Alzheimer's disease


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Alzheimer's disease

  1. 1. Alzheimer's Disease<br />By: Karla Sprecher, Donna Tait , Elena Turner, DanisiaWillock and Matthew Winans<br />
  2. 2. What is it? What causes it?<br />Definition of Alzheimer’s: <br />Alzheimer's disease is a CHRONIC, progressive and degenerative disease of the brain.<br />It’s the most common form of dementia. <br />Etiology of Alzheimer’s<br />UNKNOWN…<br />There is a clear and unmistakable pattern of inheritance within a family<br />
  3. 3. Plaque and Proteins:<br />Beta-Amyloid Plaque:<br />Plaque from proteins and remnants of neurons “clump” and become sticky.<br />Plaque develops first in the Hippocampus <br />Hippocampus is important in forming and storing short-term memories<br />Tau Proteins:<br />Tau proteins in the brain provide structure for the CNS.<br />These proteins become tangled and twisted<br />Inhibits transmission between neurons<br />
  4. 4. Plaques and Tangles:<br />
  5. 5. Cortical, Hippocampal Shrinkage and Ventricular Hypertrophy <br />The healthy brain begins to show changes in structure and function as the plaque and tangles begin to accumulate. <br />
  6. 6. Clinical Manifestations and Stages of AD:<br />Ranges from MILD-to-SEVERE impairment:<br />
  7. 7. Diagnostic Testing for Alzheimer’s:<br />
  8. 8. How to Diagnose?<br />Complete H/P<br />Mental Status Assessment<br />Neurological Assessment<br />MRI – shows atrophy and enlarged ventricles<br />PET – detects earlier changes in brain<br />A definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can be made only through autopsy after death.<br />
  9. 9. What to expect from AD:<br />Between 70 to 90% of people with AD eventually develop behavioral symptoms, including:<br />Sleeplessness<br />Wandering and pacing<br />Aggression<br />Agitation<br />Anger<br />Depression<br />Hallucinations <br />Delusions<br />
  10. 10. DRUG Therapy: <br />Cholinesterase Inhibitors:<br />Aricept<br />Exelon<br />BOTH improve and stabilize cognitive decline in patients with mild to moderate AD<br />Antipsychotics and Antidepressants:<br />Haldol manages acute episodes of:<br />Agitation<br />Aggressive behavior <br />Psychosis<br />Paxil or Zoloft to treat depression often associated with AD<br />
  11. 11. Nursing Management of AD:<br />SAFETY FIRST!!!<br />Use memory aids like calendars <br />Be patient<br />Avoid agitating behaviors or excessive noises and distractions<br />AVOID chaos and conflict<br />Provide good oral care<br />Prevent aspiration pneumonia<br />Good skin care<br />Elimination patterns and problems should be addressed: Laxatives for constipation and fiber to promote motility.<br />
  12. 12. Nursing Diagnosis:<br />Risk for Injury r/t impaired judgment, possible gait instability, muscle weakness and sensory/perception alterations<br />Self-Care deficit r/t memory and neuromuscular impairment <br />
  13. 13. The affects of AD are immeasurable:<br />Physiological changes<br />Emotional decline<br />Fear<br />Denial<br />Anger<br />Loss of interest<br />Disorientation<br />Inability to perform like they once were able to<br />Apraxia<br />Agnosia<br />Aphasia<br />Depression<br />Incontinence <br />Immobility<br />Limb rigidity<br />DEATH<br />
  14. 14. Alzheimer's Disease<br />“My father started growing very quiet as Alzheimer's started claiming more of him. The early stages of Alzheimer's are the hardest because that person is aware that they're losing awareness.” “And I think that's why my father started growing more and more quiet.”<br />--Patti Davis, <br /> Daughter of President Ronald Reagan<br />
  15. 15. DON’T FORGET…<br />
  16. 16. Each diagnosis of Alzheimer’s directly affects 10 more individuals due to that 1 persons illness…<br />It affects everyone around you. It rips your family apart. It will rock you to your very foundation.<br />