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;ygonf/ tjcm;wpfrsdK;rSm wrefawmfjrwfrk[r®'f ()onf tv’m[ft&Sif apvTwfcH&oltjzpf ,if;uk&ftmefusrf;udk pum;ESifhvkyf&yftm;jzifh t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkjyjcif; ESifh vufawGUpHerlem usifhokH;jycsufwdkYjzpfygonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS vlYb0wnfaqmufa&;ESifh ywfoufNyD; us,f0ef;aom tajccHoabm w&m;rsm;udk csrSwfay;onf/ þodkY uk&ftmefrScsrSwfay;aom tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;t& tpövmrfenf;usb0wnfaqmufa&;pepfudk tv’m[fwrefawmfu pHerlem tjzpf xif&Sm;aponf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefESifh wrefawmfb0wnfaqmufrI pHerlemESpfckudkaygif;pnf;í &S&Dt[fac: tpövmrfhw&m;Oya' jzpfvm&onf/ 19
  20. 20. cdvmzofqdkonfrSm udk,fpm;jyKjcif;(odkYr[kwf) udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfjcif;[k t"dyÜg,f&onf/ tpövmrf omoemwGif vlom;onf udk;uG,f&mt&Sifu urÇmN*dK[ftwGuf cefYtyfaomudk,fpm;vS,fjzpfonf/ xdkY tjyif t&Sifjrwf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&olvnf;jzpfonf/ qdkvdkonfrSm udk;uG,f&mt&SifrSay;tyfaom vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk&&SdaomaMumifh xdktmPmESifhvkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk owfrSwfjy|mef;csufabmiftwGif;üom usifhoHk;ydkifcGifh&Sdayonf/ txufazmfjyyg ]]udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfjcif;}} oabmw&m;udkxif&Sm;ap&ef Oyrmjy&vQif toifydkifqdkif aom ajr,mwpfuGuftwGuf toifhudk,fpm; pDrHtkyfcsKyfrnfholwpfOD;udk cefYxm;rnfqdkMuygpdkY/ toifhtae ESifh tNrJwrf;vkyfaqmifcdkif;Edkifaom tajctaersm;rSm- yxrOD;pGm ajruGuftrSefwu,fydkifqdkifrIonf toifhvuf0,füom&Sdí pDrHtkyfcsKyfolrSm toifudk,fwdkifrjzpfEdkifacs/ 'kwd,taeESifh oifudk,fpm;vS,frS oifydkifqdkifrIrsm;udk oifñTefMum;csufrsm;t&om wdkuf½kdufpDrHtkyfcsKyfapjcif;jzpfonf/ wwd,taeESifh oifhudk,fpm;vS,fu oifuefYowfcsufrsm;udkvdkufemvsuf olYukd,fydkif tcGifhtmPmudk toHk;jyKí pDrH tkyfcsKyfjcif; jzpfonf/ pwkwtaejzifh olutoif,HkMunfrIudk&,lNyD; oifhqE´rsm;udkudk,fpm;jyKí oifh ¦ &nf&G,fcsufrsm; jynfh0atmif taumiftxnfazmfay;jcif;[laom yHkpHav;rsdK;jzifh vkyfaqmifapEdkifygonf/ udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD; wpfa,muftaeESifh txufazmfjyyg tajctaeav;&yfudk rjznfhpGrf;EdkifcJhaomf xdkol onf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf tyfESif;xm;aom vkyfydkifcGifhtmPmudk tvGJoHk;pm;jyKjcif;jzpfonf/ olu udk,fpm;jyKcJhaom udk,fpm;vS,f (odkYr[kwf) udk,fpm;jyKjcif;[laom y#dnmOftm; csdK;azmuf&mrnf/ þonfrSm tpövmrfrSzGifhqdkaom vlom;onfurÇmN*dK[ftwGuf xm0&udk;uG,f&mt&Sif udk,fpm;vS,fawmfjzpfonf[laomoabmudk qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf/ txufazmfjyyg tajctaeav;&yfpvHk; onf udk,fpm;vS,f (cvDz[f)[laom todynmudk twdtusazmfñTef;aeayonf/ þodkYaom EdkifiHa&; oabmw&m;udk vdkufemusifhoHk;aom EdkifiHawmfonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sif tcsKyftjcmtmPmatmuf0,f udk;uG,f&mt&Sifudk udk,fpm;jyKí tkyfcsKyfaejcif;rnf/ txufyg&Sif;vif;zGifhqdkcsufrsm;t& (cvDz[f)[lonf rnfonhfyk*¾dKvfwpfpHkwpfa,muf (0g) rif;qufwpfck (0g) vlwef;pm;wpfckrS jzpf&rnf[laom owfrSwfcsufr&SdaMumif; odomxif&Sm;onf/ cvDz[ftcGifhtmPm[lonf aomif[D;'fESifh &dpmvof[laom tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;udk todtrSwf jyKvufcHNyD;onfhaemuf udk,fpm;jyKjcif;tajctaet&yf&yfudk jznfhpGrf;ay;Edkif&eftoifh&Sdaom rnfonfh vlYtpkta0;udkrqdk tyfESif;xm;aomvkyfydkifcGifhtmPmjzpfonf/ þodkYcvDz[fwm0ef,lxm;aom vlY tpkta0;taeESifh vlYtzGJUtpnf;BuD;wpfckvHk;tay:ü wm0ef&Sdonfomru tpktzGJU0if vlwpfOD;csif;tay: üvnf; wm0ef&Sdonf/ þtcsufrSm tpövmrfwGif 'Drdkua&pDudk pwiftajcjyKapaomtcsufjzpfonf/ tpövmrfvlYabmif twGif;yg0ifaom vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD;csif;pDonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sifudk,fpm;vS,f[laom tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk yg0iftusdK;cHpm;EdkifcGifh&Sdojzifh vlwpfOD;csif;pDwGif nDrQaomtcGifhta&;&Sdonf/ rnfol wpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD;tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk z,f&Sm;ydkifcGifhr&Sd/ EdkifiHawmf ta&;udpöt00udk wm0ef,laqmif&Gufaeaom at*sifpD[lonf vlwpfOD;csif;pD oabmwlnDcsufESifh zGJUpnf;&rnfjzpfonf/ xdkYjyif EdkifiHawmf[lonf txufygat*sifpDwGifyg0ifonfh udk,fpm;vS,f wpfOD;csif;pD tcGifhtmPmudk wdk;csJUxm;jcif;omjzpf&rnf/ þudk,fpm;vS,frsm; oabmxm;rsm;onf 20
  21. 21. tpdk;&tzGJUtpnf; aemufqHk;tqHk;tjzwf jzpfap&rnf/ tpdk;&tzGJUwpfckvHk;onf udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tBuHay;csufrsm;? olwdkYqE´oabmxm;rsm;t&om pDrHaqmif&Guf&rnf/ xdkYaMumifh at*sifpDwGifyg0ifolwpfOD;csif; ,HkMunfpdwfcsrIcH&ol rnfolrqdk tpdk;&tzGJU udk,fpm;wm0efESifh 0wÅ&m;rsm;udk ]]udk,fpm;vS,f}}tjzpf aqmif&GufEdkifcGifh&Sdonf/ at*sifpDtwGif;yg0ifol rsm; ,HkMunfpdwfcsrIuif;rJhoGm;aomtcsdefwGifrl xdkolonf ]]udk,fpm;vS,f}}tjzpfrS qif;ay;&ef vdktyfonf/ þtcsufaMumifh tpövmrfEdkifiHa&;pepfrSm jynfh0aom'Drdkua&pDtoGifaqmifaeayonf/ tpövmrfh'Drdkua&pDESifh taemufwkdif;'Drdkua&pDudk rnfonfht&mu cGJjcm;ay;ygoenf;/ taemuf wdkif;'Drdkua&pDonf trsm;uvufcHaom tcsKyftjcmtmPm[laom todonmay:wGif tajccHxm;jcif; jzpfí tpövmrfh'Drdkua&pDrSm trsm;uvufcHaom cvDz[f ]]udk,fpm;vS,f}}[laomoabmw&m;tay: tajccHxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ taemufwdkif;'Drdkua&pDwGif jynfolvlxku tcsKyftjcmtmPmudkydkifqdkifNyD;? tpövmrfwGifrl tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifolrSm udk;uG,f&mt&SifjzpfNyD; vlom;rsm;tm;vHk;onf udk;uG,f&m t&Sif cvDz[f (odkY)udk,fpm;vS,fawmfrsm;jzpfMuonf/ taemufwdkif;'Drdkua&pDwGif Oya'udk vlxkrS rdrdwdkYbmomjy|mef;NyD; tpövmrfwGif udk;uG,f&mt&Sif u wrefawmfjrwf()rSwpfqifhcsrSwfay;aom &S&Dt[fac:tpövmrfhw&m;Oya'udk vdkufemusifhokH; Mu&onf/ taemufwdkif; 'Drdkua&pDpepfwGif tpdk;&rS jynfolvlxkqE´udk vdkufavsmjznfhqnf;ay;&ef wm0ef&Sdonf/ tpövmrfwGifrl tpdk;&ESifhjynfolu udk;uG,f&mt&Siftvdkawmftwdkif; vdkufemusifhokH;&ef vdktyfonf/ (rSwfcsuf- xdkudk;uG,f&mt&Sif tvdkawmfwdkif;rSm vlom;rsm;aumif;usdK;twGufom jzpfNyD; udk;uG,f&mt&Sifonf vdkvm; awmifhwcsufrsm;rS uif;vGwfawmfrlaomt&Sifjzpfawmfrlyg/ bmomjyefol) ,cktcg uREfkyfwdkYonf aomif[D;'f? &dpmvofESifh cdvmz[f[laom tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;udk tajccHíwnfaqmufxm;aom EdkifiHawmfyHkpHrsdK;udk ydkrdkoabmaygufEdkifap&ef avhvmqef;ppf&rnfhtqifhodkY a&muf&Sdaeygonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS &Sif;vif;pGmzGifhqdkxm;onfrSm ]]tpövmrhfEdkifiHawmf &nf&G,fcsuf ESifh &nfrSef;csufyef;wdkif[lonf vlom;tusdK;twGuf zefqif;&Sifu jzpfapvdkaomtvdkawmfrsm;ESifh vlom; tm;vHk; qHk;½IH;epfemysufpD;aprnfh pufqkyf&GH&SmzG,fudpörsm;rS umuG,fwm;qD;tjrpfjzwf acsrIef; okwfoifypf&efqE´&Sdaom opömw&m;rsm;udktajccHí wnfaxmifxm;aom? opömw&m;rsm;udk xdef;odrf; xm;aom? opömw&m;rsm;udk zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufapaom EdkifiHawmfrsdK;jzpfonf/}} xdkYaMumifh tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmf [lonf EdkifiHa&;t& pDrHtkyfcsKyfrItwGufom toHk;jyKonfhud&d,mwpfckr[kwf/ vlwpfpk oabmxm; qE´rsm;jynfhpHkatmif aqmif&Gufay;onfh tzGJUtpnf;wpfckvnf;r[kwf/ tpövmrftaeESifh EdkifiHawmf txufwGif taumif;wumhtaumif;qHk; pHwpfckcsrSwfxm;onf/ xdkpHEIef;odkYa&muf&SdzdkYta&; enf;vrf;rsdK;pHk udk toHk;jyK&rnfjzpfNyD; taESmifht,Suf twm;tqD;rsm;udkvnf; pHEIef;t& z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;&rnfjzpfonf/ tpövmrfEdkifiHawmf pHEIef;qdkonfrSm tjypfuif;pifjcif;? tvSw&m;? aumif;jrwfjcif;? pifMu,f aomtusifhoDv? atmifjrifjcif;? <u,f0csrf;omjcif;rsm;jzpfonf/ ,if;wkdYrSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sifu vlom; b0&SifoefrItwGuf zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufjzpfay:apvdkaom pHEIef;rsm;jzpfonf/ wpfzufwGifrl tm;vHk;aom acgif;yHkjzwf tjrwfxkwfjcif;? w&m;rQwrIuif;rJhjcif;wdkYonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sif rsufarSmufwGif azmufjyefrIrsm;jzpfonf/ urÇmN*dK[fudkzsufqD;olrsm;rSm zefqif;cHrsm;b0udk xdcdkufepfemapolrsm;jzpfonf/ 21
