Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Brown M


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Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Brown M

  1. 1. Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio Melody Wearmouth Brown Psychology, 2012
  2. 2. Personal Statement
  3. 3. Personal Statement
  4. 4. Personal Statement
  5. 5. Resume <ul><li>Melody Brown </li></ul><ul><li>6713 Bluebell Dr., Rowlett, Texas 75089 - 214-455-7791 (C) </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Summary </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I am a high performing optician with over twelve years of experience in the industry and was ABO Certified in 2001. I have extraordinary interpersonal skills that allow me to make a client/patient's experience enjoyable, comfortable and effective. The people I serve, whether it is patients, my co-workers, or my supervisors receive only the best from me. I have obtained leadership positions quickly after being hired and I am always the &quot;go to&quot; person, especially in crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Core Qualifications </li></ul>
  6. 6. Resume <ul><li>*ABO Certified </li></ul><ul><li>*RLISYS Systems </li></ul><ul><li>*Microsoft Works/Word </li></ul><ul><li>*Insurance Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Pieces/Dr. Robert Birenbaum November 2005 to April 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Optician/Front Desk Supervisor </li></ul>
  7. 7. Resume <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Dallas, Texas </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>In this position I opened and closed the store, almost every day I was the first one there and the last to leave. I was responsible for maintaining the sales record for the day, and manually balancing it at the end of the day. Processing orders for glasses, contact lens, and frames as well as checking them in upon arrival. My main responsibility was to manage the appointment scheduling, answer phones, pull insurance information, file insurance claims, and recall previous patients. The recall rate in the store went from roughly 20% when I started, to 75% by the time I left. Beyond the clerical requirements of this position, I was one of the top sales professionals, enticing clients with jewelry for their face. I am familiar with and have successfully sold the majority of &quot;high end&quot; optical products. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Masters July 2001 to November 2005 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Resume <ul><li>Optician/Retail Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Irving, Texas </li></ul><ul><li>This position held the same responsibilities of Eye Pieces. It was an extremely high volume store, with a plethora of additional responsibilities when other management was unavailable; such as running the finishing lab. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tony Romas July 2000 to April 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Server/Hostess/Key Employee </li></ul><ul><li>Dallas, Texas </li></ul>
  9. 9. Resume <ul><li>In this position, I performed all functions of the front end of a restaurant. Depending on the shift, I was responsible for serving guests, seating guests, attending to any and all needs while the guest was eating. I became a team leader and server/bartender trainer and held a key position in the restaurant for two of the five years I worked there. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>BA Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Certifications </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ABO Certified (2001) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reflection <ul><li>In the beginning of my tenure at Argosy University I had no clue to all the many components that occupy the world of psychology. The research, the studies, the ethical implications, the many schools of thought that internally contradict each other and/or work together to create a schema of what a healthy and highly functioning individual should be. My only hope was to garnish the tools necessary to assist others in fulfilling their potential and accomplishing their dreams, and in consequence become fulfilled. I have learned proper procedures and all guidelines established and utilized to assist and protect clients and clinicians when working in a client/clinician relationship. I have learned how to create research proposals and actually go about creating the most viable means to secure data and research. Ethical issues that I never before had a clue existed were brought to my attention and I now know the proper channels and procedures in which to handle them. I am excited about continuing my education and becoming an expert, so that in effect, I will be the truest asset to my employer and the people that I assist. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>Society ’ s Influence on Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Melody Wearmouth Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>The great Russian developmental psychologist, Lev Vygotsky asserted that “ a full understanding of development was impossible without taking into account the culture in which children develop ” (Feldman, 2010, p.28). In essence, a culture or society ’ s norms and expectations will inevitably affect the process or filter the experiences of a child or individual. This process will likely increase this individual ’ s desire to succumb to the norms and view the world in which they live through these specific criteria. In any culture, we are not an island, and therefore live closely with others in our given societies. This close proximity allows us to learn from each other on a daily basis and create opportunities for growth through the interaction. Vygotsky also believed that “ children gradually grow intellectually and begin to function on their own because of the assistance that adult and per partners provide ” (Feldman, 2010, p. 216). In this paper we will discuss how present day American society has influenced the cognitive development of our children and ourselves through a set of cultural norms and expectations. