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Identifying Categories of OER
Users
Martin Weller, Bea de los Arcos, Rob Farrow, Beck
Pitt
OER Hub overview
Hewlett Foundation 2012
Create an evidence base for the OER community
Shift from belief driven statements
Establish impact research
11 hypotheses
A - Performance: Use of OER leads to improvement in student performance and satisfaction
B - Openness: The Open Aspect of OER creates different usage and adoption patterns than other online resources
C - Access: Open Education models lead to more equitable access to education, serving a broader base of learners than
traditional education
D - Retention: Use of OER is an effective method for improving retention for at-risk students
E - Reflection: Use of OER leads to critical reflection by educators, with evidence of improvement in their practice
F - Finance: OER adoption at an institutional level leads to financial benefits for students and/or institutions
G - Indicators: Informal learners use a variety of indicators when selecting OER
H - Support: Informal learners adopt a variety of techniques to compensate for the lack of formal support, which can be
supported in open courses
I - Transition: Open education acts as a bridge to formal education, and is complementary, not competitive, with it
J - Policy: Participation in OER pilots and programs leads to policy change at an institutional level
K - Assessment: Informal means of assessment are motivators to learning with OER
Surveys
7498 respondents:
Flipped Learning Network (n=118); CCCOER (n=128); Saylor (n=
3213); OpenLearn (n=1668); OU iTunesU (n=1114); Siyavula
(n=89); Librarians (n=218); General Survey (n=147); School of Open
(n=129); BCCampus (n=85); Open Stax (n= 400) and OU YouTube
(n=189).
Different analyses
Formal, informal, educators
Against hypotheses
Open textbooks
Global south
My question
Can we identify different types of OER users?
OER active
Know what OER means
Active and engaged in community
Advocates
Understand licences
Example
Community College teacher who adopts a textbook, adapts it and
contributes to open textbooks
Positive about OER
62.1% of educators and 60.7% of formal learners reported that using
OER improved student satisfaction
44.1% of educators and 38.9% of formal learners agreed that OER
use resulted in better test scores
But…
Awareness of OER repositories is low compared with sites such as
Khan Academy and TED.
Disparity in belief and practice - only 14% of informal learners
selected OER with an open license but 84% said they adapted the
resources they found to fit their needs.
Only 14.8% of educators published resources with a CC license but
70.4% considered open licensing important and 58.9% were familiar
with the CC logo
So…
Focus has been on expanding this group
But there may be limits to how much it can grow
OER as facilitator
Have some awareness of OER,
Have a pragmatic approach toward them
OERs are of secondary interest to their primary task
Example
Flipped Learning network
Openness is useful benefit
Online and free is main factor, but
79.4% of all OER users adapt resources to fit their needs
“What I do is I look at a lot of free resources but I don’t usually give
them directly to my students because I usually don’t like them as
much as something I would create, so what I do is I get a lot of
ideas”
Continuum of adaptation
Get ideas Put it in diff
context
Adapts
resource
Importance of open licence increases
teachers do not remain static
on this continuum - the more
educators used OER, the more
willing they were to share
Cost saving
Hilton et al (2014) found an average saving of $90.61 per course.
79.6% of formal students reported that they saved money by using
open textbooks
Improved retention
Changes to pedagogy (Tidewater)
For this group
Other goals may be primary focus
OER as practical means of achieving these
Some conversion then to OER active
OER consumer
Use OER amongst a mix of other media & don’t differentiate
Awareness of licences is low and not a priority
OERs are a ‘nice to have’ option
Users are largely consuming rather than creating and sharing
Example
A student studying at university who uses iTunes U materials to
supplement their taught material
Under-reported OER uses
32.4% informal learners using OER to try university-level content
before signing up for a paid-for course
Using OERs to supplement formal study - 46.9% of formal learners
OER had a positive impact in helping them complete their course of
study
An alternative to formal study - 89% of learners using OER the
opportunity to study at no cost
86.3% studying for personal interest
Quality is key
“OER per se does not excite learners. Good content does - free or
paid, legal or pirated. Siyavula's stuff works because it is GOOD.
Being CC makes it legal to download, not fun to use. There are
100's of free/CC resources. 98% are useless to me”
(educator using Siyavula content)
Discussion
Dark Reuse
“If our goal is catalyzing and facilitating significant amounts of reuse
and adaptation of materials, we seem to be failing. …
If our goal is to create fantastically popular websites loaded with free
content visited by millions of people each month, who find great value
in the content but never adapt or remix it, then we’re doing fairly well.”
David Wiley
3 groups represent way of realising both aspects
New strategies
Continue to expand OER Active group
BUT not only strategy
Increase OER ‘brand’
Strategic content to compete with Kahn etc
Movement between groups
Can occur – get the open bug
Shouldn’t view as ‘progression’
Can have all three within one project eg Tidewater Z-degree
Discussion points
Do you recognise these groups?
Are there other groupings?
What strategies should we adopt to reach them?