  22. 22. ¤if;wdkYudk tzsufvkyfief;rsm;rS xdef;csKyfumuG,f&rnf/ tpövmrfrSwdus&Sif;vif;aom udk,fusifhw&m; qdkif&m tESpfcsKyfoabmw&m;udk vdkufemaqmif&GufapvdkonfhtusifhoDvESifh a&SmifMuOfapvdkonfh tusifhoDvrsm;tjzpf rD;armif;xdk;azmfjyxm;ayonf/ þtESpfcsKyfyHkMurf;oabmudk xdef;odrf;vdkufem usifhaqmifjcif;tm;jzifh tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmftaeESifh ,if; om,m0ajyma&;tpDtpOfrsm;udk acwfwdkif; ywf0ef;usifwkdif;ü pDrHaqmif&GufEdkifayonf/ tpövmrfrS tajymif;tvJr&Sd awmif;qdkaeaomt&mrSm tusifhoDvqdkif&m tajccHoabmw&m;rsm; jzpfí ¤if;wdkYudk vlom;wpfOD; b0c&D;vrf;wpfavQmufvHk;ü pGefYvTwfrIrsm;ESifh tepfemcH&rnf[laom tcsuf jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh tpövmrfrS rajymif;vJEdkifaomrl0g'wpfckcsrSwfay;onf/ EdkifiHawmftaeESifh xdkrl0g'tay:wGif tajccHNyD; w&m;rQwrI?trSefw&m;ESifh ajzmifhrwfrSefuefjcif;[laom oabmw&m;rsm;? rl0g'rsm; wnfaqmuf&rnf/ rnfodkYaomtajctae? tcsdeftcgrsdK;wGifürqdk EdkifiHa&;? pDrHtkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh trsdK;om;a&;twGuf twkta,mifaqmifrkom;xGufqdkjcif;? w&m;rQwrIr&Sdjcif;wdkYudk oifhovdk vkyfaqmifrIrsdK; rjyKvkyfap&/ EdkifiHawmfESifhEdkifiHom;rsm;Mum;wGifjzpfap? EdkifiHawmfESifh tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;Mum; wGifjzpfap rSefuefrI? ½dk;om;ajzmifhrwfrIESifh w&m;rQwrIudkom a&SUwef;wifrIjyK&ayonf/ tpövmrfrS EdkifiHawmfESifh vlwpfOD;csif;pDtay:ü qifwlaomwm0ef0wå&m;rsm; owfrSwfay;xm;yg onf/ ,if;owfrSwfjy|mef;csufrsm;rSm tm;vHk;aomoabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;udk rjzpfrae jynfh0atmif aqmif&Gufjcif;? qufqHa&;wGifwlnDaom pHEIef;rsm;&Sdapjcif;? tcGifhta&;ESifhtwl wm0ef0wå&m;rsm; vkyfaqmifay;&mwGif tjcm;olrsm;tm; ¤if;wdkYwm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifap&mwGif olwdkY&ydkifcGifhrsm;udk rarhavsmhapjcif;? w&m;rQwrIudk xlaxmifa&;twGuf tmPmESifhvkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udktoHk;jyKjcif;? jypfrI usL;vGefjcif;ESifh w&m;rQwrI r&Sdjcif;twGuf tmPmESifhvkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk tvGJoHk;pm;rjyK&jcif;? wm0efudk tav;tjrwfxm;p&m 0wå&m;[k owfrSwfjcif;? wm0efudkaphpyfaocsmpGm vpf[if;rIr&SdbJ xrf;aqmif apjcif;? tmPmudk udk;uG,f&mt&Sif ,HkMunftyfESHrI[kowfrSwfí wpfpHkwpfa,mufrS þtmPmudk tvGJoHk;pm;jyKygu tmac&ofaemifwrvGefb0 wGif jyefvnfay;qyf&rnf[k ,HkMunfjcif;wdkYjzpfonf/ tpövmrfEdkifiHawmfwpfckudk urÇmN*dK[f&Sdrnfonfhae&mwGifrqdk wnfaxmifEdkifaomfvnf; EdkifiHawmf e,fedrdwftwGif; vlYtcGifhta&;ESifh txl;tcGifhta&;rsm;udk uefYowfcsKyfcs,f wm;qD;ydkifcGifhr&Sd/ tpövmrfrS tajctaet&yf&yfwGif tcsdefra&G; vdkufemusifhoHk;Edkifonfh trsm;ESifhqdkifaom tajccH vlYtcGifhta&;rsm;udk csrSwfay;onf/ Oyrm- vlaoG;onf tav;tjrwfwefzdk;xm;oifhaomaMumifh cdkifvHkaomusdK;aMumif;jycsufr&SdbJ aoG;xGufoH,kdrI rjzpfap&/ xdkYtjyif trsdK;orD;rsm;? uav;oli,frsm;? touft&G,fBuD;&ifholrsm;? rusef;rrmolrsm;? 'Pf&m temw&jzpfaeolrsm;udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fcGifhr&Sd? trsdK;orD;rsm; *kPfodu©mESifh tdajE´udkav;pm;&rnf/ qmavmifrGwfodyfaeolrsm;udk auR;arG;&rnf/ t0wftpm;uif;rJhaeolrsm;udk t0wf tpm;qifay;&rnf/ 'Pf&m&aeolrsm;? a&m*ga0'em&Sifrsm;tm; rGwfpvifrfjzpfap? rGwfpvifrf &efoltkyfpkrsm;rSyifjzpfap aq;0g;ukoay;&rnf/ þodkY jyKrl qufqHjcif;rsm;ESifh tjcm;axmufyHhjcif;rsm;udk vlom;wpfOD;twGuf vlom;*kPfodu©m? vlYtqifhtwef;ESifh tnDay;xm;aom tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf/ tpövmrfwGif EkdifiHom;rsm;tcGifhta&;udk owfrSwfay;&mwGif owfrSwfxm;aom EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH twGif; arG;zGm;olrsm;twGufom uefYowfxm;rIr&Sday/ xdkYaMumifhyif rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;onf tpövmrfEdkifiH 22
  23. 23. wpfcktwGif;odkY tajccsaexdkifoGm;&ef&nf&G,fcsufjzifh tajccsvdkufonfESifhwpfNydKifwnf; xdkEdkifiHwGif arG;uwnf;u tajccsaexdkifolrsm;ESifh wef;wltcGifhta&;rsm;udk wef;wlcHpm;cGifh&Sdonf/ rGwfpvifrfwdkif; taeESifh olvlrsdK;EG,f? tom;ta&mifESifh vlwef;pm;rsm;udk cGJjcm;jcif;r&SdbJ tpövmrhfEdkifiHtwGif; tjrifhrm;qHk; tqifhtwef;wGifxm;í *kPfjyKumuG,f&avonf/ tpövmrfwGif tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfe,fedrdwftwGif; aexdkifonfh rGwfpvifrfr[kwfonfholrsm; twGufvnf; wdusaomtcGifhta&;rsm; owfrSwfay;xm;onf/ ,if;wdkYtm; tpövmrfzGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya' tcef;u@wpfcktjzpfvnf; jy|mef;&efvdktyfonf/ tpövmrfha0g[m&ü þuJhodkYaom rGwfpvifrfr[kwfonfh EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; ]]ZifrD}}tapmifha&SmufcH[kac:onf/ tpövmrfh EdkifiHwpfckodkY rdrdwdkYoabmjzifh 0ifa&muf aexdkifMuNyD; tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfrS ¤if;wdkYtm;umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&ef ¤if;wdkYESifh y#dnmOfjyKMuolrsm; jzpfMuygonf/ ZifrDwpfOD; touf?ydkifqdkifrIOpöm ypönf;rsm;ESifh *kPfodu©mwdkYudk rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHom;wpfOD;ESifh wef;wltav;xm; umuG,fay;&onf/ xdkYaMumifhw&m;rOya'ESifh jypfrI qdkif&mOya'ESpf&yfvHk;wGif rGwfpvifrf ESifh rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaom EdkifiHom;rsm;tMum; cGJjcm;rIvHk;0r&Sdyg/ tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmftaeESifh rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm; yk*¾dKvfa&;qdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;udk aESmifh,Suf [efYwm;rIrsm;jyKrnfr[kwf/ ZifrDrsm;taeESifh pdwf"mwfydkif;qdkif&mESifh ,if;wdkY,HkMunfrIrsm; twGuf jynfh0aom vGwfvyfrI&Sdap&rnfjzpfonf/ olwdkY bmoma&;qdkif&m "avhxHk;pHrsm;? tcrf;tem; rsm;udk olwdkY BudKufESpfoufonfhyHkpHrsm;jzifh usifhoHk;ydkifcGifh&Sd,HkrQru ,if;wdkYoabmw&m;rsm;udkvnf; vGwfvyfpGm0g'jzefYydkifcGifh &Sdonf/ xdkrQru ,if;wdkYrS tpövmrfudk a0zefrIjyKvkdyguvnf; csrSwfxm;aom Oya'ESifh vlrIa&;usifh0wfqdkif&m uefYowfcsufrsm;twGif;ü a0zefydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ txufazmfjyyg rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;ESifh oufqdkifaomtcGifhta&;rsm;onf jyKjyifajymif;vJí r&aom tcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf/ ,if;wdkYudk EdkifiHom;rsm;tjzpf tmrcHcsufay;xm;onf/ rSDcdk&mEdkifiHrS ¤if;wdkY udk,fwdkifrpGefYcGmoa&GU rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ rGwfpvifrfr[kwfol EdkifiHom;rsm; tcGifhta&;udk ydwfyifwm;qD;EdkifcGifhr&Sd/ rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaomEdkifiHwpfcku ,if;EdkifiHrS rGwfpvifrf EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f ESdyfpufaumif;ESdyfpufrnfjzpfaomfvnf; tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmftaeESifh ,if;EdkifiH rGwfpvifrfr[kwfol EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; vufwHkYjyef n§if;yef;ESdyfpuf&efcGifhrjyKay/ tu,fí tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfjyify&Sd rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; tpkvdkuftNyHKvdkuf owfjzwfrIjzpfcJhvQifawmif rS tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfonf rdrdEdkifiHawmftwGif; rSDwif;aexdkifMuukefaom tumtuG,fcHrGwfpvifrfr[kwfol EkdifiHom;wpfOD;aoG;udkrQ EdkifiHawmftwGif; rusqif;ap&/ tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfwpfcktwGif; tpdk;& pDrHtkyfcsKyfa&;wm0efudk trD;&f-acgif;aqmifxH tyfESHxm; onf/ EdIif;,SOfjy&vQif taemufwdkif;'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm; or®w(odkYr[kwf)0efBuD;csKyfESifh tqifhtwef; csif; wlnDonf/ zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya' owfrSwfjy|mef;csufESifhtusHK;0ifaom t&G,fa&mufol usm;rtm;vHk; onf trD;&fa&G;cs,faoma&G;aumufyGJwGif rJay;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ trD;&fjzpf&ef vdktyfaomt&nftcsif;rsm;rsm ynm? tpövmrfhpdwf"mwfESifhywfoufí vltrsm;pk ,HkMunfav;pm; axmufcHrI&&Sdxm;oljzpf&rnf/ tpövmrfhpdwf"mwf&Sdonf[kqdk&mwGif ouú0g[fac: udk;uG,f&mt&Siftm; aMumuf&GHU½dkaocefYNim;aomol jzpf&rnf/ xdkuJhodkYaomolomvQif EdkifiHawmf 23
  24. 24. tBuD;tuJjzpf&ef xdkufwefol jzpf&rnf/ twdkcsKyfqdk&aomf trD;&f[lonf t&nftcsif;&SdouJhodkY pifMu,faomtusifhoDvESifhvnf; jynfhpkHoljzpf&rnf/ ½SL&m[kac:aom tBuHay;aumifpDudkvnf; jynfolvlxk a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufrIjzifh zGJUpnf;xm; onf/ ,if;wm0efrSm trD;&facgif;aqmiftm; ulnDrIESifhvrf;ñTefrIjyK&ayrnf/ trD;&f acgif;aqmif taeESifh rdrdwdkif;jynfudk½SL&mtzGJU tBuHÓmPfjzifhom pDrHcefYcGJ&efwm0ef&Sdonf/ trD;&ftaeESifh jynfol vlxk pdwfcs,HkMunfrI&Sdaeoa&GU tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPmESifh ½kH;awmfudk xdef;odrf;xm;EdkifcGifh&Sdonf/ jynfol vlxk ,HkMunfudk;pm;rI qHk;½IH;oGm;aomtcgwGifrl tkyfcsKyfEdkifrItcGifhta&;ESifh ½kH;awmfudk pGeYfvTwf &rnfjzpfonf/ EdkifiHom;wdkif;taeESifh trD;&facgif;aqmifESifh ol tpdk;&udk a0zefydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ jynfolrsm;oabmxm;udk yGifhvif;pGm zGifh[aqG;aEG;Edkif&ef oifhwifhavsmufywfaomenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh jzpfajrmufatmif aqmif&Gufay;&onf/ tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmf Oya'jyKjcif;rSm &S&Dt[fac: tpövmrfhw&m;Oya'abmiftwGif; uefYowf xm;csufrsm;t& Oya'jyKydkifcGifh &Sdonf/ udk;uG,f&mt&Siftv’m[fESifh wrefawmf w&m;0iftrdefYrsm;udk vdkufemvufcHusifhoHk;&rnf jzpfonf/ rnfonfhOya'jyKtzGJUtpnf;urS xdktrdefYrsm;udk ajymif;vJcGifh? jyKjyifcGifh? qefYusifcGifh? y,fzsufcGifhr&Sd/ xdktrdefYynwfcsufrsm;teuf teuft"dyÜg,fESpfck (odkYr[kwf)ESpfckxuf ydkEdkifzG,f&Sdygu tpövmrfha&;&m tpövmrfhOya'uRrf;usifwwfajrmufolrsm; yg0ifzGJYpnf;xm;aom tBuHay;aumifpD qyfaumfrDwDESifh aqG;aEG;wdkifyif qHk;jzwf&rnfjzpfonf/ &S&Dt[f Oya'rS txl;trdefYrsm;ESifh jyóem&yfrsm;udk vTrf;NcHKajz&Sif;EdkifpGrf;r&Sdawmhonfh e,fy,frsm;twGuf Oya'jyKa&;rSm tBuHay;aumifpD(odkYr[kwf)Oya'jyKtzGJUrS jyKvkyfydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ ,if;udpö&yfrsm;ESifhywfouf í vGwfvyfpGm pD&ifqHk;jzwfydkifcGifhvnf;&Sdonf/ tpövmrfwGif w&m;olBuD;tzGJUonf tkyfcsKyfa&;(tpdk;&tzGJU)vufatmufwGifr&Sdyg/ w&m;olBuD; tzGJUonf ,if;tmPmudk &S&Dt[fac:tpövmrfhw&m;Oya'rS wdkuf½dkuf&&SdNyD; udk;uG,f&mt&SifodkY tajzay;&ef wm0ef&SdaomtzGJUvnf; jzpfonf/ w&m; olBuD;rsm;udk tpdk;&tzGJUrS cefYtyfxm;onf/ w&m;olBuD;tjzpf a&G;cs,fcH&onfESifh udk;uG,f&mt&Sif owfrSwfjy|mef;xm;aom Oya't& pD&if&rnf jzpfonf/ rsufESmrvdkuf&? ormorwfusus qHk;jzwf&rnfjzpfonf/ tpdk;&,EÅ&m;rsm;ESifh 0efxrf;t&mxrf;rsm;tm;vHk;onf ol w&m;0ifw&m;pD&ifcGifh jyifyür&Sdap&/ xdkYaMumifh tpdk;& tjrifhqHk;w&m;pD&ifa&;tzGJUonfyifvQifw&m; ½kH;awmfrSqifhac:vQif w&m;vdktjzpfvnf;aumif;? w&m;cHtjzpfvnf;aumif; ½kH;awmfa&SUvm&yfMu&rnf/ tkyfcsKyfolESifhtkyfcsKyfcH ESpfOD;pvHk;onf Oya' atmufwGifom&Sd&rnf/ &mxl;tmPmESifh tcGifhxl;cHponfjzifh tqifhtwef;rcGJbJ Oya'a&SUarSmufwGif wpfajy;nDjzpf&rnf/ tpövmrfhaemufvdkufrsm;onf Oya'pnf;rsOf; pnf;urf;rsm;udk nDrQrIESifh ½dk;om; ajzmifhrwfpGm vdkufem&onfomjzpfonf/ vlrIa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? EdkifiHa&; tm;vHk;aom e,fy,frsm;udkvnf; nDrQjcif;? wpfoa0rwdrf;vdkufemjcif;jzifh taumiftxnfazmf&yfwnf&rnf jzpfonf/ 24