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>It is not uncommon to start a conversation in which you desire to get to know another person better with a question about what that person does. We Americans place great importance on the vocation of an individual and how it is they make their money. There are also questions regarding what type of education that person has obtained, what they like to do for fun, and how their personal and family life is structured. This being the case, growing up in present day America requires an individual to pursue high levels of education and training to ensure that they make the very best life for themselves. These high expectations can irrevocably shape an individual ’ s cognitive development as they grow and make decisions concerning their future. A child raised in an environment where status is of utmost importance will strive as he/she grows to attain the level of excellence prescribed by others as the norm. There will be little maneuvering room in their occupational decisions, a limitation of options as they are pushed to “ fit the mold ” . In American society, you have not succeeded in life until you have that house on the hill with two or three expensive and high quality cars. This idea and expectation of success breeds an inexcusable desire for the material wealth of the world and greed that goes unquestioned </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>In our computer/internet enabled global civilization, there is a definite need for a mastery the technology that enables us to communicate and work literally anywhere in the world. As these technologies increase and change with time, our society becomes more and more dependent on the information systems that they produce. As recently as twenty years ago, computers were an infant emerging into our society as a new resource and collective way to share information. It has become increasingly apparent that without the mastery of the IT and computer systems workers in our society will be left in a state of economic disgrace. Representatives for higher education state, “On one side of the debate are those who believe that fundamental shifts in the economy, brought about largely by technology, are creating a premium for knowledge and skills. Students must be prepared to take advantage of those new opportunities, they warn, or risk joining the ranks of the working poor” (Olson, L., 2006, 3-22). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>In other words, if the students and workers entering the workforce are not exposed to or have mastered the newest technological advances, they are at risk for not having the skills and knowledge needed to be competitive in the workforce, thus leading to economic poverty. As a child raised in this information age and technologically advanced society, learning via computer, sending and receiving e-mails, researching on the web, and presenting reports and assignments online will affect the way they interact with people. An increasing dislocation of social interaction will inevitably create a reclusive society with secluded and introverted individuals at the helm. This can make a great impact on a child’s cognitive development. While he/she will have the world at their fingertips, it is likely that they will have difficulty interacting and learning with others in a face-to-face situation. Their focus will not be on relationships within their work and home lives, but what is happening thousands of miles away. Although, studies are still inconclusive as to the potential outcomes of this type of focus on technology and how it may affect personal, human interaction, there are strong cautions against this cultural norm becoming overwhelmingly overused. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li>Education is high on the American priority list of expectations for all individuals in our society, as seen through legislative initiatives such as No Child Left Behind, where the purpose is to encourage all children to reach a certain level of educational attainment. Although, this cultural norm and expectation is typical of the entire American population, there are certain subcultures that place even more emphasis on academic achievement than others within the society. For example, Asian American children are prompted to excel in all levels of their education, and their parents have been known to create environmental situations that facilitate this achievement. Research indicates that “ As a group, Chinese American parents are especially concerned with facilitating their child's learning experience, and most take an active role in this experience. They are more likely than White American parents to supervise their child's activities outside of school, to make sure that homework assignments are completed, to assign additional homework, to schedule their child's free time, to set limits on time spent watching television, and to invest in private tutoring or private lessons in music and language ” (Olson, L., 2006, 3-22). This being said, an Asian American child, based on their cultural filters, grow up knowing that they are expected to excel and will usually do any and all things necessary to make sure this expectation is met. Conversely, a child growing up in an environment that doesn ’ t truly advocate education and academic achievement will most likely develop a sense of apathy with regards to their education and the achievement that academic success can provide. This fundamental focus starts with the child ’ s parents and core group of peers, and without their acknowledgement of the importance of academic success, this child ’ s focus will most likely land in other areas. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cognitive Abilites <ul><li>Another issue of importance when evaluating a child ’ s cognitive development is the gender of the given individual. The expectations of male versus female individuals are different across all cultural boundaries. Experts assert that “ in all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of them being male or female ” (Bhat, B.A., 2010, p. 23). This being the case, it is imperative to evaluate a given societies expectations of male versus female roles, to illuminate the cognitive development differences in boys and girls. An example of how these expectations shape the development of women can be seen through the low percentage of women in high ranking government offices. Although, the last fifty or so years have brought an evolution of women into the political arena, most of the positions are still being held by their male counterparts. In “a recent World Economic Forum report covering 115 countries notes that women have closed over 90 percent of the gender gap in education and in health but only 15 percent of it when it comes to political empowerment at the highest levels. Although 97 countries have some sort of gender quota system for government positions, according to the Inter-Parliamentary Union, an organization that fosters exchange among parliaments, women fill only 17 percent of parliamentary seats worldwide and 14 percent of ministerial-level positions--and most of those are related to family, youth, the disabled, and the elderly.” (Hunt, Swanee, 2007, p. 115). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cognitive Abilities <ul><li> Women have effectively moved into educational and health professions in recent years, and as recently as forty years ago, this was unheard of. As a woman, you were expected to achieve a minimal education and create a healthy and functioning family unit by being the primary care giver and homemaker while your husband worked. Economic changes, technological advances and the evolution of the American family have had a major effect on the roles of women in our society. As such, this gender role evolution has facilitated a fundamental change in women’s focus and cognitive development. Girls are no longer exiled from society and ostracized for their desire to achieve personal academic and occupational achievement. This evolution in society has allowed for girls to grow up with totally different goals than their mother or grandmothers were even able to imagine or conceive. </li></ul><ul><li>As you can see, a society and culture in which a child grows effects his/her cognitive development by placing importance on specific tasks, skills, abilities, and norms. When a child is raised in an environment that advocates education and academic success, they will most likely follow this fundamental ideal and reach for the stars. Adversely, when the environment of a child and the cultural norms and expectations are placed on other avenues of life, their focus and cognitive development will reflect those expectations. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cognitive Abilites <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Bhat, Bilal Ahmad. (June 2010). Gender, Education, and Child </li></ul><ul><li>Labor: A Sociological Perspective. Education Research and Reveiws. 5(6); p. 323 (EJ887355). Retrieved from EBSCO host database October 1, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Feldman, Robert S. (2010). Child Development . 5 th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN:0-205- 65502-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt, Swanee (2007-06). Let Women Rule. Foreign Affairs. 86-3; p. 109-120. Retrieved from EBSCO host database October 1, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Olson, Lynn. (2006-03-22). Beyond Grade 12: Preparing for College and Careers — Economic Trends. Education Week. 25, 28. Retrieved from EBSCO host database October 1, 2010. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Research Skills <ul><li>Final Project: Research Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Melody W Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul><ul><li>August 20, 2010 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Research Skills <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>This research project is designed to study the relationship between adolescents living in single parent households and the tendency for or against delinquent activity or academic success. There is a survey given to single parent adolescents and adolescents in two parent households and the results are used to compare the likelihood of behaviors between and among these individuals. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Research Skills <ul><li>Introduction/Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>There have been a plethora of studies that have shed light into the world of a single-parent household. The effects on children reared in these environments have thus far proven to depreciate the value of livelihood and success in academia and work force. The seemingly sound structure of a two-parent household leads to security, higher self-esteem, lower delinquency activity, and more often than not, a well adjusted and healthy adult product. As research continues to enlighten and educate parents, teachers, and the community as a whole on the necessary educational and financial resources needed to ensure positive development in these children, we endeavor to continue the research and assist in the knowledge and understanding necessary to achieve these goals </li></ul>
  23. 23. Research Skills <ul><li>In 2008 four researchers investigating single-parents and their children’s perceptions of home-life conducted a survey using 29 groups of single-mothers and their children. The inventory taken with the PSI, The Parent Success Indicator, garnished results indicating that single-parent households felt an increasing disadvantage and lack of information for their parenting needs. Many studies have indicated “There is abundant evidence that family structure and household income are less influential factors in adolescent development than parent behavior and access to community support” (Beckert, E.T. et al, 2008). With the research garnished from this study, the hypothesis that was postulated by these researchers in regards to the lack of support and parenting information that is needed for a parent to raise a successful child was supported. These researchers have suggested more extensive studies into the world of single-parent households with their main focus on finding and funding external resources to assist these single-parents in raising their children to be successful, gainfully employed citizens in their communities. It was their conclusion that “A consistent body of research has concluded that growing up in a single-parent family typically exposes adolescents to higher risk of school failure, truant behavior, dropping out, teenage pregnancy, delinquency, substance abuse, alcohol-related illnesses, and depression. Uniting the developmental assets strategy with suitable education programs to help single parents could mean that the prospects for success of youth from these families become more favorable than in the past.” (Beckert, E.T. et al, 2008). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Research Skills <ul><li>There has also been surveys and in-depth interviews done by three individuals in 2003 indicating that single-mother households hold a stigma that is ever-increasing and stunting the growth of the parents and their children with them. These individuals, led by Shirley Tucker found that “financial strain as a precursor to depression. Once depressive symptoms emerged, single mothers exhibited ineffective and potentially harmful parenting skills.”(Tucker, S. et al, 2003). There were many factors, such as the impressions depicted by society of what the typical single-parent household consists of that effect the way single parents, especially mothers are seen and in effect the way they are interpreted. Many other studies have indicated that “children raised in single-parent homes have enhanced problematic socialization, receiving less &quot;economic and emotional support; practical assistance, information, guidance, and supervision; and less role modeling for adult interpersonal interaction than children in two-parent families” (Tucker, S. et al, 2003) These negative interpretations along with the already difficult situations that single-parents find themselves in, lead to a continuation of children brought up in deficit. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Research Skills <ul><li>There have also been extensive studies on the effects of divorced or single parent households on the children of the black communities here in the United States. An article written by Katti Gray depicts this dilemma and how it is affecting higher education among the black community in general. She states that “Many children living in single-parent homes face sometimes staggering obstacles: They are more likely to endure poverty, 50 times more likely than children in two-parent homes to be abused and they tend to perform worse academically” (Gray, K., 2009). This effect is staggering as there are fewer than 30% of black children living in a two-parent household at the time of the articles publication. In many cases, it seems that the role of the father is being totally neglected because there is a feeling of emasculation when contributing to the children. The fathers have a tendency to withdrawal because of their economic station and “rather than show up with empty pockets” (Tucker, S., 2003), don’t show up at all. In this article, she continues to state that the two-parent household usually holds a more structured and secure environment for the children involved to grow and learn, and while many black families ling for this for their families, they are just having a hard time getting there. