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Taking VANET to the Clouds


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Keynote given by Dr. Stephan Olariu at MoMM 2010

Published in: Technology, Business

Taking VANET to the Clouds

  1. 1. Old Dominion University Taking T ki VANET to the Clouds t th Cl d M. Abuelela S. Olariu Old Dominion University Work W k supported b NSF grant CNS 0721586. t d by tMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 1 11/19/2010
  2. 2. Old Dominion University Outline• What is VANET?• Wh t i cloud computing? What is l d ti ?• Why vehicular clouds?• Potential applications• Research challenges• A call to actionMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 2 11/19/2010
  3. 3. Old Dominion University VANET – the dreamF. Doetzer, Privacy Issues in Vehicular Ad Hoc NetworksMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 11/19/2010 3
  4. 4. Old Dominion University VANET – the killer app• Huge potential societal impact• An overnight success with automotive industry y various government agencies (USDOT, FCC, etc) standardization bodies: ASTM, IEEE, SAE, ISO• Emergence of projects and initiatives f Car-2-Car communication consortium Vehicle Safety Consortium Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Networks on Wheels MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 11/19/2010 4
  5. 5. Old Dominion University VANET – in a nutshell• Main characteristics uses vehicles as network nodes vehicles move at will relative to each other but within the constraints of the road infrastructure• Communications Vehicle-to-Vehicle (2V) zero-infrastructure Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) roadside devices WAVE/DSRC/802.11p MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 11/19/2010 5
  6. 6. Old Dominion University In case you haven’t noticed• Vehicles are becoming more sophisticated powerful on board computing capabilities on-board tons of on-board memory significant communication capabilities no power limitations• Computations capabilities supported by hosts of sensors and actuators on-board radar and GPSMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 6 11/19/2010
  7. 7. Old Dominion University Smart vehicles are upon usMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 7 11/19/2010
  8. 8. Old Dominion University Cloud computing – the idea• Basic idea: “why buy when you can rent?” exactly what you need exactly when you need it• An IT paradigm shift suggested by a better understanding of virtualization low cost high-speed Internet advances in parallel and distributed databases excess hardware/software/middleware capacity• Very appealing to startups and other players little upfront investment virtually no maintenance costsMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 8 11/19/2010
  9. 9. Old Dominion University Look Ma who’s playing• The cloud computing paradigm offers new opportunities for developers and infrastructure providers• The idea of decoupling computational assets from physical infrastructure poses numerous research challenges i f h h ll think on-line service delivery + security+ privacy• Key players Amazon Microsoft Google Dell IBM• Who is running cloud services? initially it was mostly the SMB but this is no longer the caseMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 9 11/19/2010
  10. 10. Old Dominion University Cloud computing services• There are three broad ways of viewing cloud computing- y g p g based services Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) also known as Hardware as a Service (HaaS) ( ) Software as a Service (SaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS)• A cloud computing i evolving b l As l d ti is l i by leaps and b d bounds th d the boundaries between the services are nebulous and still evolvingMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 10 11/19/2010
  11. 11. Old Dominion University Infrastructure as a Service – IaaS• Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): also knows as Hardware as a service HaaS suggested by a better understanding of virtualization a provision model in which an organization outsources its own equipment to support client operations, including storage, hardware, servers and networking components the service provider owns the equipment and is responsible for housing, running and maintaining it the client typically pays on a per-use basis e.g. desktop virtualization that offer fully customized desktop computers along with software for standard applications p g ppMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 11 11/19/2010
  12. 12. Old Dominion University Software as a Service – IaaS• Software as a Service (SaaS) also known as software on demand with SaaS, a provider licenses an application to customers as a service on demand or pay-as-you-go enables users to access applications remotely over the Web• Advantages include open-source APIs pre configured pre-configured software solutions helps automate many aspects of running a business sales force automation, customer management, etcMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 12 11/19/2010
  13. 13. Old Dominion University Platform as a Service – PaaS• Platform as a Service (PaaS): Involves the delivery of a computing platform and solution stack as a service PaaS facilitates the deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software PaaS provides the facilities required to support the complete life cycle of building and delivering web applications and services PaaS may include facilities for application design, application development, testing, deployment and hosting as well as application services such as team collaboration, web service integration , database integration, security, scalability, storage, etcMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 13 11/19/2010
  14. 14. Old Dominion University Cloud computing – a broader picture• Virtualization + excess capacity implies that cloud services can give the user on-demand (virtual) computer resources• More generally, when you have excess capacity consider generally lending it out to whose who need it (are ready to pay for it!)• What are the big issues that shape adoption? security privacy reliability operational controlMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 14 11/19/2010