  25. 25. vltcGifhta&;? taemufwdkif;ESiftpövmrf Y h taemufwdkif;om;rsm;wGif urÇmüjzpfxGef;cJhaom vlom;tm; tusdK;jyKaponfh zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrI tm;vHk;onf ,if;wdkYaMumifhjzpfonf[k rSwf,lwwfaomtusifh&Sdonf/ Oyrmjy&vQif vlYtcGifhta&;oabm w&m;udk NAdwdefEdkifiH r*¾emumwm Magna Carta yxrqHk; pGJ,loHk;pGJcJhonf[k qlnHpGm a<u;aMumfaecJhMuonf/ ,if;rSm tpövmrfay:xGef;NyD; ESpfaygif;(600)MumrS a&;qGJcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif trSefpifppf r*¾emumwmwGif cHktzGJUtjzpf ppfaq;pD&ifjcif;wnf;[laomoabmw&m;yg&Sdjcif;? tcGefpnf; Muyfjcif;[laom tcGifhtvrf;udk ygvDrefrSxdef;csKyfEdkifonf[laom oabmw&m;yg&Sdjcif;udk 17-&mpk wdkifatmif tusdK;taMumif;jyazmfxkwf&ef tdyfrufyifrrufcJhyg/ tu,fí r*¾emumwmrlMurf;udk a&;qGJcJh onfhyk*¾dKvfrsm;om ,aeYwdkif touf&Sifaeao;rnfqdkygu olwdkYa&;om;csufonf þtaumif;qHk; oabmw&m;rsm;udk tjrwfwEkd; xdef;odrf;xm;Muonfudkodygu tvGefyiftHhMooGm;Murnfjzpfonf/ pma&;ol taumif;qkH;A[kokwt& pOf;pm;MunfhvQif 17-&mpkESpfrwdkifrD taemufwdkif;wGif vlYtcGifh ta&;? EdkifiHom;wdkYtcGifhta&;[laom todonmrsm;r&SdcJhay/ 18-&mpkESpftxdvnf; xdktcGifh ta&;rsm;udk oabmaygufem;vnfusifhoHk;rI r&SdcJhay/ odkYaomf 18-&mpktqHk;ydkif;ESpfrsm;wGifom tar&duef ESifh jyifopfEdkifiHwkdYtajccHOya'rsm;wGif vlYtcGifhta&;ESifh EdkifiHom;wdkYtcGifhta&;[laom todynm rsm;udk ,if;wdkYrl&if; teuft"dyÜg,ftwdkif; ouf0ifusifhoHk;cJhonfudk awGU&onf/ þtjzpftysufrsm;aemufydkif;wGif EdkifiHrsm;pGm tajccHOya'rsm;wGif tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;ESifh ywfoufí &nfñTef;csufrsm; ay:aygufvmonf/ txufygtcGifhta&;rsm;rSm vufawGU toHk;0ifrIxuf pm&Gufay:wGif&Sdaom tcGifhta&;rsm;tjzpfom &SdcJhonf/ 20-&mpktv,fydkif;ESpfwGif urÇmhukvor*¾ (United Nations) ,cktcg ydkíqDavsmfaomtrnfjzifhac:&vQif urÇmhEdkifiHrsm;cGJjcm;a&;toif;BuD; (Divided Nations)rSm trsm;ESifhqdkifaom vlYtcGifhta&;aMunmpmwrf;BuD;udk xkwfjyefcJhonf/ xdkokdY xkwfjyef&jcif; &nf&G,fcsufrSm rsdK;jzKwfowfjzwfjcif;rsm;udk jypfwifa0zefvsuf ,if;jyóemrsm; ajyvnfatmif ajz&Sif;ay;onhftaeESifh jyóemrsm;xyfrHray:ayguf&ef xdef;odrf;vdkonfh &nf&G,fcsuf jzpfcJhonf/ okdYaomf EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHrS rsdK;jzKwfowfjzwfjcif;udk [efYwm;vdkaomtcg urÇmhukvor*¾ tzGJUBuD;udk zdtm;ay;awmif;qdkaomfjim;vnf; rnfonfh ajz&Sif;xdef;odrf;ay;jcif;rsdK;rS r&SdcJhyg/ urÇmh ukvor*¾rSm &nf&G,fcsufaumif;aomfvnf; jzpfEdkifajcr&Sdaom arQmfvifhcsufrsm;om azmfjyrI&SdcJhonf/ urÇmhukvor*¾taeESifh þodkYajymqdkcsufrsm;aemufuG,fwGif rnfonfh cGifhjyKrdefYrS rxkwfjyefyg/ xdkokdY rsdK;jzKwfowfjzwfaeolrsm;tm; rnfonfh ½kyfydkif;qdkif&m? udk,fusifhw&m;qdkif&m zdtm;ay;rIrsdK;rS rjyKvkyfyg/ xdkodkYtrSefwu,fjzpfysufaeonfh tajccHvlYtcGifhta&; csdK;azmufcH&rIrsdK;udk ajz&Sif;ay;rnfhtpm; urÇmh ukvor*¾ qlnHaom ajz&Sif;rIrsm;? qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;aMumifh vlYtcGifhta&;rSm qufvuf csdK;azmuf eif;acsapmfum;cHae&rIrsm;om qufvufjzpfay:aeqJ jzpfonf/ 25
  26. 26. tpövmrfwGif uREfkyfwdkYajymqdkaeaom vlYtcGifhta&;[lonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sifu tmrcHcsuf ay;xm;aomtcGifhta&;rsm;udk qdkvdkonf/ tkyfcsKyfolbk&ifrsm;ESifh Oya'jyKtzGJUtpnf;rsm;u ay;aomtcGifh ta&;[lonf rdrdwdkYESpfoufovdk tcGifhta&;rsm;udk jyefvnf½kyfodrf;Edkifonf/ odkYaomf udk;uG,f&m t&Sifu ay;tyfxm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm;udkrl rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,muf(odkY) rnfonfh tzGJUtpnf; wpfckurQ ½kyfodrf;Edkifaom tcGifhtmPmr&Sdacs/ ukvor*¾ y#dnmOfpmwrf;aMunmcsufrsm;ESifh qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;ponfwdkYudk udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS cGifhjyKcsufay;xm;onfh tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh EIdif;,SOfjcif;rjyKEdkif/ y#dnmOfpmwrf;aMunmjcif;ESifh qHk;jzwfcsuf wdkYrSm vlwpfOD;twGufrjyKrae& wm0efr[kwfaomfvnf; udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS ay;xm;aomtcGifhta&;? cGifhjyKcsufrsm;rSmrl tpövmrhf,HkMunfrI tpdwftydkif;jzpfaomaMumifh rGwfpvifrftm;vHk;ESifh rdrdudk,fudkrdrd rGwfpvifrf[kzGifh[aMunmol pDrHtkyfcsKyfa&;orm;wpfOD;taeESifh udk;uG,f&mt&Sifu cGifhjyKxm;onfh tcGifh ta&;rsm;udk vufcH&rnf/ todtrSwfjyK&rnf/ tusdK;oufa&mufrI&Sdap&rnf/ tu,fí xdkolrS ,if;tcGifh ta&;rsm;udk tusdK;oufa&mufrIr&SdapcJhvQif (odkYr[kwf) xdktcGifhta&;rsm;udk EIwfjzifhomajymaeNyD; tcGifh ta&;rsm;udk csdK;azmufcJhvQif olwdkYESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;rSm jywfom;wdus vSayonf/ atmufazmfjyygusrf;ydk'fwGif tvm;wlñTef;qdkonfrSm- ]]¤if;tjyif rnfolrqdk tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf csrSwfawmfrlonfh w&m;pD&ifqHk;jzwfjcif;rjyKcJhygvQif xdkuJhodkYaomolrsm;yif trSm;usL;vGefaomolrsm; jzpfMuukefownf;/}} xdkYjyif cJbG,fabmZOfu@wGifyif wwd,usrf;ydk'ftaejzifh wpfenf;tm;jzifhqdk&aomf ,m,DtmPmydkifrsm;taejzifh rdrdwdkYudk,fydkifpum;rsm;? qHk;jzwfcsuf rsm;uom rSefuefNyD; tv’m[ft&SifjrwfcsrSwfay;aomtrdefYrsm;tm; rSm;,Gif;onf[k ,lqMuaomolrsm; onf umzd&fr,HkMunfolrsm;jzpfMuonf/ wpfzufwGif tmPmydkifrsm;taeESifh tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf trdefYynwfcsufrsm;rSm rSefuefonf[k vufcHaomfjim;vnf; ,if;wdkYqHk;jzwfcsuf rsm;udkom tom;ay; vdkojzifh tv’m[ft&Sif trdefYawmfrsm;udk wrif&nf&G,fí jiif;y,fcJhonf&SdcJhaomf xdkolwdkYonf trSm; 26
  27. 27. usL;vGefolrsm;jzpfonf[k qdkvdkonf/ Oya'csdK;azmufolrsm;rSm EdkifiHawmfopömudk Oayu©mjyKjcif;om jzpfí trsdK;om;a&;udk opömrJholrsm; jzpfMuonf/ 27
  28. 28. tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm; vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufonf þEdkifiHrSjzpfonf (odkYr[kwf) xdkEdkifiHrSjzpfonf/ xdkolonf ,HkMunfol wpfOD;jzpfonf (odkYr[kwf) r,HkMunfolwpfOD;jzpfonf/ olonfopfawmxJwGif tajccs aexdkifoljzpfonf (odkYr[kwf) oJuEåm&twGif; touf&Sifaexdkifoljzpfonf ponfjzifh rnfodkYyifjzpfapumrl olonfvlom; wpfOD;jzpfjcif;wnf;[laom taMumif;w&m;aMumifh olYrSm tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;&SdaeaMumif;udk uREfkyfwdkY odjrifEdkifNyD;jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif rGwfpvifrfwdkif;taeESifh þtajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;udk tav;xm;í todtrSwfjyK&rnf[laomtcsufudkvnf; uREfkyfwdkY em;vnfcJhonf/ ,if;tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;rSm- touf&SifaexdkifcGifh&&SdrIonf tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;teuf yxrOD;qHk;ESifht"dutusqHk; tcGifh ta&;jzpfonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif ,if;tcGifhta&;ESifhywfoufí zGifhqdk&Sif;vif;xm;onfrSm- vlowform;wpfa,muftm; vufwkHYjyefonfhtaeESifh toufowfjcif;(odkYr[kwf) urÇmN*dK[f ay:wGif ysufpD;jcif;udkjzpfapaomudpö&yfrsm;wGif rSefuefpGmqHk;jzwfrIudk tcGifhtmPm&Sdaomw&m;½kH;rSom qHk;jzwfydkifcGihf&Sdonf/ txl;ojzifh ppftwGif;umvjzpfvQif þodkYaomqHk;jzwfrIrsdK;udk rSefuefoifhavsmfpGm zGJYpnf;xm;onfhtpdk;&tzGJUuom qHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ rnfonfh jzpf&yfwGifrqdk rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,muf urQ txufygjyóem (vlom;toufudkowfjcif;)rsm;twGuf olYbmomqHk;jzwfydkifcGifh r&Sdacs/ þtcsufudk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS &Sif;vif;pGm axmufjyonfrSm- 28
