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  1. 1. Cancer: Ways to Reduce the Risks HSC1101
  2. 2. M e l a n o m a Cancerous Moles vs. Normal Moles Normal Cancerous/Unusual  Definition: A tumor of melanin-forming cells, typically a malignant tumor associated with skin cancer.  The exact cause of all melanomas isn't clear, but exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or tanning lamps and beds increases your risk of developing melanoma. Other factors, such as your genetic makeup, likely also play a role. The first melanoma symptoms often are:  A change in an existing mole  The development of a new, unusual-looking growth on your skin Normal moles Normal moles are generally a uniform color, such as tan, brown or black, with a distinct border separating the mole from your surrounding skin. They're oval or round and usually smaller than 1/4 inch in diameter — the size of a pencil eraser. Unusual moles that may indicate melanoma Follow the A-B-C-D-E guide developed by the American Academy of Dermatology: A is for asymmetrical shape. Look for moles with irregular shapes, such as two very different-looking halves. B is for irregular border. Look for moles with irregular, notched or scalloped borders — characteristics of melanomas. C is for changes in color. Look for growths that have many colors or an uneven distribution of color. D is for diameter New growth in mole larger than about .25 inch. E is for evolving. Look for changes over time, such as a mole that grows in size or that changes color or shape. Moles may also evolve to develop new signs and symptoms, such as new itchiness or bleeding.
  3. 3. Melanoma My Risks for Melanoma  My father is 68 and started to develop malignant melanoma moles on his face at the age of 64. He sees a doctor to get them removed. This means I have a hereditary risk of melanoma.  I am fair-skinned, have strawberry-blonde hair, have light eyes, and a few freckles. This means I am at a higher risk than most people of forming melanoma cancer.  I live in Florida, a very sunny place with a high UV index. I am at high risk because of this. Ways to Reduce the Risk  Wear sunscreen with a SPF of 70 or more on a daily basis.  Avoid sunlight when possible, especially during midday.  Wear protective clothing.  Do not tan, use a bronzer instead.  Check for new moles, unusual moles, and become familiar with my normal skin. See a doctor regularly to make sure I am melanoma free.
  4. 4. Pictures of Melanoma
  5. 5. Lung Cancer C a u s e s / S y m p t o m s Causes: Smoking Radon exposure Asbestos Second-hand smoke Pesticides (Agent Orange) Air pollutants Symptoms: A new cough that doesn’t go away Shortness of breath Coughing up blood Chest pain Wheezing Bone pain Hoarseness Unintended weight loss  Definition: Cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope.  Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, among both men and women. Lung cancer claims more lives each year than colon, prostate, ovarian, lymph and breast cancers combined.  Smoking causes the majority of lung cancers — both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke. But lung cancer also occurs in people who never smoked and in those who never had prolonged exposure to secondhand smoke. In these cases, there may be no clear cause of lung cancer. Doctors have identified factors that may increase the risk.
  6. 6. Lung Cancer My Risks for Lung Cancer  Non-hereditary  Do not smoke  Second-hand smoke from other people Ways to Reduce the Risks  Never start smoking  Stay away from people while they smoke  Avoid air pollutants  Avoid asbestos
  7. 7. Pictures of Lung Cancer
  8. 8. Kid n ey Can cer S y m p t o m s  Kidney cancer rarely causes signs or symptoms in its early stages. In the later stages, kidney cancer signs and symptoms may include:  Blood in your urine, which may appear pink, red or cola colored  Back pain just below the ribs that doesn't go away  Weight loss  Fatigue  Intermittent fever  Definition of kidney cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys. Kidney cancer includes renal cell carcinoma (cancer that forms in the lining of very small tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste products) and renal pelvis carcinoma (cancer that forms in the center of the kidney where urine collects). It also includes Wilms tumor, which is a type of kidney cancer that usually develops in children under the age of 5  It's not clear what causes renal cell carcinoma. Doctors know that kidney cancer begins when some kidney cells acquire mutations in their DNA. The mutations tell the cells to grow and divide rapidly. The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that can extend beyond the kidney. Some cells can break off and spread (metastasize) to distant parts of the body.
  9. 9. Kidney Cancer My Risks  My cousin died from kidney cancer so it may be hereditary  Alcohol intake  Smoking increases the risk  Obesity also puts people at risk  High blood pressure Ways to Reduce Risks  Eat plenty of vegetables  Regularly have check ups with a doctor  Stay fit and exercise  Reduce stress levels
  10. 10. Pictures of Kidney Cancer
  11. 11. References  cancer/DS00360/DSECTION=symptoms  ng  a/DS00439  ticle.htm