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Research Skills <ul><li>There have been many studies that also seek a correlation between single parent homes and the likelihood that an individual will engage in delinquent behavior. A study done in 1996, using a verbal survey of 726 individuals, age 21 noted that there are several correlations between the household that an individual is raised in and the tendency toward delinquent behavior. The researchers had found in their studies that “adolescents reared in a single parent household committed twice as many violent offenses as adolescents reared in two-parent households.” (Willaims, J.H, et al, 2001). Of course, correlation does not equal causality, however the relationships are far too great to ignore. They postulated that there is a significant need for “interventions addressing stressful life events should be based on the large body of research on family interventions and stress management” (Williams, J.H., et al, 2001). These stressful life events do include family life, not only on a traumatic experience level, but striving, through group and family therapy to shed light on issues within the core of the family structure that need to be addressed and worked through. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Research Skills <ul><li>There are two groups of participants within the sample used for this research study. One group comprised of adolescents from single parent households, the other of two parent households. The participants in group one were selected using a stratified random sampling method. Using the population of single-parent households in the U.S., we garnished a percentage of maternal custodial custody versus paternal custodial custody and use these percentages to replicate the population. The second group was obtained using a simple random sampling method of adolescents within the population living with both parents. The exclusions consist of children under the age of eleven and over the age of seventeen. There were a total of one hundred participants in each sample group. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Research Skills <ul><li>The instrument used to obtain data regarding these participants was a questionnaire survey comprising sixty total questions, twenty with regards to home life, twenty regarding academic success, and twenty regarding delinquent behavior. At a time that was pre-determined by parents and the administers of the survey, the administer will meet with the participants at their home. Completing this survey in a comfortable and known environment will assist in allowing these adolescents to remain at ease during the process, hopefully allowing for the most accurate and honest answers of the questions. The parents and adolescents chose an appropriate spot for the survey to be taken. Often times in the dining area of the house, or the kitchen counter. The survey administer then made certain that the parent and teen have a documented copy of the privacy practices and had no questions regarding the nature of the questions, or the survey research objectives. The participant then sits down at the predetermined area and completes the survey with parents and administers not too far away, so as to answer any questions that the participant may have. It was also imperative not to sit too close so that the close proximity did not affect the answers of the questions asked; there was a definite need to facilitate the most accurate and honest answers possible. After the survey was completed, there is a genuine thanks that was bestowed on the participants and their parents for their willingness to participate and a small compensation for their time given. We chose to give a monetary compensation of fifty dollars to each individual. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Research Skills <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>The statistical testing methods used for this research design was a statistical correlation method, which is used to compare two variables, both measured as continuous variables that are in no case categorical. (Argosy University, 2010). This method determines if there is a relationship between these variables and to what degree they are related. The correlation method allows a representation of this relationship using a “number that can range from -1.0 to 1.0 and represents the degree to which you can predict” (Argosy University, 2010) another variable if it is known. This statistical design was chosen to predict the relationships between single-parent households and the children being reared in them and their likelihood to obtain success in academics and life as being compared to children reared in two-parent households. The results garnished will show significance determined by the strength of the correlation. After obtaining the qualitative information garnished from the questionnaire the results were then inputted into a correlation coefficient statistical analysis process and equation. Using the data, there was a correlation coefficient of -0.23, a small to moderate negative correlation, found between adolescents living in single parent households and their academic success. There was also a correlation coefficient of +0.42, a moderate positive correlation, found for adolescents living in single parent households and the chances of being involved in delinquent activities. This study also analyzed the results of the participants living in two-parent households and found correlation coefficient of +0.38, a moderate positive correlation to environment and academic success. Also, in two-parent households the correlation coefficient for delinquent activity was -.19, showing a small negative correlation between environment and the decisions to engage in adverse behavior. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Research Skills <ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>Threats to validity and confounds that were present in this research design begin with the instrumentation of this design, being that it is a self-reported questionnaire. First of all, the results of the questionnaire can be ambiguous because this is a qualitative measure, determined by the answers of the participants. This being the case, there is a possibility of untruthful answers being obtained, whether consciously or unconsciously. There is also an issue of interpretation of the questionnaire, which can also cause a threat to validity because it is left up to the research design team and therefore there is a chance for them to &quot;see what they want to see&quot;. There are several different age groups being tested. This fact can change the outcome of the results because we are not dealing with or studying one age, but a banded group including adolescents from the ages of eleven to seventeen. There is a definite maturation difference among the participants that will inevitably affect internal validity of the research. Lastly, when it comes to issues with internal validity, there is a possibility of attrition during the study, where a group of participants, even a few, drop out of the study before or during its execution. This possibility is not usually random because the participants in the study usually &quot;have certain traits in common that make them different from subjects who remain in the study&quot; (Argosy University, 2010). With regards to external validity within this research design, the questionnaire given is distributed in the home of the participant. This being the case, the obtrusiveness of the research, combined with the knowledge that their parents and the researcher are in close proximity, may change the reactions and answers to the questions. Also, this research design does not include subjects raised in a household with one biological parent and another parent figure, such as a step-parent. A child being reared in a two-parent household, no matter the relationship to the participant, is now being left out of the study and could have a major influence on the outcome of the research. This would be an example of selection bias. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Research Skills <ul><li>The results show an insignificant to slight relationship between an individual’s home environment and their success in academics as well as community. The null hypothesis in this study, stating that there is no significant relationship between an individual living in a single parent household and a two-parent household and their academic success or likelihood to become a delinquent cannot be rejected. Although the correlations found within this research design are small to moderate, there is a relationship somewhere between how well a student does in academics and abstaining from delinquent activity and the type of home environment in which they are raised. Even though this study showed little significance, there is a definite need to continue studying the effects of the single parent household on children and illuminate the opportunities for this additional research to gain insight that can be used to assist these single parents in raising their children. Such studies would likely be important tools in learning the types of classes needed and support groups formed to in fact make changes in the outcomes of these young lives and the parents involved in enriching and educating them. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Research Skills <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University (2010) Argosy University Online Lecture. Retrieved from Argosy University database August 20, 2010. . </li></ul><ul><li>Beckert, T.E., Strom, P.S., Strom, R.D., Darre, K., & Weed, A. (2008). Single Mothers of Early Adolescents: Perceptions of Competence. Adolescence. 43;1701275(16). Retrieved from EBSCO host July 20, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Gray, K. (2009). Broken Ties. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education . 26.19.(11-12). Retrieved from EBSCO host July 20, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Tucker, S., Hill, K.L., & Taylor, J. (2003). Emerging Family Structures in the U.S. : The Single Mother. Allied Academies International Conference, Academy of Legal, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues, Proceedings. Cullowhee:7,1:5. Retrieved from EBSCO host on July 24, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Williams, J.H., Van Dorn, R.A., Hawkins, J.D., Abbott, R., & Catalano, R.F. (2001). Correlates Contributing to Involvement in Violent behaviors Among Young Adults . Violence and Victims . New York: 16, 4: 371,13. Retrieved from EBSCO host on July 17, 2010. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Communication Skills <ul><li>Decision Making in Groups and Effective Communication (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Melody W Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul><ul><li>August 16, 2010 </li></ul>
  34. 34. Communication Skills <ul><li>Decision Making in Groups and Effective Communication </li></ul><ul><li>As a consultant to Li the CEO of Celia Jane, a medium size furniture design firm, re-analyzing the traditional group/team work groups would be one of the first steps in assisting the company with moving into gaining some market share and expanding the business. The first steps would include analyzing where each group is in their group forming. Doing this would require a group by group evaluation and possibly a KSOA of each member, determining the extent that each individual makes in the group and how they “complement one another, effective team members should possess the kinds of characteristics that will make them highly functioning team members, such as good communication skills, skills in problem solving, and conflict management skills, and they should be self-motivated and committed to the team” (Riggio, R.E., 2008, 339). Figuring out where the employees are in their group forming will determine how effective the individual group can and will be. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Communication Skills <ul><li> There are a plethora of researchers who agree on determining and categorizing the group forming behavior on the “five stage model described as follows, forming where the group members get to know each other and identify how they should act, however, they may not yet think of themselves as a group. Storming, where there is a high degree of conflict, group members may resist any control exerted by group’s leaders, and the group is not complete until the conflicts are resolved. Norming, where the group becomes more cohesive and the members identify with the group. Performing, where the group is ready to work and group relations improve and there is acceptance of leadership. And finally, adjourning, where the group may cease to exist because the group members have met their goals and the adjourning may be gradual with the members leaving or the norms no longer being effective” (Argosy University, 2010). Assisting Li in determining the stage in which his groups are, and providing tools via the KSOA analysis can assist Li in eliminating some groups and creating groups that will go through the processes of forming, storming, and norming more quickly, allowing for more productivity and less “forming” of these groups. Groups can be effective tools when used correctly; however, I will explain some of the drawbacks of employing this technique within Li’s company. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Communication Skills <ul><li>A problem that may arise in the group process is group-think. This term is defined by a group of individuals that tend to have a high cohesiveness (Riggio, R.E., 2008, 335) but also have issues with being creative. The members “are so concerned with not “rocking the boat” that they become reluctant to challenge the group’s decisions and fail to consider outside information” (Argosy University, 2010). Although this process leads to less conflict, there are very little creative or new initiatives incorporated into their work. This can often times lead to poor decision making within the group with dire consequences for the company as a whole. Another problematic issue within the group dynamic is social loafing. This can be defined by an individual in the group taking “advantage of others by decreasing their own contributions to group work” (Argosy University, 2010). This often occurs when the outcomes of the group as a whole are the only determining factor to performance appraisal of the individual. However well, or not so well, the group does is a direct reflection of this workers performance, and knowing that there will be no individual appraisal gives this person license to become lazy. The potential problems lay within the stress that increases for the members of the group that are doing all the work. There is now little shared responsibility, and the remaining members who have to do double their share, can become less effective having to pick up the slack of the loafer. There is also the issue of process loss where the “difference between what a group actually produces and what it should produce based on the number of individuals in that group” (Argosy University, 2010) is in equivalent . </li></ul>
  37. 37. Communication Skills <ul><li>There are times and particular jobs that may not require a group or a large group to complete the tasks required effectively. There may be a loss of productivity in allowing groups to do these types of tasks, when an individual could have done them just as expediently and precisely. Also, when a group is brainstorming there is a potential for group members to begin free-riding. This happens when “members allow other members to do the work for them” (Riggio, R.E., 2008, 337). This is similar to social loafing, however, the difference is the member of the group doesn’t only minimize their work, but terminates it. This again has many negative consequences to the group dynamic and can cause unnecessary and unwanted group conflict. Instead of group members focusing their energy on the goal they will waste energy on this conflict and cause the company time and money loss. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Communication Skills <ul><li>To utilize groups effectively there are some strategic steps that should be put in place. First of all a job analysis should be done to determine if certain tasks truly require a group or if an individual may be more effective. Secondly, locating and determining the each groups forming process will allow Li to evaluate which groups work well together and which ones can be eliminated. A personality KSAO can aid Li in determining the personnel he has on staff that work better within a group dynamic and can be effective to and for the company in this role. Third of all, suggesting that Li create smaller groups in his business. There have traditionally been groups of eight that work together, even though this is not considered a big group, downsizing this number of individuals in the group can lead to a higher cohesiveness in the group itself. This cohesiveness “can be very productive because they agree on norms for high group productivity and may deal with less process loss” (Argosy University, 2010). </li></ul>
  39. 39. Communication Skills <ul><li>Brainstorming can be an effective way to locate and implement new and creative ideas. There can be some downsides to a group brainstorming session, however, because there is a tendency for some in the group to begin free riding. In a group session of brainstorming there is a possibility that only one or two individuals are contributing. A way to assist Li in making brainstorming more effective is to suggest computer generated sessions; where there has to be an individual contribution and each of the members can collaborate and work together via the session. (Riggio, R.E., 2008) This will eliminate free riding and allow for less time being spent on the process as each individual can contribute at their leisure. </li></ul><ul><li>Good communication is imperative in the work place and a company’s effectiveness in this regard tends to trickle down from management. When “management does not communicate effectively with workers, there is the potential for errors and misunderstanding” (Argosy University, 2010) and it is imperative to illuminate this issue to Li. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Communication Skills <ul><li>When suggesting some ways to assist in this matter I would start with the nonverbal effects of communication. It is important for Li to understand that, especially when giving a presentation, vocal dynamics, visual thinking, and gestures and facial expressions convey a plethora of messages to the audience. (Argosy University, 2010). These messages can be distorted if there is not sincerity in the connection between listener and speaker. It’s important to incorporate visual aids as needed to communicate ideas more effectively. Also, small gestures and facial expressions can engage or disengage listeners. As the manager of this company Li can only be an effective communicator if he establishes trust with his employees. To do this Li must begin “communicating by example and identity” Argosy University, 2010) because this style “is much more powerful than communicating by words alone. Words and actions, however, must be consistent with one another” (Argosy University, 2010). This consistency will provide a foundation of trust between and amongst Li’s subordinates thus allowing for a more productive work environment. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  41. 41. Communication Skills <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University. (2010). Argosy University Online Lecture. Retrieved from Argosy University database August 13, 2010. . </li></ul><ul><li>Riggio, Ronald E. (2008) Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology . 5 th Edition. New York: Pearson H all . </li></ul>
  42. 42. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Coping with a Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Melody Wearmouth Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul><ul><li>April 5, 2011 </li></ul>