  29. 29. þonfrSm vlowfrIudk w&m;Oya't& touf0dnmOfowfjcif;rS cGJjcm;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ wref awmfjrwfrk[r®'f()rS twdtvif;rdefYMum;xm;awmfrlaom wpfyg;ruaom ewfbk&m;rsm;udkudk;uG,fjcif; (tv’m[fESifhudk;uG,f&mt&Sifrsm;udk wkyEdIif;,SOfudk;uG,fjcif;)[laomvkyf&yfaemuf tjypftBuD;qHk;trIrSm vlowfrIomjzpfonf/ wrefawmf"avhawmfrsm;wGif ]]tBuD;qHk;tukodkvf tjypfrsm;rSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sif tv’m[ftm; tjcm;udk;uG,f&m wpfpHkwpf&mESifh wkzufEdIif;,SOf udk;uG,fjcif;ESifh vlom;tm; owfjzwfjcif; jzpfonf}} [k a&;om;wifjyxm;onf/ txufazmfjyyg usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef usrf;ydk'frsm;? wrefawmfjrwfMo0g'awmf? "avhawmfrsm;rS em;vnfEdkifonfrSm ezfhpf-0dÓmOf[laom a0g[m&udk a,bk,spum;vHk;tjzpfom oHk;xm;onfudk awGU&onf/ touf0dÓmOf[kqdk&mwGif rnfonfh EdkifiHwpfckrS EdkifiHom;jzpf&rnf/ (odkYr[kwf) rnfonfh vlrsdK;? rnfonfh bmom0ifjzpf&rnf[k ñTef;qdkxm;jcif;r&Sd/ þw&m;0iftrdefYonf vlom;tm;vHk;twGuf oHk;xm;aom a0g[m&jzpfonf/ vlom;xkwpf&yfvHk; touf&SifaexdkifcGifh[laom tcGifhta&;udkay;xm;onfrSm tpövmrfbmom wpfckwnf;üom&Sdonf/ EdkifiHrsm;tajccHOya'rsm;rS vlUtcGifhta&;rsm;(odkYr[kwf) vlUtcGifhta&;qdkif&m w&m;0if aMujimpmwrf;rsm;udk &nfñTef; avhvmMunfhygu xdktcGifhta&;rsm;onf oufqdkif&mEdkifiHrsm; EdkifiHom;rsm;? vljzLrsdK;EG,frsm;twGufomjzpfaMumif;awGU&ayonf/ Oyrm-Mopaw;vsm;EdkifiHwGif vlom;rsm;tm; wd&pämefrsm;tm; trJvdkufouJhodkY vdkufzrf;onf/ xdkYjyif ajr,mrsm;udk vljzLrsm; tajccsaexdkif&ef a'ocH a&S;vlrsdK;rsm;u ckwfxGif&Sif;vif;ay;&onf/ tvm;wl tar&duwdkuf a'ocH wdkif;&if;om;rsm; vlOD;a&udk pepfwus zsufqD;avQmhcsjcif;cHcJh&ayonf/ tdE´d,ef;vleDrsm;tm; rsdK;jzKwf owfjzwfrIrsm;jyKcJhaomaMumifh touf &Sifoef usef&pfaeaom rsdK;EG,frsm;tm; xdef;odrf;&ef uefYowf xm;onf/ tmz&duwdkufwGifvnf; vlom;rsm;onf wd&pämefrsm;uJhodkY trJvdkufowfjzwfjcif; cH&onfudk awGUEdkifonf/ txufazmfjyyg vlwpfpktwGuf&nf&G,fonfh vlYtcGifhta&;[laom wpfpdwfwpfydkif; todonmrsm;ESifhqefYusifvsuf tpövmrfrS þtcGifhta&;rsm;tm;vHk;udk vlom;tm;vHk;twGuf tav;teufxm;onf/ touf&SifoefaexdkifrIESifhqdkifaom vlom;tcGifhta&;taMumif; wifjyNyD;NyD;csif; qufvufí udk;uG,f&mt&SifrSrdefYawmfrlonfrSm vlom;toufudk aojcif;w&m;rS u,fwifyHku,fwifenf;rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ tu,fí vlyk*¾dKvf wpfOD;onfzsm;emjcif;? rusef;rmjcif;jzpfonf(okdYr[kwf) 'Pf&mtemw&&ygu olYtm; aq;0g;ukorI 29
  30. 30. qdkif&m tultnD&&Sdap&ef ydkYaqmifay;&rnfrSm oifwm0efyifjzpfonf/ tu,fíolYtaeESifh tpm iwfrGwfí aovkarsmyg;jzpfaeygu olYtm; auR;arG;&rnfrSm toifhwm0efyif/ tu,fí vlwpfOD;a&epfae rnfqdkygu olYudka&xJrS u,fwifay;&rnf/ uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh usrf;jrwfuk&ftmeftwdkif; vkdufemusifhoHk; onf[kqdkvQif vlom;toufudk u,fwifrIonf uREkfyfwdkYwm0ef[k rSwf,l&ayrnf/ tpövmrfuay;xm;aom vlYtcGifhta&; wwd,ta&;tBuD;qHk;u@rSm trsdK;orD;xkumtdajE´? *kPfodu©mESifh ywfoufaeonf/ uREkfyfwdkYtaejzifh trsdK;orD;wpfODtm; olronf uREkfyfwdkYEdkifiHol [kwfonfjzpfap (0g) &efolEdkifiHrS trsdK;orD;yifjzpfap? uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh olrtm; a0;uGmaom opfawm wpfcktwGif;ü&Sdonfjzpfap (0g) ppfEdkifxm;aomNrdKUüawGUonfjzpfap? olronf uREkfyfwdkYESifh bmomw&m; wloljzpfap? tjcm;bmom0ifjzpfap? bmomrJhwpfOD;jzpfap olrumtdajE´udkav;pm;&rnf/ tcsdefumv tm;vHk;twGuf tumtuG,fjyK&rnf/ rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;taeESifh tm;vHk;aomtajctaersdK;wGif olrtm; um,tMurf;zufrIrsdK; jyKvkyfrnfr[kwf/ rGwfpvifrftrsdK;om;wpfOD;twGuf trsdK;orD;wpfOD;rS qE´jyif;jy aom tazmftjzpfawmifhwaeapumrl ¤if;ESifhqufqHjcif;rjyK&ef wm;jrpfxm;onf/ trsdK;orD;u rnfonfh tqifhtwef; (odkYr[kwf) rnfonfhtajctaewGifrqdk trsm;ESifhaomif;ajymif;vdifqufqHrIrsdK; rjyKvkyf&/ þvdifrIudpörsdK;udk a&SmifMuOf&eftvdkYiSm usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif rdefYqdkxm;onfrSm- vdifazmufjyefrIESifhywfoufí BuD;av;aomtjypf'Pfudk owfrSwfxm;onf/ xdktjypf'PfrS avsmhyg;oufomapEdkifaomenf;vrf;udkrl ñTefjyrxm;acs/ tpövmrfwGiftrsdK;orD;umtdajE´udk csdK;azmuf usL;vGefrIudk wm;jrpfxm;onf/ xdkYaMumifh jypfrIusL;vGefaom rGwfpvifrfwpfa,mufonf ,if;tjypf'Pf udk cH&rnfjzpfonf/ xdktjypf'Pfonf vuf&SdavmuwGifaomfvnf;aumif;? aemifwrvGefb0wGif vnf;aumif; ajy;rvGwfwrf;cH&rnfrSm taotcsmyif jzpfonf/ umtdajE´qdkif&m rGefjrwfoefY&Sif;rI todonmESifh trsdK;orD;rsm;tm; umuG,fay;jcif;udk tpövmrfomoemwGifrSvGJí rnfonfhae&mwGifrQ rawGUEdkif/ taemufwdkif;tmPm wefcdk;xGm;pOfu ppfwyfrsm;onf ¤if;wdkYEdkifiHrsm;orD;ysdKrsm;udk ppfom;rsm; umrqE´jznfhqnf;&ef toHk;jyKcJhonf/ tu,fí ¤if;wdkYtaeESifh tjcm;wdkif;EdkifiHrsm;udk odrf;ydkufrnfqdkvQif xdkEdkifiHrsm;rS rdef;rom;rsm;uHMur®monf a&;om;azmfjyonfxufyif ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;aom tajctaeESifh BuHKawGU&rnfudk pdwful;ESifh rSef;qMunfhEdkifygonf/ odkYaomfrGwfpvifrfrsm;ordkif;aMumif;wGifrl wpfOD;csif; owdvpf[if;rIaMumifhjzpfcJhaom jyóemrsdK;rSvGJí trsdK;orD;xktm; usL;vGefapmfum;cJhonfjypfrIrsdK;r&Sdacs/ rGwfpvifrfppfwyfwpfckrS tjcm; EdkifiHrsm;tm; rk'drf;usifhonfhtrIudpörsdK;eSifh ppfatmifEdkifaomEdkifiHrStpdk;&taeESifh ppfEdkifaomppfwyftm; vdifqufqH&ef Zdrfr,frsm;pDpOfí qE´jznfhay;&onf[laomudpörsdK; tpövmrfhordkif;wGif wpfcgbl;rQ r&SdcJhay/ 30
  31. 31. pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;ESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS rGwfpvifrfvdkufemusifhoHk;ol rsm;tm; vrf;ñTefxm;onfrSm- ]]xdkYtjyif xdkolwdkY<u,f0csrf;omrIwGif qif;&JEGrf;yg;í aiGaMu;Opöm vdktyfaeolrsm;ESifh cdkudk;&mrJhMuolrsm;twGufyg cHpm;cGifh&Sdonf/}} txufyg w&m;0iftrdefYay;csuf azmfjycsufrsm;u ñTefjyaeonfrSm þtrdefYonf t<uif;rJh jzpfaom jywfom;wdusonfhtrdefYjzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;onf/ xdkYtjyif txufygtrdefYudk ñTefay;jcif; cH&aomae&ma'orSm xdktcgu rGwfpvifrfvlYtzGJUtpnf;r&Sdao;onfh ruúm[fNrdKUwGif jzpfonf/ rGwfpvifrfrsm; 0ifvmcsdefwGifvnf; r,HkMunfolrsm;ESifhqufqHae&aom tcsdefumvjzpfonf/ txufazmfjyygusrf;pmydk'f &Sif;vif;aomt"dyÜg,frSm tultnDvdktyfí awmif;cHae&aomolESifh csdKUwJhqif;&Jjcif;udk cHpm;ae&olwpfOD;rS rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;ydkifqdkifrIESifh <u,f0csrf;omrIudk rQa0cHpm;ydkif cGifh &Sdonfudkqdkvdkonf/ þae&mwGif xdkqif;&JEGrf;yg;ol? cdkukd;&mrJholtaeESifh rnfonfhEdkifiHom;jzpf&rnf rnfonfh vlrsdK;EG,fpkrSjzpf&rnf[laom uefYowfcsufr&Sday/ vlwpfOD;wpfa,muftaeESifh ulnDEdkifonfh taetxm;wGif&SdNyD; csdKUwJhaeolwpfOD;u tultnDawmif;cHvmcJhvQif (odkYr[kwf) wpfpHkwpfa,mufu xdkolwpfOD;onf trSefwu,fvdktyfaeaMumif;od&Sd&ygu xdkyk*¾dKvftm; rjzpfraeulnD&rnfrSm ulnDEdkif onfh taetxm;wGif&Sdonfh vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;wm0efomjzpfonf/ tpövmrfwGif vGwfvyfaomvlwpfOD;udkzrf;qD;í uRefjyKjcif;(odkYr[kwf) aus;uReftjzpf a&mif;csjcif;[laom a&S;OD;usonfhvlzrf;wwfonfhtavhtusifhudk jywfjywfom;om;wm;jrpfxm;onf/ þtcsufESifhywfoufí r[mwrefawmfjrwfMo0g'awmfrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf/ ]]urÇmhw&m;pD&ifrnfhaeYü igwrefawmfrS w&m;vdktjzpf awmif;qdktem;,laprnfh vlyk*¾dKvfoHk;rsdK; &Sdonf/ ,if;oHk;rsdK;aomyk*¾dKvfxJrS wpfrsdK;rSm vGwfvyfolwpfOD;tm; aus;uRefjyKvkyfí olYtm;a&mif;csNyD; pm;oHk;aomoljzpfonf/}} (Akcg&Dusrf;? tdAfEkrm*s[fusrf;) wrefawmfjrwf txufyg"avhawmfESifhMo0g'awmfrSm EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH? vlrsdK;EG,fwpfpkESifh bmom w&m;wpfckudk vdkufemusifhoHk;olwpftkyfpktwGuf uefYowfowfrSwfxm;jcif;? &nfñTef;oifMum;xm;jcif; r[kwf? taemufwkdif;rS Oa&mywdkufom;rsm;u olwdkYonfomvQif urÇmwGifuRefpepfudk csKyfNidrf;apNyD; uRefb0rS vGwfajrmufapolrsm;omjzpfonf[k tBuD;tus,f*kPf,l ajymMum;aeMuonf/ trSefpifppf uRefrsm;udk vGwfvyfcGifhay;í oifhwifhavsmufywf,Ofaus;zG,f&m jyKrlaexdkifrIrsdK;udk 20&mpktv,fydkif; ESpfrsm;rSom pwifusifhoHk;vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ BuD;rm;aomtwdkif;twmESifh vGwfvyfaomolrsm;udk tvpf0ifa&muf zrf;qD;jcif;? tzrf;cH&olrsm;udk tusOf;om;b0xm;NyD; ,if;EdkifiHrsm; udkvdkeDa'orsm;udk o,f,l ydkYaqmifay;avh&SdcJhMuonf/ ,if;taemufwdkif;om;rsm;u þuHMur®mqdk;0g;vSaomolrsm;tay: jyKrlqufqHcJhonfrSm wd&pämefrsm;xufyifydkrdkqdk;0g;cJhonf/ þtcsufudk taemufwdkif;om;rsm;udk,fwdkif a&;om;rSwfwrf;wifxm;onfh pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;wGif twdtvif;oufaocHaeMuayonf/ 31