Links
Data report: bit.ly/oerhubdatareport
Data: bit.ly/oerhubdata
Evidence report: bit.ly/oerreport
oerhub.net
@OER_Hub

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Identifying categories of OER users

  • 1. Identifying Categories of OER Users Martin Weller, Bea de los Arcos, Rob Farrow, Beck Pitt
  • 2. OER Hub overview Hewlett Foundation 2012 Create an evidence base for the OER community Shift from belief driven statements Establish impact research
  • 3. 11 hypotheses A - Performance: Use of OER leads to improvement in student performance and satisfaction B - Openness: The Open Aspect of OER creates different usage and adoption patterns than other online resources C - Access: Open Education models lead to more equitable access to education, serving a broader base of learners than traditional education D - Retention: Use of OER is an effective method for improving retention for at-risk students E - Reflection: Use of OER leads to critical reflection by educators, with evidence of improvement in their practice F - Finance: OER adoption at an institutional level leads to financial benefits for students and/or institutions G - Indicators: Informal learners use a variety of indicators when selecting OER H - Support: Informal learners adopt a variety of techniques to compensate for the lack of formal support, which can be supported in open courses I - Transition: Open education acts as a bridge to formal education, and is complementary, not competitive, with it J - Policy: Participation in OER pilots and programs leads to policy change at an institutional level K - Assessment: Informal means of assessment are motivators to learning with OER
  • 4. Surveys 7498 respondents: Flipped Learning Network (n=118); CCCOER (n=128); Saylor (n= 3213); OpenLearn (n=1668); OU iTunesU (n=1114); Siyavula (n=89); Librarians (n=218); General Survey (n=147); School of Open (n=129); BCCampus (n=85); Open Stax (n= 400) and OU YouTube (n=189).
  • 5. Different analyses Formal, informal, educators Against hypotheses Open textbooks Global south
  • 6. My question Can we identify different types of OER users?
  • 7. OER active Know what OER means Active and engaged in community Advocates Understand licences
  • 8. Example Community College teacher who adopts a textbook, adapts it and contributes to open textbooks
  • 9. Positive about OER 62.1% of educators and 60.7% of formal learners reported that using OER improved student satisfaction 44.1% of educators and 38.9% of formal learners agreed that OER use resulted in better test scores
  • 10. But… Awareness of OER repositories is low compared with sites such as Khan Academy and TED. Disparity in belief and practice - only 14% of informal learners selected OER with an open license but 84% said they adapted the resources they found to fit their needs. Only 14.8% of educators published resources with a CC license but 70.4% considered open licensing important and 58.9% were familiar with the CC logo
  • 11. So… Focus has been on expanding this group But there may be limits to how much it can grow
  • 12. OER as facilitator Have some awareness of OER, Have a pragmatic approach toward them OERs are of secondary interest to their primary task
  • 14. Openness is useful benefit Online and free is main factor, but 79.4% of all OER users adapt resources to fit their needs “What I do is I look at a lot of free resources but I don’t usually give them directly to my students because I usually don’t like them as much as something I would create, so what I do is I get a lot of ideas”
  • 15. Continuum of adaptation Get ideas Put it in diff context Adapts resource Importance of open licence increases teachers do not remain static on this continuum - the more educators used OER, the more willing they were to share
  • 16. Cost saving Hilton et al (2014) found an average saving of $90.61 per course. 79.6% of formal students reported that they saved money by using open textbooks Improved retention Changes to pedagogy (Tidewater)
  • 17. For this group Other goals may be primary focus OER as practical means of achieving these Some conversion then to OER active
  • 18. OER consumer Use OER amongst a mix of other media & don’t differentiate Awareness of licences is low and not a priority OERs are a ‘nice to have’ option Users are largely consuming rather than creating and sharing
  • 19. Example A student studying at university who uses iTunes U materials to supplement their taught material
  • 20. Under-reported OER uses 32.4% informal learners using OER to try university-level content before signing up for a paid-for course Using OERs to supplement formal study - 46.9% of formal learners OER had a positive impact in helping them complete their course of study An alternative to formal study - 89% of learners using OER the opportunity to study at no cost 86.3% studying for personal interest
  • 21. Quality is key “OER per se does not excite learners. Good content does - free or paid, legal or pirated. Siyavula's stuff works because it is GOOD. Being CC makes it legal to download, not fun to use. There are 100's of free/CC resources. 98% are useless to me” (educator using Siyavula content)
  • 23. Dark Reuse “If our goal is catalyzing and facilitating significant amounts of reuse and adaptation of materials, we seem to be failing. … If our goal is to create fantastically popular websites loaded with free content visited by millions of people each month, who find great value in the content but never adapt or remix it, then we’re doing fairly well.” David Wiley 3 groups represent way of realising both aspects
  • 24. New strategies Continue to expand OER Active group BUT not only strategy Increase OER ‘brand’ Strategic content to compete with Kahn etc
  • 25. Movement between groups Can occur – get the open bug Shouldn’t view as ‘progression’ Can have all three within one project eg Tidewater Z-degree
  • 26. Discussion points Do you recognise these groups? Are there other groupings? What strategies should we adopt to reach them?
  • 27. Links Data report: bit.ly/oerhubdatareport Data: bit.ly/oerhubdata Evidence report: bit.ly/oerreport oerhub.net @OER_Hub