  15. 15. Old Dominion University Vehicular clouds – motivation• It is expected that in the near future (most of) the vehicles will have a quasi-permanent Internet presence• O b d capabilities are lik l t remain under-utilized b On-board biliti likely to i d tili d by road-safety applications• Thus, VANET will start to support other services in order to , pp achieve the full potential of capabilities• What are people talking about? location-specific location specific services to the traveler multimedia content delivery p2p applications• Can we be bolder than that?MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 15 11/19/2010
  16. 16. Old Dominion University Vehicular clouds• To keep things simple, we focus on vehicular IaaS• In the next few slides we illustrate our vision by discussing applications that are feasible today• In the first two scenarios the resources are mostly static• In the others, the resources are more dynamicMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 16 11/19/2010
  17. 17. Old Dominion University A cloud in your parking lot• Consider the parking lot of a typical enterprise on a typical workday • hundreds/thousands cars go unused for hours on end• Why rent computational/storage resources elsewhere? • you have them in your own backyard • they are yours to waste! MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 17 11/19/2010
  18. 18. Old Dominion University Data center at the mall• US statistics show that the average shopper spends between two and three ours at the mall • 65% spend more than two hours p• The shopping mall may decide to provide pay-as-you-go computing services • by using the resources of the parked cars• The shoppers cars get free parking + other perks in return MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 18 11/19/2010
  19. 19. Old Dominion University Dynamically rescheduled traffic lights• Imagine a sporting event attended by thousands of p p g p g y people• When the game is over, everyone tries to get home as fast as possible• It would be nice to reschedule traffic lights to help mitigate congestion• Who are the players?• The municipality has the authority and the code does not have the hardware• The cars have the computational power lack the th it l k th authority and th code d the d MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 19 11/19/2010
  20. 20. Old Dominion University Dynamic HoV lane designation• A major US-DOT initiative• The idea is to schedule HoV lanes in real time as required by traffic flow• As before the municipality has the authority and the code the vehicles (stuck) in traffic have the computational power to make things happen From trekearth.comMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 20 11/19/2010
  21. 21. Old Dominion University Planned evacuations (1)• In cases of predicted disasters, massive planned evacuations are often necessary in order to minimize the impact on human lives• Once an evacuation is underway, finding available gasoline underway gasoline, drinking water, shelter and medical facilities quickly becomes an issue• The 2005 hurricane e ac ations in Ne Orleans and Ho ston h rricane evacuations New Houston have confirmed that there is no room for mistakes or misjudgment here MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 21 11/19/2010
  22. 22. Old Dominion University Planned evacuations (2)• We anticipate that the vehicles involved in the evacuation will be organized into one or several inter-operating VC that will work hand in hand with the emergency management center g y g• In the course of this interaction, the emergency managers can upload information about open shelters to the central server MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 22 11/19/2010
  23. 23. Old Dominion University Network as a Service – Naas• Sending adds to vehicles proved to be big business• Vehicles with Internet access can be used as a network cloud to reach thousands of customers on the move• This is not all bad• People can subscribe to email, p Internet access or location- specific services in a pay-as- y g you-go fashion MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 23 11/19/2010
  24. 24. Old Dominion University Storage as a Service (1)• It is expected that computers in cars will have multiple Terabytes of storage attached to them• This is mainly because of two reasons firstly, persistent storage is becoming less expensive over time, a Terabytes of storage costs less than $40 now, a negligible cost compared to the cost of the vehicle itself p secondly, cars have plenty of space to accommodate multiple hard drives even with today’s technology and sizes. needless to say that having a huge unused persistent storage sitting idle is a waste of resourcesMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 24 11/19/2010
  25. 25. Old Dominion University Storage as a Service (2)• This available storage can then be used in many applications in the vehicular cloud• Referring back to the data center on the mall that we discussed earlier , this available storage can be rented by the mall management for customers over the Internet• Another example is to use that storage in content deli er e ample se delivery and p2p applications where a file is decomposed into several pieces, and the blocks distributed across nodes of the t th network . The interested users collect diff k Th i t t d ll t different bl k to t blocks t reconstruct the file againMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 25 11/19/2010
  26. 26. Old Dominion University VC – vehicular cloud• Vehicles are ideal candidates for nodes in clouds of various resources• Vehicular Cloud (VC) a group of vehicles whose corporate computing, sensing, communication and physical resources can be coordinated and dynamically allocated to authorized users• How are VCs different from the classic clouds? mobility agility autonomy MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 26 11/19/2010