  32. 32. Oa&mywdkufom;rsm;u tar&duwdkufESifh taemuftdE´d, uRef;pkudkodrf;ydkufNyD;umv uRefukeful;rI twGuf ul;vl;qufqHMujcif;rSm ESpfaygif;350wdkifatmif qufvufwnf&SdcJhygonf/ tmz&duvlrsdK;rsm; tm; wdkuftwGif;ydkif;a'orsm;rS o,faqmifvmí oabFmrsm;ay:odkY wifay;onfh tmz&duwkduf&Sd oabFm qdyfurf;rsm;tm;vHk;rSm uRefurf;ajc[k trnfwGifvmcJhonf/ NAdwdoQpma&;q&mrsm; cefYrSef;csuft& ESpf(100)umvtwGif; (c&pfouú&mZf 1680rS 1786txd) NAdwdoQudkvdkeDEdkifiHrsm;twGuf zrf;qD;cH&í aus;uRefjyKcHcJh&aomvlOD;a&rSm pkpkaygif;oef;20cefY &Sdonf/ 1790ckESpfwGif vlaygif;75000udkzrf;qD;í udkvdkeDa'orsm;wGif uRefvkyfom;rsm;tjzpf toHk;jyKjcif;cHcJh&aMumif; uREkfyfwdkYtm; ajymMum;cJhygonf/ aus;uRefrsm;udk o,f,lydkYaqmif&ef toHk;jyKcJhaom oabFmrsm;rSm ao;i,fínpfywfaya&aeayonf/ þuHMur®mqdk;0g;vSaom tmz&duefvlrsdK;rsm;onf uRJEGm;rsm;uJhodkY oHBudK;rsm;ESifhtaESmifcH&NyD; opfom;pifrsm;xufwGif ae&mcsxm; jcif;cH&onf/ wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; 18vufrtuGmwGifxm;&Sdjcif;aMumifh vIyf&Sm;&efrSm tvGefcJ,Of;Muyfwnf;vSonf/ xdkaus;uRefrsm;udk oifhwifhavsmufywfaom?vHkavmufaom tpm;tpmrsm; ray;cJhyg/ rusef;rrm jzpfaomtcgrsdK;üvnf; aq;0g;ukoay;jcif;rsdK; vHk;0r&SdcJhyg/ taemufwdkif;pma&;q&mrsm;u zGifh[a&;om;xm;MuonfrSm uRefjyK&efESifht"r®cdkif;ap&ef tzrf;cH& aom pkpkaygif;vlOD;a&20&mcdkifEIef;rSm tmz&duwdkufrS tar&duwdkufodkY o,f,lydkYaqmif&mvrf;aMumif; wGif aoausysufpD;&onf[kqkdonf/ uRefukeful;aompepf txGwftxdyfa&mufcsdefumv tawmtwGif; Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;rS uRefjyK&efzrf;qD;csKyfaESmifcH&aomvlOD;a&rSm cefYrSef;ajctenf;qHk; oef;(100)cefY&Sdonf[k qdkonf/ þonfrSm tpövmrftm; aus;uRefpepfxlaxmifaomomoemjzpfonf[k vlod&SifMum;pGJcsufwif ½Iwfcsaeaomvlrsm; udk,fwdkifwifxm;aomrSwfwrf;rsm;t& odEdkifonf/ þonfrSm tjypfuif;rYJolwpfOD; udk &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefouJhodkYydkif;í vufnd§K;xdk;tjypfwifaeouJhodkY tpövmrfu0dkif;í jypfwif½IHUcsaejcif; om jzpfonf/ tma&;AD;,m;uRef;qG,fa'otwGif; vTrf;rdk;aeNyD;jzpfaom aus;uRefpepfyaysmuf&ef uRefrsm;tm; olaumif;jyKjcif;? aus;uRefb0rS vGwfajrmufapjcif;wdkYjzifh uRefpepfyaysmufa&;twGuf tpövmrfrS ajz&Sif; ay;cJhonf/ rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; aus;uRefrsm;udk vGwfvyfapjcif;tm;jzifh ¤if;wdkYtjypfrsm;udk avQmfypf EdkifaMumif;? ay;qyfEdkifaMumif; oifMum;ay;onf/ rdrdqE´tavsmuf aus;uRefwpfa,muf vGwfajrmufap jcif;onf tvGefBuD;us,faomtusdK;aus;Zl;&SdaMumif;udk aus;uReftjzpfrSvGwfajrmufapaom vlyk*¾dKvf wpfOD; ajcvuft*Fgtpdwftydkif;rsm;udk tvTwfcH&aomaus;uRef ajcvuft*Fgtpdwftydkif;rsm; vGwfvyfoGm;ouJhodkY i&JrD;rS vGwfajrmufcGifh&rnf[k tav;teufajymMum;xm;onf/ þrl0g'tusdK;w&m;rSm ajzmifhrwfrSefuefí tusifhoDvpifMu,fMuukefaom cvDz[for®wBuD; rsm;vufxufwGif tm;vHk;aomtm&yfaus;uRefrsm;tm;vHk; uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufvmí vGwfvyfcGifh &&SdcJhMuonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()wpfOD;wnf;yif aus;uRefaygif;63OD;udk uRefb0vGwfajrmufapcJhonf/ tmtd&S[focifr( )rS uRef67OD;? tAfAg;pf()rS 70OD;? tAf'kvfvm[ft&f&[frmefocif()rS uRefaygif; 30000OD;udkvnf;aumif; 0,f,lí uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufapcJhonf/ xdkpm&if;tao;pdwftcsuftvuf rsm;onf xdkacwfxdktcsdeftaMumif; rSwfwrf;wifxm;aom ordkif;taxmuftxm;rsm;wGif avhvmqef;ppf Edkifonf/ 32
  33. 33. xdkYaMumifh tma&AD;,m;uRef;qG,fa'o&Sd aus;uRefrsm;jyóemrSm ESpfaygif;40twGif; ajz&Sif; EkdifcJhonf/ þonf aemufydkif;umvtwGif; tpövmrfvlYtzGJUtpnf;wGif usef&Sdaeao;onhf aus;uRef rsm;rSm ppfyGJrsm;twGif; zrf;qD;&rdaomppfoHkYyef;rsm;jzpfNyD; tusOf;om;rsm;tjzpf&SdaecJhonf/ xdkppfoHkYyef; rsm;udk rGwfpvifrftpdk;&rsm;rS xdef;odrf;xm;í ppfyGJrsm;twGif; zrf;qD;cH&aom rGwfpvifrfppfom;rsm;tm; jyefa&G;&ef wpfzuftpdk;&rsm;ESifh oabmwlnDxm;aom tvJtvS,fcHrsm;vnf; jzpfMuonf/ tu,fí rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHrS zrf;qD;&rdxm;aomppfom;rsm;udk wpfzufEdkifiHwGif ppfoHkYyef;rsm;tjzpf zrf;qD;cH&aom rGwfpvifrfppfom;rsm;ESifh vJvS,fjcif;rjyKvQifaomfvnf;aumif;? wpfzufEdkifiHrS ,if;wdkYppfom;rsm;udk ¤if;wdkYvGwfajrmufa&;twGufa&G;&ef aiGray;vQifaomfvnf;aumif; rGwfpvifrftpdk;&taeESifh xdkppfoHkYyef; rsm;udk ¤if;wdkYtm; zrf;qD;&rdcJhaom rGwfpvifrfppfwyfodkY vTGJay;rnfjzpfonf/ ¤if;wdkYonf xdkppfwyfrS ppfom;rsm; tMum;wGifae&rnfjzpfonf/ þodkYjyKvkyfjcif;onf zrf;qD;&rdaomppfoHkYyef;rsm;udk uRJEGm;wd&pämefrsm;uJhodkY ae&mcsjcif;? xdkYaemuf xdkolwdkYvkyftm;udk twif;t"r®apckdif;jcif;wdkYxuf vlom;qefaomvkyf&yfjzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif ppftwGif; zrf;qD;rdaom rdef;rom;rsm;tm; Zdrfr,fvkyf&ef zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;jcif;xufvnf; vlom;qef ayonf/ tpövmrfrS olwdkYtm;jzefYay;aomfvnf; wpfOD;csif;taeESifhrl vlom;qefqefqufqHaerdonf/ xdkYjyif ,if;oHkYyef;rsm;udk BuD;MuyfolwdkYtm;vnf; oHkYyef;rsm;udk aumif;pGmqufqHrIjyK&ef trdefYay;xm;NyD; jzpfonf/ txufazmfjyyg ppfoHkYyef;rsm;? tusOf;om;rsm;ESifhywfoufaomrl0g' tusdK;aus;Zl;rSm ajrmufjrm; pGmaomEdkifiH&yfjcm;rS ppfyGJrsm;wGif uReftjzpfzrf;qD;cH&NyD; rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHrsm;odkY ydkYaqmifcH&aomolrsm;u tpövmrfomoemudk vufcH,HkMunfapaom taMumif;t&if;jzpfonf/ xdkolrsm;omru ¤if;wdkY tquftEG,frsm;uyg tpövmrfodkY0ifa&mufvmBuNyD; BuD;us,faompmayynm&Sifrsm;? tDrmrfacgif;aqmif rsm;? Oya'ynm&Sifrsm;? rsufarSmufa&;&mrsm;udk a[majyma&;om;aom jyKjyifa&;orm;rsm;? EdkifiHtBuD;tuJrsm;ESifh ppfAdkvfcsKyfBuD;rsm; arG;xkwfay;cJhaom taMumif;w&m;vnf;jzpfonf/ xdkodkYaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;rSm aemifwGif tpövmrfhurÇmudk tkyfcsKyfaomolrsm;jzpfvmMuonf/ ,cktcg ppftusOf;om;rsm;udk urÇmwpfvTm;wGif ppfjyKjcif;?&efvdkjcif;rsm;udk&yfem;NyD; tjyeftvSef vJvS,faeMujcif;rSm tpövmrfrSavhvmoif,lí vdkufemusifhoHk;aeaom tavhtusifhaumif;wpfck jzpfayonf/ taMumif;&if;wpfckckaMumifh(odkYr[kwf) tjcm;taMumif;wpfckckaMumifh vJvS,fjcif;rjyKEdkifaom tusOf;om;rsm;udk aumif;rGefpGmqufqHjcif;udkrl twk,lusifhoHk;rIr&Sd/ Oyrm- 'kwd,urÇmppfBuD;twGif;u *smrPDESifh *syefEdkifiHrsm;rS ppf½IH;aomppfwyfrsm;rS ½k&Sm;odkYydkYaqmifjcif;cH&aom ppfom;axmifaygif; rsm;pGmuHMur®mrSm rnfuJhodkYjzpfcJh&onfudk wpfpHkwpfa,mufrSajymjyEdkifygovm;/ ,if;ppfom;rsm;teuf rnfrQaom ppfom;rsm;onf ½k&Sm;ppfwyfvufatmuf vkyftm;ay;pcef;rsm;wGif yifyef;qif;&J cufcJMurf;wrf;rIrsm;aMumifh aoaus ysufpD;Mu&onf/ rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ rod&SdEdkifacs/ a&S;a[mif; tD*spfEdkifiH zm½kdbk&ifrsm;vufxufwGif yd&rpfrsm;wnfaqmuf&mü aus;uRefrsm;vkyftm;udk twif; n§if;yef;ESdyfpufNyD; t&,louJhodkY 'kwd,urÇmppftwGif;rS ppftusOf;om;rsm;udkvnf; qdkufbD;&D;,m;a'o ESifh tjcm;zGHUNzdK;rIr&Sdaoma'orsm; zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf vkyftm;rsm;udk twif;t"r® n§if;yef; ESdyfpufrIjzifh &,lcJhonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,fr&Sdacs/ 33
  34. 34. þtcGifhta&;rSm tpövmrfrS vlom;okdYay;tyfaom tcGifhta&;rsm;teuf ta&;BuD;ouJhodkY wefzdk;vnf;&Sdaom tcGifhta&;wpfckvnf;jzpfonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif w&m;rQwrIqdkif&m tcGifhta&; ESifhywfoufí csrSwfay;onfrlrSm- þtcsufudk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGifxyfrHí tav;ay;azmfjyxm;onfrSm- txufygtm,ofrsm;ü ñTefjyaeonfhtcsufrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;taeESifh ¤if;wdkYrdwfaqG oli,fcsif;rsm;udkomru &efolrsm;udkyg w&m;rQwpGmjyKrl&rnf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifhqdkaomf ,if; aemufvdkuf rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; awmif;qdkonfhw&m;rQwrI[lonf EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH? vlrsdK;EG,fpkwpfpk? wdkif;jynfwpfck? vlrsdK;wpfrsdK; (odkYr[kwf) rGwfpvifrfxkwpfckvHk;twGufomru tm;vHk;aom vlom;rsdK;EG,fxkwpfckvHk;twGufyg tusHK;0ifonfh w&m;rQwrIrsdK;jzpfonf/ tpövmrfonf vlom;rsm;tMum; tom;ta&mif? vlrsdK;EG,f? EdkifiHom;ponfwdkYudk vHk;0rcGJjcm;bJ vlom;tm;vHk;wGif tcGifhta&;vHk;0wlnDjcif;udk tajccHoabmw&m;tm;jzifh av;pm;pGm todtrSwf jyKonfomru ,if;wlnDjcif;oabmw&m;udk t&Sdw&m;jzpfatmifjyKvkyfay;onf/ teEåbkef;awmf&Sif tv’m[frS xdkt&Sdw&m;ESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif atmufygtwdkif; rdefYqdkxm;awmfrl/ 34
  35. 35. wpfenf;tm;jzifhqdkaomf tm;vHk;aomvlom;rsm;onf nD&if;tudk armif&if;ESrrsm;jzpfMuonf/ olwdkYtm;vHk;onf zcifwpfOD;ESifh rdcifwpfOD;wnf;rS aygufzGm;vmMuolrsm;jzpfMuonf/ þtm,ofawmft"dyÜm,frSm vlom;tm; EdkifiH? vlrsdK;tkyfpkrsm;? rsdK;EG,fpkrsm; cGJjcm;owfrSwfjcif; rS cGJjcm;odjrifapvdkaom&nf&G,fcsufjzpfonf/ xdkodkY cGJjcm;jcif;tm;jzifh vlrsdK;wpfpk?vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;rS tjcm; vlrsdK;? tjcm;rsdK;EG,frS vlom;rsm;ESifh &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifNyD; wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; yl;aygif;aqmif&GufEdkifMu&ef jzpfonf/ þodkYvlrsdK;cGJjcm;jcif;[lonf EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHrS rdrdEdkifiHom jrifhjrwfomvGefonf[k *kPf,l0Hh<um;&ef r[kwfovdk tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;udk rav;rcefYESdrfhcsqufqHjcif;rsdK; jyKvkyf&efvnf;r[kwf/ xdktcsufudk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif- ]]vlwpfa,mufu tjcm; wpfa,mufxuf omvGefjrifhjrwfonf[laomtcsufrSm xdkvlom; tom;ta&mif? vlrsdK;? bmompum;? EkdifiHom;ESifhroufqkdifbJ xdkyk*¾dKvf ouú0gw&m;? ol udk,fusifhw&m;oefYpifrI? tusifhpm&dwåjrifhrm;rIESifhom oufqdkifonf/}} xdkYaMumifh tjcm;aomvlyk*¾dKvfrsm; [efyeftm;jzifhazmfjyaom jrifhjrwfrIrsm;udkomMunfhí rqHk;jzwfoifhyg/ odkYr[kwfygu oefYpif rGefjrwfaom udk,fusifhw&m;&Sdaomvlrsm;wGif tjcm;olrsm;xufydkíomvGefaom txl;*kPfodu©m tqifhtwef;[lonf &Sdrnfr[kwfawmhyg/ þtcsufudk wrefawmfjrwfrk[r®'f()rS olMo0g'awmfwpfckwGif Oyrmay;í &Sif;vif; ajymMum;cJhonf/ ]]rnfonhftm&yfwpfa,mufurQ tm&yfr[kwfolwpfOD;xuf ydkírjrwfyg/ xdkYtwl tm&yf 35