  43. 43. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Coping with a Disability </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>In the example we are given, we see Melinda who has recently been paralyzed by a motor vehicle accident and her friend Shelly’s response to the incident. It is evident that Shelly is interested in assisting Melinda adjusting to the major life changes that this accident has brought about. There are a plethora of psychological changes that will have occurred within Melinda as she sets out to live with the changes that her new disability has created for her life. </li></ul><ul><li>Melinda’s first step is acceptance of her new physical self. As we grow, we conceptualize the ideals of beauty and thereby power and success. Especially as a woman, we are taught that physical beauty is the key to obtaining our goals and success in life. Our text indicates a hardwiring of the female psyche, stating that “The socialization of young girls to see their primary role in life as pleasing others encourages the development of anxiety, depression, and an unhealthy reliance on others for approval. (Robinson, T.L., 2009, p256). Melinda will have to come to terms with what beauty really entails, what is behind the shell of the woman everyone sees, how her strength and character truly determine her lot in life as well as her worth. Therapy, especially some sort of cognitive behavioral therapy, will assist Melinda in “re-wiring” her thoughts about beauty and power and the interplay they have in her life and her ideas of success and happiness. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Beyond accepting the changes in her appearance, Melinda will have to come to terms with the changes to her physical limitations. She is, at this point, bound to a wheel chair which limits her daily activities and possibly her occupation. It is even possible that she will have to make additional life changing decisions, such as the type of work she does because of her disability. Hopefully, this is not the case. But either way, facing the additional challenges of paralysis will most definitely affect every aspect of her daily routine. From taking showers, to being able to dress herself, to making food, to driving, all of these aspects that the majority of us take for granted are now going to become mountains to climb. She will have to learn about technology made especially for her condition, how to use it, and how to create a life for herself that will be as close to what she is used to as possible. Giving her tools to accommodate her new body and functioning thereof will be of utmost importance as well as assisting her in understanding that these limitations in no way affect her usefulness, and she can still be a productive and positive member of her environment and community. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Assisting Melinda in understanding that she has an opportunity, not a disability is paramount. There is a way to make lemonade out of the lemons life has handed her. I believe that preparing her for the inevitable prejudice of our Western society would not be a bad idea either. She has never interacted in the world with these limitations, and many ignorant people would choose to run away and/or cast her out than deal with the amazing woman she still is. I believe that educating Melinda on her rights would assist her in knowing that she has options and also will give her insight on how to handle inappropriate interactions, whether at work or in any social setting. According to our text, “To arrive at a place of acceptance of one’s body, there has to be (1) a confrontation of the societal standard that maintains that masculinity is not only narrowly defined but also in contradiction to the disabled man’s body; (2) repudiation of this socially constructed norm; and (3) affirmation of the self through a recognition that the norms and discourses, and not the person, are problematic” ( Robinson, T.L., 2009, p258). </li></ul><ul><li>Melinda finds herself in a predicament that challenges her views of intimacy, usefulness, and security. She now has to reevaluate what it means to be intimate. Intimacy does not only involve the physical acts of sex, but the bond that is built in sharing. This bond can be created in many different ways, from sharing personal feelings, to touching and holding hands, to kissing . </li></ul>
  46. 46. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Once she has established a relationship with someone whom she feels comfortable exchanging these types of private interactions, let the exploration begin! There need not be a close-minded approach when it comes to intimacy and its many layers of existence. However, most people of an “idea” or a schema of what intimacy is or should be and changing this can and will allow for Melinda to experience intimacy in ways she never knew existed. </li></ul><ul><li>Usefulness is another schema that will most likely have to evolve for Melinda to be happy in her new situation. Many people have their own definitions of usefulness, and if Melinda’s includes any type of major physical activity, such as driving, or doing manual labor she may have a crisis on her hands. Useful people do what they can, when they can, and allow others to assist when necessary. Usefulness is someone that is not lazy, and will do what is required of them when it’s time. Knowing that she cannot control the fact that her body is now in the state that it is in, but learning all the additional ways she can be productive will enable her to change her ideas of usefulness and hopefully see that she can and will be useful, if in her own way. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Taking care of herself is a main priority, but when I think of security, I think more of the fact that she will have to evaluate what it is that makes her feel safe. How has this changed, if it has since her accident, and should it change? Many people find security in their relationships and their jobs. These outside sources have a way of evolving and changing, leaving us feeling vulnerable and insecure. Her security, as should be the case in all of us, should be internal. That internal lotus of control has to be strengthened and nurtured to allow for reliable and ever present security. </li></ul><ul><li>All of the issues that Melinda is facing will be challenging and Shelly could very well be the support she needs to make these changes positive and less difficult. A good support system is one that allows the person to retain personal responsibility and is there when that particular individual asks for help or just needs to talk. I believe that Shelly has taken a good first step by not avoiding the issues at hand and trying to better understand her friend as well as her friend’s needs. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>. This can be a difficult task, but obviously it is one that Shelly is willing to take on due to her love for her friend. I am not sure how well I would deal with being in Melinda’s shoes. I am certain that I could take on the role that Shelly has accepted, but to actually deal with all of the ramifications of an accident of this nature, I just don’t know. I would like to say that I could follow the steps of acceptance and learn how to function to my highest ability with the disability, but as I have thought about it over and over again recently, I just do not know. I would hope that I could go through some of the steps I mentioned in this paper, and become a positive and well-adjusted individual after an accident such as this. I have the knowledge to make these adjustments; I just pray that I don’t have to use it. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Ethics and Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University. (2011). Argosy University Online Lecture: Module 5. Retrieved from Argosy University database March 31, 2011. . </li></ul><ul><li>Robinson, T.L. (2009). Convergence of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Multiple identities in counseling . 3 rd Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Pearson. ISBN: 0-13-233716-9 </li></ul>