  27. 27. Old Dominion University How are VCs different?• Mobility: the presence of vehicles in close proximity to an event is often un-planned pooling of the resources in support of mitigating the event must occur spontaneously• Agility: refers to the ability of VCs to tailor the amount of shared resources to the actual needs of the situation in support of which the VC was constituted agility does not exist in conventional clouds and is an important defining g y p g characteristic of VCs• Autonomy: refers to the decision of each vehicle to participate in the VC MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 27 11/19/2010
  28. 28. Old Dominion University How is an VC set up?• The formation of an VC involves the following a broker elected spontaneously will attempt to form an AVC the broker will secure a preliminary authorization from a higher (city) forum the broker will inform the vehicles in the area of the received authorization and will invite participation in the VC. the cars will/or will not respond to the invitation on a purely autonomous basis the broker decides if a sufficient number of vehicles have volunteered and will then announce the formation of the VC the cars in the VC will pool their computational resources to form a powerful supercomputer that using a digital map of the area will produce a proposal that, area, schedule to the higher (city) forum for approval and implementation once the proposal has been accepted and implemented, the VC is dissolved MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 28 11/19/2010
  29. 29. Old Dominion University Possible AVC Architecture Authorithy AP AP APMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 29 11/19/2010
  30. 30. Old Dominion University VC research challenges• To make VCs reality research is needed along the following reality, three engineering dimensions architectural functional f i l operational and policy MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 30 11/19/2010
  31. 31. Old Dominion University VC architectural challenges• Elastic mobile architecture VC networking and protocol architecture must be developed to accommodate changing application demands and resource availability on the move• Resilient architecture VC basic structural and composed building blocks must be designed and engineered to withstand structural stresses induced by the inherent instability in g y y the operating environment.• Service-oriented network architecture contemporary layered network architectures, (e.g. the TCP/IP stack) have proven inadequate in face of evolving applications and technologies we envision the adoption of service-oriented component-based network architectures with intrinsic monitoring and learning capabilities MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 31 11/19/2010
  32. 32. Old Dominion University VC functional challenges• Enabling VC autonomy research is needed on developing a trustworthy base, negotiation and strategy, efficient communication protocols, data p p , processing and decision support g pp systems, etc.• Managing highly dynamic cloud membership there is a critical need to efficiently manage mobility resource heterogeneity mobility, heterogeneity, trust, and vehicle membership• Cyber-Physical control AVCs can be defined by their aggregated cyber and physical resources Their resources. aggregation, coordination and control are non-trivial research issues.• Cooperation between VCs MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 32 11/19/2010
  33. 33. Old Dominion University VC policy challenges• Trust and trust assurance research is needed on developing a trustworthy base, negotiation and strategy formulation methodology, efficient communication protocols, data processing• Contract-driven versus ad hoc VC we anticipate that the bulk of VCs will be contract-driven, where the owner of the vehicle or fleet consents to renting out some form of excess computational or storage capacity in addition to the contract-based form of VC, there should be possible to form a AVC in an ad hoc manner as necessitated by dynamically changing situations• Effective operational policies In order for the AVCs to operate and inter-operate seamlessly, issues related to authority establishment and management, decision support and control structure, the establishment of accountability metrics, assessment and y intervention strategies, rules and regulations, standardization, etc. MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 33 11/19/2010
  34. 34. Old Dominion University A call to action• We expect cloud computing to see a phenomenal adoption rate and penetration of the IT market• As cloud computing takes root it will be emulated by other areas• It is only a matter of time before it will be extended to • vehicular assets from individual vehicles to entire fleets • cell phones and other commodity consumer products• Are we ready for this paradigm shift? MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 34 11/19/2010
  35. 35. Old Dominion University The DumpMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 35 11/19/2010
  36. 36. Old Dominion University A possible AVC architecture p Higher authorithy AP AP APMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 36 11/19/2010
  37. 37. Old Dominion University InVeNet• InVeNet = VANET + Intelligent Transportation Systems to improve traffic safety and reduce congestion• Vehicles may provide weather warnings road conditions collision warning congestion warning intersection assistance From k hMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 37 11/19/2010
  39. 39. Old Dominion University InVeNetSmart Vehicles On-board GPS, digital maps Vehicle-based environment sensors Dedicated Short Range Significant computation, storage, Communications (DSRC) communication capability 5.850-5.925 GHz Not power constrained V2V, V2R communication 802.11p protocol 7 channels, dedicated safety channel 6- 27 Mbps Up to 1000 m tx range USDOT Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Initiative I iti ti Public/private partnership “Establishment of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communication capability nationwide” nationwide Improve safety, reduce congestion MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 39 11/19/2010
  40. 40. Old Dominion University Evacuation Issues Available Resources ContraflowTravel Time MoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 40 11/19/2010
  41. 41. Old Dominion University Possible AVC Architecture Authorithy AP AP APMoMM 2010, Paris, France, November 2010 41 11/19/2010