  36. 36. r[kwfol wpfOD;urQ vlrnf;wpfOD;xufydkírjrwfyg (odkYr[kwf) vlrnf;wpfOD;urQ vljzLwpfa,mufxuf edrfhusrnf r[kwfyg/ toifwdkYtm;vHk;onf tm'rfom;orD;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ tm'rfudk tv’m[ft&Sifu &THUajcmufrS zefqif;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/}} (Adkif[uDusrf;) þoabmw&m;udktajccHNyD; tpövmrfrS wlnDjcif;[laomoabmudk wnfaxmifcJhygonf/ xdkYaMumifh vlom;rsdK;EG,fwpfpkvHk;wGif wlnDjcif;[laom oabmudkvufcHNyD; vlom;tom;ta&mif? vlrsdK;?bmompum;ESifh EdkifiHudk tajccHícGJjcm;aom cGJjcm;jcif; t&if;tjrpfrsm;tm;vHk;udk qefYusifyg onf/ tpövmrfomoemt& udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS vlom;tm; nDrQjcif;?wlnDjcif;[laom tcGifhta&;udk arG;&mygtcGifhta&;tjzpf ay;tyfxm;NyD;jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ vlwpfa,muf udk oltom;ta&mif? olarG;zGm;&ma'o? vlrsdK;ESifhwdkif;jynfaMumifh tqifhtwef;cGJjcm;rI? rnfonfh tqifhtwef; trsdK;tpm;cGJjcm;rIudkrqdk qefYusifonf/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpkrS tmz&duvlrnf;acgif;aqmif rJvfuGefrftdwfpf(Malcom X)onf olESifh b0wlwpfjynfwnf;om; vlrnf;rsm;t&yfom;tcGifhta&;twGuf tar&duefvljzLrsm;ESifh cg;oD;aom vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJudk qifETJcJhonf/ odkYaomfolonf ruúm[fNrdKUodkY [m*sfusifhpOfjyKvkyf&efoGm;cJhpOfu tm&S? tmz&du? Oa&myESifhtar&duwdkufrsm;rS [m*sfjyKolrsm;onf wlnDaom0wfpHkrsm;0wfNyD; utfA[f ausmif;awmfudk ajy;vTm;o0g;zfvSnfhvQif twef;vdkuftwef;vdkuf pDwef;0wfjyKcJh&onfudk jrifawGUcJhonf/ þjrifuGif;rS olowdjyKcJhonfrSm tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif ol&SmazGaecJhonfh tom;a&mifESifh vlrsdK;cGJjcm;rIjyóem tajzjzpfonf[laomtcsufyifjzpfonf/ ,cktcg rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaom tawG;tac:ynm&Sifrsm;pGmu 0efcHMuonfrSm þvlrsdK;ESifh tom;a&mifcGJjcm;rIjyóemudk ajz&Sif;&eftwGuf ydkíaumif;aomenf;vrf;rSm tpövmrfrSvGJí tjcm;rnfonfhbmomw&m;? rnfonfhb0wnfaqmufrI vrf;pOfwGifrS r&SdEdkifyg/ xdkYjyif ¤if;wkdYrS ajz&Sif;ay;Edkifaomtwdkif;twmrSmvnf; tpövmrfbmomu ajz&Sif;Edkifonfhtwdkif;twmxd rDrnf r[kwfyg/ tpövmrfbmomtaeESifh vlom;rsm;twGuf tvGefYtvGefta&;BuD;aom trsm;rS vufcHusifhoHk; EdkifpGrf;&Sdaom tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;udk owfrSwfjy|mef;ay;onf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif- þtm,ofawmfqdkvdk&if;t"dyÜm,frSm aumif;jrwfaom? rGefjrwfaomvkyfief;vkyfrnfh vlwpfOD; wpfa,mufonf awmif0if½kd;pGef; (0g) ajrmuf0if½dk;pGef;wGif aexdkifonfjzpfygap? rGwfpvifrfrsm; axmufyHhjcif;? zswfvwfwuf<uaom yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;udk arQmfvifhEdkifonfh tcGifhta&;&Sdonf/ 36
  37. 37. qefYusifbufoabmtm;jzifh vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufonf raumif;rIjyK&mwGifvnf;aumif;? usL;ausmf apmfum;rI jyKvkyf&mwGifvnf;aumif; xdkolonf uREkfyfwdkYESifhrnfrQeD;pyfaom aqGrsdK; rdwfo*F[jzpfap (0g) tdrfeD;csif;jzpfap uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh olYtm;vlrsdK;?EdkifiH? bmompum; (0g) EdkifiHom;wlonf[laom taMumif;jycsufrsm;jzifhjzpfap ulnDjcif;? yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;rjyKEdkif/ &ufpufMurf;MuKwfaom? aMumufp&maumif;aomolonf uREkfyfwdkYnDtpfudkt&if;yifjzpfvifhupm; uREfkyfwdkYtxJrS rjzpfEdkifyg/ olonf olvrf;pOfudk aemifwr&? rjyifoa&GUumvywfvHk; uREfkyfwdkYtultnDudk olYtaeESifh r&Edkifyg/ tjcm;wpfzufwGif aumif;jrwfaom rGefjrwfonfhvkyfief;udk vkyfaqmifygu olonf uREfkyfwdkYESifh aqGrsdK;rawmfpyfaomfjim;vnf; rGwfpvifrfrsm;onf oltaygif;tazmf? olYudkulnD axmufyHholjzpf&rnf/ tu,fí olYtm; rnfodkYrQ axmufyHhEdkifjcif;r&Sdygu tenf;qHk; olvkyfief;twGuf wpfpdwf wpf0rf;wnf;ESifh aumif;aomqE´ xm;&Sdoljzpf&rnf/ 37
  38. 38. tpövmrfEkifiHwpfck EdifiHom;tcGifhta&;rsm; d k uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh vlYtcGifhta&;ESifhywfoufí a,bk,swifjyNyD; jzpfygonf/ tpövmrfhEdkifiH&Sd EkdifiHom;rsm; tcGifhta&;qdkif&mudpöudk txl;tav;ay;í aqG;aEG;MuygpdkY/ þtcGifhta&;rsm;rSm tapmydkif;uwifjycJhaom vlYtcGifhta&;rsm;xufydkí us,fjyefYaomaMumifh ,if;wdkYudk oD;oefY&Sif;vif; wifjy&ef vdktyfayonf/ wrefawmfjrwf() aemufqHk;[m*sfwGif rdefYMum;cJhaomrdefYcGef;rSm ]]toifwdkY toufESifhOpöm "ersm;tm;vHk;udk wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD;usL;vGefrIr&Sdap&/ ,if;trdefYonf urÇmhw&m;pD&ifrnfhaeY oifwdkY udk;uG,f&mt&Sif tv’m[fESifh awGUqHkonfhaeYwdkifatmif wm;jrpfxm;NyD;jzpfacsonf/ }} teEÅbkef;awmf&Sif tv’m[ft&SifrS usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif vlwpfOD;csif;touftdk;tdrfpnf;pdrfESifhywfoufí csrSwfxm; onfhjypf'PfrSm ]]tMuifolonf rGwfpvifrfwpfOD; wpfa,mufudk wrifoufoufBuHpnf owfjzwfcJhygrl xdkoltjypfonf *s[Eérfi&JbHkyifjzpfonf/ (xdkolonf),if;*s[Eérf i&JbHkü tpOftNrJaexdkif&rnf/ xdkYtjyif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf ¤if;tay:ü rESpfNrdKUrIvnf;&Sdayonf/ xdkoltm; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf u½kPmawmfrSvnf; uif;a0;apawmfrltHh/ xdkol tzdk;BuD;av;aomtjypf'Pfudkvnf; tqifoifh jyKxm;awmfrlthH}} [líjzpfonf/ (uk&ftmef 4;93) wrefawmfjrwf()u ZifrDac: tpövmrfhEdkifiHwGif aexdkifol? rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaom EdkifiHom;rsm;ESifh ywfoufí rdefYawmfrlonfrSm]]tpövmrfhEdkifiHwGif ckdvIHolZifrDwpfOD;wpfa,mufudk owfaomolonf *sEéof O,smOfawmf&eHYudkyif ½SL½dIufcGifh&&Sdrnfr[kwf/ (qG[D;[f tvf-Akcg&Dusrf;? tAl'g0k'fusrf;) tpövmrfwGifw&m;Oya't& ao'Pfay;jcif;rsdK;rSvGJí tm;vHk;aomowfjzwfrIrsm;udk wm;jrpfxm; onf/ þtcsufudk uk&ftmefwGif ]]Advf[muf}}(trSefw&m;ESifhtwl)[lí &nfñTef;xm;onf/ odkYaomf ppfrufjzpfyGm;pOfumv (odkYr[kwf) ykefuefx<urIjzpfay:aeaom tcsdefumvtwGif;ü &S&Dt[f w&m;Oya'udk vdkufemusifhoHk;aom w&m;rQwí ajzmifhrwfrSefuefonfh tpdk;&rsm;omvQif vlwpfa,muf toufudk owfoifh rowfoifhudk qHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ txufygta&;BuD;aom (odkYr[kwf) txl;tav;ay;pOf;pm;qHk;jzwf&rnfh qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk tv’m[ft&Sifjrwftvdkawmfudk tav;rxm;aom pDrHtkyfcsKyfrIrsm; vTrf;rdk;rIatmufwGif&Sdonfh w&m;½kH;rsm;vuf0,f tmPmukefvTJtyfjcif;rjyKoifhay/ þuJhokdYaom w&m;pD&ifqHk;jzwfrIrsdK;onf w&m;rQwrIr&SdbJ wvGJwacsmfjzpfwwfonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS jyqdkaomw&m;rQwrIESifh tpövmrfh tpOftqufrS jyqdkcJhaomw&m;rQwrIrsm;udk EdkifiHawmftaeESihf &SmazGawGU&SdEdkifrnfr[kwfay/ tu,fí w&m;½kH;awmfESifh EdkifiHawmfrS EdkifiHom;rsm;udk w&m;rQwrIr&Sdaomrl0g'rsm;ESifh vkyf&yfrsm;udkqefYusifrI? ,if;wdkY raumif;aomvkyf&yfrsm;udk a0zefrItwGuf ao'Pfay;rnf? owfjzwfrnfqdkvQif ,if;onf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf tvdkawmfudk vspfvsL½Ií w&m;pD&ifrIukd tvGJoHk;pm;jyKjcif;yifjzpfonf/ EdkifiHawmftaeESifh vkyfBuHowfjzwfrnf? vlowform;udk iSm;&rf;í tjypfrJhEdkifiHom;rsm;udk owfjzwfydkifcGifh 38
  39. 39. r&Sdovkd xdkvlowform;udk w&m;½kH;wGif aopm;aoap tjypf'PfrsdK; jyefcH&jcif;rsdK;r&Sd&avatmif umuG,fydkifcGifhr&Sd/ þuJhodkYaom tpdk;&rsdK; wnf&Sdaejcif;onf &mZ0wfrIwpfckomjzpfNyD; ,if;tpdk;& owfjzwfrIrsdK;onf usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS jyqdkaom w&m;rQwrItwGuf ao'PfpD&ifrIrsdK;[k rac:qdkEdkifacs/ touf0dnmOfvHkNcHKrIESifhtwl vlwpfa,muftdk;tdrfpnf;pdrfrsm; vHkNcHKrItwGufvnf; tpövmrfrS &Sif;vif;aomtcGifhta&;udkom tyfESif;xm;onf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif olwpfyg; ydkifqdkifrI Opömypönf; rsm;udk rSm;,Gif;aom? w&m;r0ifaomenf;vrf;jzifh &,ljcif;rjyK&/ (uk&ftmef 2;188) EdkifiHom;wdkif; 'kwd,ta&;tBuD;qHk;aomtcGifhta&;rSm ¤if;wdkY*kPfodu©mudk umuG,f apmifhxdef;ay;jcif;jzpfonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rS aemufqHk;jyKcJhonfh[m*sfwGif >rufMum;ay;cJhaom rdefYcGef; wpf&yfü rdefYrSmcJhonfrSm ]]rGwfpvifrfrsm;tay:ü olwpfyg;touftdk;tdrfpnf;pdrfrsm;udk rw&m;usL;ausmfjcif;rS wm;jrpfxm;onf/ olwpfyg;tdajE´odu©mudk av;pm;&rnf}}[líjzpfonf/ þtcsufudk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif atmufygtcsufrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf/ (u) tdk-ouf0if,HkMunfoltaygif;wdkY? oa&mforIrjyK&/ (c) wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; toa&rzsufMuvifh/ (*) wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; ]]emrnfajymif}}rsm;ESifh apmfum;armfum; rac:MuESifh/ (C) wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; aemufuG,fwGif twif;tzsif; rajymMuESifh/ (uk&ftmef 49;11-12) txufazmfjyyg tcsuftvufrsm;rSawGU&onfrSm tpövmrfrScsrSwfjy|mef;ay;aomOya'onf taemufwkdif; toa&zsufjcif;Oya'oxufydkí jrifhrm;ygonf/ tpövmrfhOya't& wpfpHkwpfa,muf tjcm;vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD; *kPfodu©mudk apmfum;aMumif;oufaojyEdkifygu apmfum;olbufrS rdrdonf av;pm; bG,f*kPfodu©m&SdaomoljzpfaMumif; oufaojyEdkifonfjzpfap? rjyEdkifonfjzpfap apmfum;olonf tjypfay;jcif;cH&rnf jzpfonf/ taemufwkdif; toa&zsufjcif;qkdif&mOya'o pdwf0ifpm;p&mtcsufrSm toa&zsufrItm; trIzGifhaom(w&m;vdk)taeESifh olonf*kPfodu©m&Sdaom? vltrsm;utxifBuD;av;pm; MunfndKjcif; cH&aomoljzpfaMumif; oufaojyEdkif&rnf/ xdkYtjyif ½kH;awmfrSar;jref;ppfaMumpOfwGif ½dkif;jyaompGyfpGJcsufrsm;ESifh wdkufcdkufrIrsm;vnf; jyKvkyfcH&ayrnf/ ,if;odkY ppfaq;&mü apmfum;cH&jcif; onf ol rlv apmfum;cH&aom trIxufydkíyif olY*kPfodu©mtm; xdyg;Edkifayonf/ xdkYjyifw&m;vkdbufrS oufaorsm;tm; w&m;½kH;awmfodkY wifjy&rnfjzpfonf/ jypfwifa0zefpGyfpGJcsufrsm;u ol*kPfodu©mudk usqif;ysufpD;apaMumif;udkvnf; xif&Sm;ap&rnf/ b,favmufrsm; tHhMozG,f&maumif;ygoenf;/ þonfum; Oya' odrfarGUEl;nHhrIygavm/ Oya'o tESpfom&ygavm/ þuJhodkYrw&m;aom? rrQwaomOya'udk udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS xkwfjyefaom Oya'ESifh tb,fuJhodkY EIdif;,SOfEdkifygrnfenf;/ tpövmrfwGif apmfum;cH&ol(toa&zsufcH&ol)onf *kPf&Sdoljzpfap? *kPfrJholjzpfap toa&zsufrIrSm jypfrIwpf&yfyifjzpfaMumif; twdtvif;xkwfjyef aMunmxm;NyD;jzpfonf/ (odkYr[kwf),if;trItm; ppfaq;onfhtcsdefü ,kwfnhHaompum;vHk;rsm;oHk;pGJí wpfzufom;tm; jypfwif ½Iwfcsa0zefjcif;? w&m;vkd*kPfodu©mudk xdckdufepfemapjcif;onf jypfrIwpf&yf 39
