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20120107 hicoe yamauchi


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20120107 hicoe yamauchi

  1. 1. Blogs in L2 Classroom:Maximizing Meaning-Focused Output Mari Yamauchi Chiba University of Commerce HICOE 2012, January 07, 2012, Honolulu
  2. 2. Goals Goals of this 3-year research*1. To build an online learning environment where students can use English for communicative purposes2. To propose practicable ways to integrate out-of-class activities with in-class activities, esp. where there is limited access to ICT in the classroom *Supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (2011-2013)
  3. 3. Many Japanese university students learning EFL (esp. non-English majors) have had very few opportunities to use English out of class for communicative purposes.60%45%30% 58% Exposed to English out of class15% Exposed to little English out of class 21%0%Q: What do you think of your experience learning English? (Multiple answers; 2010, N=24)
  4. 4. Q: How often do you use English out of class? (2011, N=92) Reading Writing 8% 6% 11% 19% 53% Listening 20% Speaking 64% 20% 13% 6% 18% 49% 18% 57% 19% 19% (Almost) Everyday Twice a week or more Once a week or less (Almost) Never
  5. 5. Three functions of output (Swain, 1995) Noticing/Triggering: Output raises learners’ awareness of gaps in their knowledge Hypothesis-testing: Learners’ output is a test of a learner-generated hypothesis Metalinguistic: Learners use language to reflect on language, allowing them to control and internalize it
  6. 6. Although it is quite easy to be exposed to spoken orwritten English, not many university students areready for online activities using English.Once they get used to those activities, they can keepusing/learning English after the course.
  7. 7. It is still common to have a language class in a regular classroom with limited access to ICT
  8. 8. Platforms considered* Teacher’s Cellphone Organized Customi- Closed Open Grading Multimedia readiness compatibility activities zation community community Moodle BloggerPosterous TwitterFacebook Tumblr Mixi *As of September, 2010
  9. 9. Students may rely too much on (feature) phonesHow user-friendly was Moodle for you? (2010, N = 24) I wish I could have used my 8% 4% cellphone! 25% 25% It would’ve been easier with a smartphone! 38% How about using cellphones for such online discussions? Very easy Easy Don’t know Little difficult Very difficult Websites incompatible with cellphones are inconvenient.
  10. 10. Integrating student blogging✦ A class blog was set up for students to share their English output✦ Posting by email was used to make it easier to for them to start blogging (allowing hands-on in a regular classroom)
  11. 11. Integrating student blogging✦ Topics were selected from what they wanted to say to make writing more meaning-focused✦ Students’ posts were used in class to facilitate noticing and give feedback to the “hypotheses”✦ Pair/Group work was related to their previous/next posts to facilitate noticing and hypothesis-testing through peer interaction
  12. 12. Topics (& language objectives)• Daily life : School, Part-time job, Club, Friends, Family, Shopping, Eating, Pastimes, Hobbies• Events : Travel, Parties, Festivals, Concerts, Vacation; Memories, Plans • Reviews : Books, Comics, Movies, Dramas, Songs, Music• News : Environment, Technology, Society, Health, Science, Politics, Entertainment
  13. 13. Topics (& language objectives) cf. CEFR A1 A2 B1• familiar • frequently used • familiarmatters everyday expressions regularly encountered phrases • in work, school, leisure very basic personal• very basic & family information, • situations likely to phrases shopping, local arise while traveling• needs of a geography • simple connected text concrete • simple/direct on topics familiar or of type exchange of personal interest• questions information on • experiences, events, about familiar/routine matters dreams, hopes, personal ambitions, reasons, details • his/her background, explanations for immediate opinions, plans environment/need
  14. 14. Blog Posts In-class activity Blog postA: What were you doing at 7 PM yesterday? GrammarB: I (am, was) eating dinner. ExerciseA: What (do, did) you eat? (Worksheet)B: I (have, had) pizza and friednoodle.
  15. 15. Blog Posts In-class activity
  16. 16. Findings & Issues Increased accessibility and activity designhelped increase participation in online activities Students found productive use of English andsharing their output beneficial (thoughchallenging)They were satisfied with how “feedback” ontheir output was given in classThey wanted feedback on language errorThey wanted to edit their posts
  17. 17. 1. Increased Participation400 40300 30200 20 10100 0 Assignements Posts/Contributer Posts/Topic 0 Posts 2010 Fall (N=24) 2011 Spring (N=27)
  18. 18. Page views: April - July, 20114000 3332 2846 29443000 228620001000 729 58 0 2011.3 2011.4 2011.5 2011.6 2011.7 2011.8
  19. 19. 2. They found blogging beneficial & challengingDo you think blogging in English What do you think of blogging in English? will help you improve your English? (N=27) 65.5 (%) 44.8 10% 41.4 34.5 7% 27.6 27.6 83% I enjoyed reading others’ posts I enjoyed writing my opinions/ideas in English I found myself using English more often Yes It was difficult to write in English No It was difficult to read in English Don’t know Im now feeling more comfortable using English
  20. 20. My writing skills improvedthrough blogging during this I feel I understand what it’s like to use semester. English in everyday life. I’ve improved my English I was happy that communication with mythrough blogging so I want to classmates increased through blogging. do more next semester. I felt uncomfortable blogging first but I Blogging in English was enjoyed it later on as I got used to it. challenging but fun. It’d be great if we post whenever we like, in addition to assigned tasks.
  21. 21. July May
  22. 22. July April
  23. 23. 3. Feedback on their output in classHow did you like the way your posts were used in class? (N=27) (%) 67 23 23 10 Good to learn how to say something I wanted to say Easier to write something related to what was covered in class Happy to have my posts used in class Don’t want my posts used in class
  24. 24. 4. Feedback and correctionSuggestions for better blogging activities? (N=27) 40 40 (%) 23 17 Mistakes to be corrected Posts to be editable More comments from teacher Interactions to be increased
  25. 25. Feedback and correction - IssuesTeacher feedback on language error As a comment to each post? LMS (Moodle) might work better? (What about giving a comment to each forum post?)Allowing students to edit their posts They need to have their own accounts If they have an account, which platform is the best?
  26. 26. iPads might help to give some hands-on At least one iPad per 3 students desirable
  27. 27. To conclude ...1. Using posting by email helps getstudents started easily in a classroomwith limited access to ICT, but this wayof using a class blog has its limitations.A better solution will be looked for.
  28. 28. To conclude ...2. Giving students opportunities to expresswhat they want to express, with appropriatefeedback to their output (as “hypotheses”),can facilitate their learning. These productivetasks also help them realize English is a toolfor communication, not just as anothersubject to study.
  29. 29. To conclude ...3. Students’ output should beanalyzed to see if their English isimproved through theseproductive activities.
  30. 30. To conclude ...4. As they get used to sharing their writingonline, they will become more active andcommunicative in the classroom. (A positive “side” effect)
  31. 31. To conclude ...4. As they get used to sharing their writingonline, they will become more active andcommunicative in the classroom. (A positive “side” effect)
  32. 32. To conclude ...4. As they get used to sharing their writingonline, they will become more active andcommunicative in the classroom. (A positive “side” effect)
  33. 33. Thank you! Mari Yamauchi Chiba University of CommerceHICOE 2012, January 07, 2012, Honolulu