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Open access publishing overview


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This was a presentation for an IET workshop on publications policy. I was pitching for open access

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Open access publishing overview

  1. 1. Open Access publishing overview Martin Weller
  2. 2. <ul><li>Publishing is at the heart of what it means to be a scholar </li></ul><ul><li>The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society  published in 1665 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Publishing Research Authoring Submission/Review Rejection/Modification /Acceptance Publication Distribution
  4. 4. Parties Funder Author Publisher Libraries Reader £ £ £
  5. 5. Business <ul><li>$23 billion STM publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Reed-elsevier $1.5B profit 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>UK 2007, writing = £1.6B, peer-review = £200M editing = £70M </li></ul><ul><li>Library costs for journals increased 302% from 1986-2005 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Wiley’s trucking parable <ul><li>“ the inventor began contacting shipping companies. But she could not believe what she heard. The truckers would deliver her goods, but only subject to the most unbelievable conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>The inventor had to sign all the intellectual-property rights to her product over to the truckers. </li></ul><ul><li>The truckers would keep all the profits from sales of the inventor’s product. </li></ul><ul><li>The shipping deal had to be both exclusive and perpetual, never subject to review or cancellation. </li></ul><ul><li>Every shipping company she contacted gave the same response. Dejected, but unwilling to see the fruits of all her labor go to waste, she eventually relented and signed a contract with one of the companies.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. The squeeze <ul><li>Funders mandate (NIH 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries withdrawing from Big Deal </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is open access? <ul><li>“digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Two models <ul><li>Gold route – author pays OA journal </li></ul><ul><li>Green route – author self-archives </li></ul>
  10. 10. Green OA <ul><li>What is an appropriate embargo? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it dilute citation? </li></ul><ul><li>Surer and faster (Harnad 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>What version is archived? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gold <ul><li>Fees range between $1000 to $3000 per article </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial publishers = $3400 per article. Non-profit organisations, = $730 (Clarke 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Deutsche Bank: ““We believe the publisher adds relatively little value to the publishing process.  … if the process really were as complex, costly and value-added as the publishers protest that it is, 40% margins wouldn’t be available.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Advantages of OA <ul><li>Early advantage – you can publish earlier in the research cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Arxiv advantage – a central repository (or common data standard) provide one main place for all publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Bias - a self-selecting bias in that higher-quality articles are more likely to be self-archived in the early days but this effect would disappear as self-archiving approaches 100%. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality advantage - articles are judged on quality and not access differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive advantage - self-archived papers have a competitive advantage over non-self-archived ones, in early days, although this effect would also reduce as the practice increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Usage advantage – OA articles are read more widely than non-OA ones. </li></ul><ul><li>(Harnad 2005) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The PLoS example <ul><li>Public Library of Science ) 2003 they set themselves up as a non-profit, open access publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons attribution licence </li></ul><ul><li>Gold OA policy, </li></ul><ul><li>sought to re-engineer the publication model. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Experimenting with peer review <ul><li>PLoS Biology/PLoS Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>PLoS One – lightweight peer review </li></ul><ul><li>PLoS Currents. Google Knol web based authoring tool, authors write directly into the system. </li></ul><ul><li>PLoS Hubs </li></ul>
  15. 15. New models <ul><li>Zero cost journals </li></ul><ul><li>Added value </li></ul><ul><li>Journal comparison </li></ul>
  16. 16. Big question <What is your aim when publishing?>
  17. 17. Why wouldn’t you publish open access?