  40. 40. jzpfaMumif;udkvnf; tpövmrfrS twdtvif;azmfjyxm;onf/ tpövmrfhOya'a&SUarSmufü apmfum;ol (w&m;cH)onf trsm;em;vnfaom taetxm;ESifh w&m;vdk*kPfodu©mESifhausmfMum;rIudk ysufpD;qHk;½IH; apaMumif; ckdifrmpGmoufaojyEdkifcJhygvQif vHkavmufNyDjzpfayonf/ tpövmrfhEdkifiHwGifaexdkifaom EdkifiHom;wkdif;tcGifhta&;udk tpövmrfrS todtrSwfjyKxm;onfh tjyif EdkifiHom;rsm; yk*¾vduqdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;tm; wm0efrJh0ifa&mufpGufzufrIudk vHk;0vufrcHay/ þudpö ESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif atmufygtwkdif; w&m;0iftrdefYudk xkwfjyefxm;onf/ (uk&ftmef 49;12) (uk&ftmef 24;27) wrefawmfjrwf() vrf;ñTefqHk;rMo0g'rsm;wGif olwpfOD;onf rdrdtdrfodkY0ifa&muf&mwGif yifvQif ½kwfw&uf ckd;aMumifckd;0Suf0ifa&mufrIrsdK;rjyK&/ olYtaeESifh tdrfwGif;ü&SdolwdkYtm; ol0ifvmaMumif; wpfenf;enf;ESifh odapoifhonf/ odkYrSom tdrfwGif;&Sd olrdcif? nDr? tpfr? orD;rsm;taeESifh rjriftyf aom tajctaersdK;rS a&Smif&Sm;Ekdifrnfjzpfonf/ tjcm;olwpfOD;tdrfwGif;odkY acsmif;ajrmif;Munfh½Ijcif;udkvnf; wif;usyfpGm wm;jrpfydwfyif owd ay;xm;onf/ wrefawmffjrwf()rS þudpöESifhywfoufíwif;usyfpGmrdefYawmfrlonfrSm ]]vlwpfOD;onf tjcm; vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufrS tdrfwpftdrftwGif;odkY vsdKU0SufpGmacsmif;ajrmif;Munfh½Iaeonfudk awGU&Sdygu xdkol rsufvHk;wpfvHk;(odkYr[kwf)rsufvHk;ESpfvHk;pvHk;udk xkwfypfEkdifonf/ xdkodkY tjypfay;aomoltm; w&m;pGJqdkjcif; rjyKap&[k rdefYrSmawmfrlxm;onf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rS olwpfyg;pmudkckd;zwfjcif;udkvnf; wm;jrpfcJhayonf/ vlwpfa,mufrS olpmudkzwfaepOf tjcm;olwpfa,mufrS iJhapmif;MunhfNyD;zwfvdkufjcif;udkyifvQif jypfwif½Iwfcsxdkuf aMumif; ajymMum;cJhonf/ txufazmfjyygtcsufrsm;onf vlwpfOD;yk*¾vdutcGifhta&;tm; tav;tjrwf xm;jcif;rsm;jzpfonf/ þonfwdkYum; tm;vHk;aomolwpfOD;csif;tay:wGif tmrcHcsufay;xm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm; jzpfonf/ tjcm;wpfzufwGifrl acwfrD,Ofaus;odrfarGUygonfqdkaom vuf&SdurÇmBuD;wGifrl tjcm;olrsm; pmrsm;udkzwfonfhjyif jzwfawmufjcif;? tem*wfwGifvdktyfvQif Ncdrf;ajcmuftusyfudkifEdkif&ef &nf&G,fcsuf jzifh rdwåLrsm;udk xdef;odrf;xm;jcif;rsm; jyKvkyfMuonfudk awGUEdkifayonf/ tdrfrsm;wGif vsdKU0SuftoHzrf; ud&d,mrsm; wyfqifjcif;aMumifh tcef;ydwfaqG;aEG;ajymqdkrIrsm;udkvnf; toHoGif;jcif;cH&onfvnf;&Sday&m rsm;pGmaomtajctaersm;wGif vlyk*¾dKvfrsm; wpfOD;csif;vGwfvyfrIrsm;qHk;½IH;aeNyD; yk*¾vduvGwfvyfcGifh[k ac:aom y½dkufAdwfpDtppftrSefrSm r&Sdawmh oavmufjzpfaeayonf/ 40
  41. 41. tEå&m,fjzpf&eftvm;tvm&Sdaom vlyk*¾dKvfrsm; vQdKU0Sufcsufrsm;udk od&Sd&efvdktyfonf[laom taMumif;w&m;jzifh olwpfyg;twGif;a&;udk EdIufEdIufcRwfcRwfpyfpkjcif;onf pm&dwÅqdkif&m tajccHoabm tm;jzifh tkyfcsKyfaom tkyfcsKyfoltzGJUtpnf;twGuf aumif;aomtvm;tvmr[kwfay/ þodkY jyKvkyfapaomay:vpDrSm acwfopftpdk;&rsm;rS ¤if;wdkYEdkifiHom;rsm; txl;ojzifh todÓPfBuD;rm;Muaom olrsm;tm; tpdk;& w&m;0ifay:vpDrsm;tay: rauseyfMuolrsm;twGuf taMumufw&m;ESifh oHo,xm;NyD; csrSwfxm; aom 'óerS arG;zGm;vmjcif;jzpfonf/ þonfrSm tpövmrfrSowfrSwfay;aom EdkifiHa&;wGif xdckdufepfem tEÅ&m,fjzpfaprI t"dutaMumif;&if;yif jzpfonf/ wrefawmfjrwf() w&m;0iftrdefYrSm tkyfcsKyfolwpfOD;onf oltkyfcsKyfcH jynfolvlxkrsm;tMum;wGif jzpfay:aeaom rauseyfrIrsm; taMumif;t&if;rsm;udk &SmazGjcif;onf jynfolvlxktm; zsufqD;jcif;omjzpfonf/ (tAl'g0k'fusrf;) trD;&frktm0D,mocif()u ajymMum;cJhonfrSm olonf wrefawmfjrwf()rS rdefYMum;awmfrlcJhonfudkMum;cJhonfrSm- tu,fí toifonf vltrsm; (jynfolvlxk) vQdKU0Sufcsuf rsm;udk &SmazGpHkprf;ygu olwdkYtm; wdwdususzsufqD;jcif;rnf (odkYr[kwf) tenf;qHk; oifonf olwdkYtm; ysufpD;vkeD;eD;tajctaeodkY ydkYaqmifjcif;rnf/ ysufpD;jcif;[lonf rnfodkYjzpfay:vmoenf;/ jynfolvlxk tajctaeudkapmifhMunfh&ef vsdKU0Suf&Jrsm;u wpfEdkifiHvHk;wGif ysHUESYHaeonf/ jynfolwdkYta&;udpörsm;udk apmifhMuyfMunfh½Iaeygu vlxkonf wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; oHo,rsufvHk;ESifhMunfhMuayrnf/ olwdkYtdrfwGifyif vGwfvyfpGmajymqdk&ef aMumuf&GHUMuayrnf/ olwdkYZeD;r,m;rsm;ESifh om;orD;rsm;EIwfcrf;rsm;rS pum;vHk;rsm; vGwfvyfpGm xGufay:vmrnfr[kwfyJ xkdtajctaersdK;onf vlwdkif;udk awGUBuHKvmaprnf/ þodkYapmifhMuyfMunf½I cH&aom tajctaersdK;ESifh awGUBuHKae&aomaMumifh omrefEdkifiHom;wpfOD;taeESifh olYtdrfüyif vGwfvyfpGmajymqdk cGifhqHk;½IH;apNyD; EdkifiHom;rsm;tMum; wpfenf;qdkaomf vlxktMum;wGif r,HkMunfjcif;? oHo,&Sdjcif;om BuD;pdk;vmrnfjzpfaponf/ tpövmrfrScsrSwfxm;aom yk*¾dKvfa&;vGwfvyfcGifhqdkif&m vHkNcHKrIESifhywfoufonfh tajccH oabmw&m;rSm tjypf&SdaMumif; xif&Sm;atmif w&m;½kH;awmfwGifoufaoESifhwuG rwifjyEkdifrcsif; rnfonfhEdkifiHom; wpfOD;wpfa,mufudkrQ axmifoGif;tusOf;csjcif; rjyKap&/ vlyk*¾dKvf wpfOD;wpfa,muf tm; oHo,jzifh zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif;? w&m;½kH;awmfwGif pepfwuspD&ifppfaq;jcif;r&SdbJ axmifoGif; tusOf;csjcif;? xdkoltm; vHkavmufaom ckcHacsycGifhray;bJ ta&;,ljcif;rsdK;udk tpövmrfwGifcGifhrjyKEdkifay/ þudpöudk wrefawmfjrwf()"avhawmfwpfckESifh qufpyfwifjy&aomf wrefawmfjrwf()onf wpfcgu AvD0wfausmif;awmftwGif; oifMum;ydkYcsrIwpfckjyKvkyfaepOftwGif; vlxky&dowftwGif; vl wpfa,mufrS rwfwyf&yfvQufajymMum;cJhonf/ tdk-tv’m[fhwrefawmf? tb,ftaMumif;aMumifh uRefawmf tdrfeD;csif;onf zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifcHae&ygoenf;[k ar;jref;&m wrefawmf()onf xdkol tar;udk Mum;[efr&SdbJ ola[mMum;rIudk qufvufa[mMum;aeayonf/ xdkYaemuf txufyg yk*¾dKvfrS aemufwpfBudrfxí ar;jref; jyefav&m wrefawmfrS ajzMum;jcif;rjyKbJ qufvufía[mMum;aejyef/ xdkyk*¾dKvfrS wwd,tBudrfxNyD; ar;cGef;udkxí ar;jref;jyef&m wrefawmf()rS xdkoltdrfeD;csif; zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;&mrS vTwfay;&ef trdefYay;cJhavonf/ 41
  42. 42. wrefawmfjrwf()rS tapmydkif;ar;cGef;ESpfBudrfudk ar;aomtcsdefwGif tajzray;cJh&aom taMumif;t&if;rSm xdktcsdefwGif tusOf;om;udkzrf;qD;cJhaom &Jt&m&SdrSm AvD0wfausmif;awmf twGif;&SdaecJh aomaMumifh jzpfonf/ tusOf;om;udk csKyfaESmif&ef cdkifvHkaomtaMumif;t&if;? taMumif;jycsuf&Sdrnf qdkygu xdkt&m&SdrS ,if;wkdYudk wifjyEdkif&efjzpfonf/ &Jt&m&Sdu wifjyrIrjyKcJhojzifh csKyfaESmifxm;oltm; wrefawmf()rSvTwfay;&ef trdefYay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ &Jt&m&SdrS tpövmrfhw&m;Oya'udk od&Sdem;vnfNyD; jzpfí olYtaeESifh ]]tkyfcsKyfa&;u@taejzifh zrf;qD;cH&oljypfrIudkod&SdNyD; ,if;wdkYudk vlxky&dowf tMum;wGif zGifh[rajymEdkifyg/ tu,fíom wrefawmf()rS xdkoljypfrIESifhywfoufí oD;jcm; tcef;xJwGif ar;jref;cJhygu uREkfyfu &Sif;vif;jyygrnf}}[k xívnf; rajymcJhyg/ tu,fíom &Jt&m&Sd taeESifh txufygpum;udk EIwfrSzGifh[cJhyguvnf; xdkcsKyfaESmifxm;oltm; zrf;qD;jcif;rS vTwfay;& rnfjzpfonf/ taMumif;aomf &Jt&m&Sdu zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;oltm; jynfolYw&m;½kH;&Sd vlxky&dwfowf a&SU0,f zGifh[ajymqdkrIrjyKjcif;onf wrefawmf()rS csKyfaESmifxm;oltm; csufcsif; vTwfay;&ef trdefYay;apjcif; t"dutaMumif;t&if; jzpfonf/ þtaMumif;ESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif xkwfjyefxm;aomtrdefYrSm &Sif;vif;xif&Sm;vS ygonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rS rdefYawmfrlonfrSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sif(tv’m[f)xHrS toifwdkYtMum; w&m;rQwrItwGufaqmif&Guf&ef uREkfyftm; rdefYawmfrlcJhonf/ þonfrSm cvDz[for®wBuD;tkr&f()rS tpövmrfhw&m;awmft& w&m;rQwrItwGufrSvJGí rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;jcif; r&Sdap&[k rdefYrSmcJhonfhtaMumif;t&if; jzpfonf/ þae&müoHk;xm;aompum;vHk;rsm;rS &Sif;vif;pGm ñTefjyaeonfhtcsufrSm w&m;½Hk;awmfwGif w&m;rQwrIonf w&m;Oya'twGufomvQifjzpfonf/ tu,fí EdkifiHawmftpdk;&u vlwpfOD;wpfa,muftm; &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefonf[koHo,&SdvQif (0g) rMumao;aom tem*wfumvwGif jypfrIusL;vGefawmhrnf[k oHo,&SdvQif tb,faMumifh oHo, &Sd&aMumif; w&m;½kH;awmfodkY taMumif;jycsufay;&rnfjzpfonf/ xkdYtjyif w&m;cH (0g) oHo,t0ifcH& aomoltm; ckcHacsycGifhay;&rnf/ tu,fí oHo,0ifjcif;taMumif;t&if;udk oufaojyEdkifygu xdkoltm; b,ftcsdefb,fumv txd zrf;qD;tusOf;csxm;jcif;cH&rnfjzpfaMumif;udk today;oifhygonf/ þtajctaewGif ta&;BuD;aomtcsufrSm tpdk;&rSpGJqdkaom pGyfpGJcsufESifhywfoufí jynfolvlxkrS Mum;emcGifh&Sdap&rnfhtjyif tjypfpGyfpGJolbufrS xkacscsufrsm;udkvnf; Mum;emcGifh&SdapNyD; þodkY Mum;emcGifh onf Oya'a&SUarSmuf0,f w&m;vdk? w&m;cHESpfzufpvHk;twGuf w&m;rQwpGmjzpfapjcif;[laom tcsufudk ay:vGif ap&rnf/ þodkYaomtrIudpöESifhywfoufí xif&Sm;aomOyrmudk wrefawmfjrwf() ruúmNrdKUokdY ratmifjrifrDumvrS qHk;jzwfcJhaom ausmfMum;vSonfh qHk;jzwfcsufwGif awGU&SdEdkifonf/ xdkpOftcg wrefawmf()rS ruúmNrdKUudk ppfwdkuf&ef r'De[fNrdKUüjyifqifaeaomtcsdef udk,fawmfjrwf() 42
  43. 43. aemufvkduf qG[mAm[fwpfOD;jzpfaom [moGdAfAifeftADAvfotm()rS jzpftHhqJqJjzpfaomwdkufyGJ taMumif;udk trsdK;orD;wpfOD;rS wpfqifhpmjzifh ruúm[fNrdKU&Sd(&efol)tmPmydkifrsm;xHodkY taMumif;Mum; cJhonf/ ,if;odkY &efolbufodkYpmydkYaMumif;udk wrefawmfjrwf()onf tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfrS 0[Dvrf;ñTefcsuftm;jzifh today;rIudk &&SdNyD;jzpfonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()onf tvD()ESifhZdkAdkif;&f() [laomyk*¾dKvfESpfOD;udk ruúm[fNrdKUodkYoGm;onfhvrf;ray:&Sd þrnfaomae&modkY tjrefoGm;í pm,laqmif oGm;aomtrsdK;orD;udk &SmazGyg/ xdkYaemufxdkpmudk uREkfyfxHodkY jyefvnf&,lcJhyg[k trdefYay;cJhonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rSmMum;onfhtwdkif; tvD()ESifhZdkAdkif;&f()wdkYonf xdktrsdK;orD;udk &SmazGawGU&SdcJhav onf/ xdktrsdK;orD;xHrS pmudkvnf; jyefvnf&,lí wrefawmfjrwf()xHodkY jyefvnf ay;tyfEdkifcJhonf/ {uefpifppf þudpörSm xif&Sm;aomopömazmufrIwpfck jzpfonf/ trSefrSm ppfjzpfyGm;aecsdeftwGif; ppfa&;qdkif&m vQdKU0Sufcsufwpfckudk wpfzuf&efoltm; today;jcif;xuf ydkíqdk;0g;aom jypfrIr&Sday/ ppfa&;qdkif&mvQdKU0SufcsufESifhywfoufí opömazmufrItwGuf vQdKU0SufMum;emppfaq;jcif;xuf ydkí oifhavsmfaompD&ifrI[lonfr&Sd/ odkYaomf wrefawmfjrwf()rS [moGdAf()tm; wrefawmfjrwf() AvD0wfausmif;awmfodkY qifhac:NyD; &mESifhcsDí&Sdaomy&dowfa&SUwGif uk½dkuf(&Sf)acgif;aqmifxHodkY rnfonfh &nf&G,fcsufjzifh pmydkYcJhaMumif; &Sif;vif;wifjyapcJhonf/ pGyfpGJcH&olbufrS ajymqdkonf/ tdk-tv’m[fhwrefawmf? uREkfyftaeESifh tpövmrfudkqefUusifí x<u ykefuefjcif;r[kwfyg/ xdkYtwl ppfa&;qdkif&mvQdKU0Sufcsufudk opömazmuf&efvnf; r&nf&G,fcJhyg/ jzpfysufcJhaomtrIudpötjzpfrSefrSm uREkfyfZeD;ESifh uREkfyfom;orD;rsm;onf ruúm[fNrdKUwGif aexdkifvsuf&Sdí olwdkYudk umuG,f&ef uREkfyfrsdK;EG,fwl aqGrsdK;om;csif;r&Sdyg/ þpmudk uREkfyf a&;ydkYjcif;jzifh udk½kduf(&Sf)acgif;aqmifwkdYonf xkdaus;Zl;twGuf uREkfyfZeD;ESifhom;orD;rsm;tm; tumtuG,fay;&efomjzpfygonf[k ajz&Sif;csufay;cJhygonf/ xkdtcg tkr&f()ocifrS rwfwyfx&yfNyD; ½dkaopGmavQmufxm;onf/ tdk-wrefawmf? þopömazmuftm; uREkfyf"m;ESifhqHk;rcGifhay;awmfrlyg[k avQmufxm;onf/ xdktcg wrefawmf()rSjyefvnfíajymqdkonfrSm olonf A'&fppfyGJtwGif;u yg0if qifETJcJhbl;aomolwpfOD;jzpfonfhtjyif ol &Sif;vif;acsycsufrSmvnf; vufcHEkdifbG,f&Sdacsonf/ þae&mwGif wrefawmf()½IjrifoHk;oyfyHkESifh qHk;jzwfcsufudk oHk;oyfMunfhMuygpdkY/ txufyg jypfrIwGif ppfa&;qdkif&mvQdKU0Sufcsufudk xkwfazmfowif;ay;aomtcsufrSm xif&Sm;vSaomopömazmufrIBuD; jzpfonf/ odkYaomf wrefawmfjrwf()rS [moGdAf()tm; taMumif;tcsufESpfcktay:wGifaxmufxm;í jypfrIrSw&m;aovTwfay;cJhonf/ yxrtcsufrSm olonfA'&fppfyGJwGifyg0ifqifETJcJhonf[l aomtcsuf jzpfonf/ xdkppfyGJrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;twGuf jyif;xefcufcJaom xl;jcm;aomppfyGJjzpfcJhonf/ ,if;ppfyGJESifh ywfoufaom olrSwfwrf;rSmvnf; &Sif;vif;aeonf/ 'kwd,tcsufrSm olrdom;pkrSmvnf; ruúm[fNrdKU wGif trSefwu,ftEå&m,f&SdaomtajctaewGif qdkufa&mufaejcif;jzpfonf/ þtajctaersdK;wGif oljypfrIudk vlxky&dowfa&SU0,f xkwfazmfjyoapjcif;onf olYtm;,HkMunfolrsm;a&SUarSmuf0,f *kPfoa&ysufap? t&SufwuGJ tusdK;enf;apjcif;onfyif olYtwGufvHkavmufaomtjypf'Pf jzpfonf[l aomtcsufudk awGU&onf/ cvDz[for®wBuD;tvD()ocifvufxufu cg&d*sD(Kha-rijites)rsm; oabmxm;ESifhtjyKtrl rsm;rSm rGwfpvifrfordkif;bmom avhvmaomausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf aumif;pGmavhvmod&SdNyD; jzpfonf/ xdkolrsm;u cvDz[fBuD;tvD()udk ajAmifapmfum;Muonfhtjyif owfjzwfrnf[kyif 43
  44. 44. Ncdrf;ajcmufMuonf/ xdkolrsm;udk ,if;jypfrIaMumifh zrf;rdaomtcg tvDocif()uvTwfay;&ef ol wm0ef&Sdt&m&Sdrsm;tm; ajymMum;onfrSm- ]]olwdkYrSm trSefwu,f EdkifiHawmfudk qefYusifonfh jypfrIrsm;udk usL;vGefrIr&SdbJ &ifhoD;½dkif;pdkif;aompum;vHk;rsm; ajymqdk½kHrQjzifhvnf;aumif; xdkolwdkYtm; axmifoGif; tusOf;csxm;EdkifrIr&Sd [lí jzpfonf}} tDrmrftAl[eDz[focifrS atmufwGifazmfjyrnfh tvDocif() rdefYqdkcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifcJhonfrSm- ]]xdkolrsm;u vufeufpGJudkifNyD; ykefuefrIrjyKorQumvywfvHk; rGwfpvifrfwdkYcvDz[ftaeESifh ¤if;wdkYtm; 0ifa&muf pGufzufrIjyKrnf r[kwf}} [líjzpfonf/ tjcm;aomtcGifhtcgwpfckwGif tvDocif()onf AvD0wfausmif;awmftwGif; a[majymydkYcsrI jyKvkyfaeonfhtcsdefwGif txufygcg&d*sDrsm;u ,if;wdkYtxl;a<u;aMumfrIrsm;udk a<u;aMumfaomtcgwGif tvDocif()rSrdefYqdkonfrSm ]]toifwdkYonf uREkfyfwdkYESifhtwlwuG &SdaeorQumvywfvHk; r,HkMunfol rsm;ESifh qifETJaomppfyGJwGif yg0ifaeorQumvywfvHk; AvD0wfausmif;awmfodkY vma&mufí tv’m[f t&Sifjrwftm; 0wfjyKudk;uG,fcGifhudk uREkfyfwdkY rjiif;qdkyg/ xdkYtwl EdkifiHawmfOpöm"erSm oifwdkY a0pk&S,f,mrsm;udkvnf; &yfqdkif;ypfrnfr[kwf/ oifwkdYonf uREkfyfwdkYtm; qefYusifykefuef wdkufcdkufrI rjyKorQumvywfvHk; oifwdkYtay:ü ppfa&;qdkif&mta&;,lrI jyKvkyfrnfr[kwf}}/ vuf&SdtcsdeftcgwGif tvDocif()rS BuHKawGUcJh&aom qefYusifa0zefcH&rIxuf ydkíjyif;xefaom yufyuf pufpufa0zefcH&rIrsdK;udk rnfolrQjrifawGUEdkifrnfr[kwfacs/ vuf&Sd 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawmfrsm;wGifyif tvDocif()udka0zefouJhodkY a0zefrIrsdK;udk pdwful;yif,OfMunfhcJhrnfr[kwfay/ odkYaomfcvDz[fBuD; tvDocif()rS cGifhjyKcJhaom qefYusifa0zefcGifhrsdK;udk rnfonfhtpdk;&urQ ay;EdkifrIr&SdcJhovdk rnfonfh tpdk;&urQvnf; ,if;udk qefYusifcGifhay;cJhbl;onfvnf;r&Sd/ tpövmrfrS vlom;tm;tyfESif;xm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm;teuf aemufxyfta&;BuD;aom tcGifh ta&;wpf&yfrSm tkyfcsKyfolzdEdSyf n§Of;yef;rIudk qefYusifuefYuGufydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif þtm,ofawmft"dyÜg,frSm tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf ½kefY&if;Murf;wrf;aom pum;vHk;rsm;oHk;pGJ jcif;ESifh olwpfyg;tm; jypfwif½Iwfcsa0zefjcif;udk vHk;0rESpfoufaMumif;qdkvdkonf/ odkYaomf xdkokdY rw&m;jypfwif ½Iwfcsa0zefcH&olrSmum; rw&m;rI (odkYr[kwf) rdrdtm; n§Of;yef; ESdyfpufcH&jcif;twGufrl ckcHumuG,fydkifcGifh &SdaMumif; rdrdtm;jyKrlcH&aom rw&m;rItwdkif;tqt& wkYHjyefydkifcGifh&SdaMumif;udk qdkvdk onf/ þzdESdyfn§if;yef;rIudk ckcHumuG,fydkifcGifhrSm vlwpfOD;csif;pDtwGufom owfrSwfxm;onfr[kwf/ txufazmfjyygusrf;ydk'fawmfqdkvdk&if;udk a,bk,soabm jcHKiHktoHk;csEdkifonf/ vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD; 44
  45. 45. wpfa,mufrSjzpfap? ygwDwpfckrSjzpfap? tmPmudkvk,lNyD; olwdkYzmomolwdkY tmPmydkiftBuD;tuJ? OD;pD;OD;aqmifrsm;[k ,lqaeNyD; oufqdkif&mEdkifiHtwGif;&dS vlwpfOD;csif;? tkyfpkrsm; odkYr[kwf vlxkwpf&yf vHk;udk n§if;yef;aeMuygvQif xdktmPmydkifrsm;tm; qefYusifjcif;? qefYusifaMumif;azmfxkwfjcif;onf vlom;tm; udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS ay;tyfxm;aomtcGifhta&; jzpfonf/ þtcGifhta&;udk usL;ausmf vk,lrIonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sifudk qefYusifaom oabmoufa&mufonf/ tpövmrfEdkifiHawmftwGif; aexdkifMuaom EdkifiHom;rsm;tm;vHk;udk vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:ydkifcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm azmfxkwfajymqdkydkifcGifhudk ay;tyfxm;onf/ odkY&mwGif xdktcGifhta&;onf trSefw&m;? opöm w&m;twGuf 0g'jzefYcsda&;wGif oHk;Edkifaomfvnf;? raumif;rIudk jzefYcsda&;twGufrl vGwfvyfpGm azmfxkwfydkifcGifh? awG;ac:ydkifcGifh ay;rxm;ay/ tpövmrfrSjyqdkxm;aom vGwfvyfpGmazmfxkwfajymqdkydkifcGifh todonmonf taemufwdkif;xuf jrifhrm;vSayonf/ trSefpifppf trSefw&m;? opömw&m;udk 0g'jzefYcsdjcif;xuf aumif;jrwfaomtusifhoDvudk jzefYcsda&;twGuf vGwfvyfpGm azmfxkwfajymqdkydkifcGifh onf vlom;wpfOD;csif;twGuf tyfESif;xm;aomtcGifhta&;omru rvkyfrjzpfaqmif&Guf&rnfh wm0efvnf; jzpfonf/ wpfpHkwpfa,mufrS olvlom;rsm;ESifhywfoufí þtcGifhtvrf;udk vkyfaqmif&ef jiif;y,fygu xdkolonf teEÅpGrf;tm;&Sifjzpfaom udk;uG,f&mt&SifESifh ppfaMunmí ppfyGJqifETJoljzpfonf/ tvm;wlyif raumif;rIESifhywfoufí umuG,fwm;qD;&efrSmvnf; vlom;wdkif;twGuf rvkyfrjzpf vkyfaqmif&rnfhwm0efESifh tcGifhta&;jzpfonf/ þae&mwGif xdkraumif;rI[lonf xdkyk*¾dKvfwpfOD; wpfa,mufaMumifhjzpfap? vlwpfpkaMumifh jzpfap? rdrdEdkifiH EdkifiHawmftpdk;&rS jzpfap? tjcm;aom EdkifiHrsm;rS tpdk;&rSjzpfap jypfrIusL;vGefygu wm;jrpf&efrSm vlwdkif;twGuf wm0efjzpfonf/ txufwGif azmfjyxm;ouJhodkY raumif;rIESifh MuHKBudKufvmygu ,if;udk yGifhvif;pGm jypfwif ½Iwfcsa0zefoifhouJhodkY trSefwu,f vkyfaqmifoifhaom udk,fusifhodu©mqdkif&m rSefuefaomvkyf&yfudkvnf; axmufjyoifhonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif opömw&m;ESifh ywfoufí atmufygtwdkif; vrf;ñTefxm;onf/ xdkYtjyif rkemzdufac: omoemhta&jcHKta,mifaqmifrsm;ESifh ywfoufí azmfjyxm;csufrSm- 45

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