  50. 50. Knowledge of Applied Psychology <ul><li>Community Intervention for Violent Youth </li></ul><ul><li>Melody Wearmouth Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul><ul><li>October 23, 2010 </li></ul>
  51. 51. Knowledge of Applied Psychology <ul><li>Community Intervention for Violent Youth </li></ul><ul><li>There are many aspects of a child’s live and environment that affect their tendency towards violence and gang activity. As a community based treatment for these individuals, meeting all the necessary requirements to be effective in mitigating these circumstances and the tendencies therein have to be comprehensive. Creating a plan to assist in the intervention of these perpetrators will include after school tutoring programs, mentoring programs, group activities such as football, basketball, and boxing training, as well as psychoeducational assistance and self-monitoring classes. Each and every individual will have access to a physician, psychologist, and educational coach to individualize treatment and support. I would want to partner with the local authorities to give the youth tours of the jails and prisons in the area. Facing the realities of what their choices and actions could bring them in the future will hopefully make the adolescents involved in these programs think twice about their actions. I would also create mandatory community service programs where the kids would be required to clean up graffiti and local parks as well as feed the homeless. Coupled with empathy training I believe that these mandatory community projects will allow for the fostering of empathy in these kids as they see how the consequences of their actions can affect themselves and others in the future. The community based programs are only one part of an adolescent’s environment . </li></ul>
  52. 52. Knowledge of Applied Psychology <ul><li>It is imperative that the school and home environment of these kids work together with this community program to create the very best possible support for these young minds and souls. Studies have shown that “the best prevention programs are multifaceted and require the combined efforts of the family, school, and the community” (Argosy University, 2010, Preventing Youth Violence, p2). </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are often the best monitors of their children and their behavior. A concerned parent does have certain warning signs that they can look for with regards to their child’s behavior that may indicate their child is getting involved in violent or gang activity. The way a child presents themselves to the world is usually a sign of what is important to them. An example of watching his type of behavior would be analyzing “changes in style of dressing, strange hairstyles, presence of tattoos, and sudden or over-use of make-up” (Argosy University, 2010, Psychoeducational and Intervention Strategies, p3). These signs alone will not tell you if your child is engaging in violent or gang activities because an individual at this stage in life is liable to experiment with their appearance. However, these signs coupled with certain behavior tendencies such as, “attending school/work erratically, participating little or not at all in family activities, using different and unfamiliar words, associating with known gang members or known criminals, staying out later than usual, wanting to be alone all the time, beginning to use alcohol or drugs, having money or buying things without a known source of income, and swinging moods and unusual patterns of behavior” </li></ul>
  53. 53. Knowledge of Applied Psychology <ul><li>(Argosy University, 2010, Psychoeducational and Intervention Strategies, p2) can be very tell-tale signs that your child is becoming active in gang related or delinquent activity. As a community program there are specific ethical issues that have to be addressed when working with minors. There has to be a full disclosure of all activities and consent given by these parents regarding the implementation of these programs with their children. The racial and ethnic issues that may come about in these programs are a lack of respect by the adolescents of any individual trying to assist them that is of a different race or ethnic background. Often, children born to a minority race or ethnicity will be more likely to respond positively to a specialist that is of their heritage. Hopefully, with the respect and support that is given in the relationship building of these relationships this will not be a major issue or one dealt with quickly and effectively. There would be a need to specialize the female and male programs to fit the particular individual’s gender because although there are a plethora of circumstances and realities within certain neighborhoods that will be the same across genders, there are still issues that one gender may face that the other will not, and vice versa. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Knowledge of Applied Psychology <ul><li>Women and men are treated completely differently in any society and as specialist assisting these youth, we have to take into account these differences when creating a personalized intervention strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University.(2010). Online Lecture: Preventing Youth Violence . Retrieved from Argosy University Online database October 21, 2010. . </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University. (2010). Psychoeducational and Intervention Strategies . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University Online database October 21, 2010. . </li></ul>
  55. 55. Interpersonal Effectiveness <ul><li>Melody Wearmouth Brown </li></ul><ul><li>PSY310 XC </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor: Beth McKinney </li></ul><ul><li>April 19, 2010 </li></ul>
  56. 56. Interpersonal Effectiveness <ul><li>As a director for a detention center for delinquent boys, finding ways to reduce prejudice and intergroup conflict requires innovative and often provocative strategy. In this situation, many of the boys that are housed at this detention center have been involved with gangs and are bound to, in many ways, a way of life that creates a very negative out-group schema. To these boys, the only people you can trust or relate to are individuals in your group or gang. Our text describes groups as “two or more individuals who influence each other. Collections of individuals become more “group-like” however, when their members are interdependent and share a common identity, and when they possess structure” (Kenrick, D.T et al., 2007, p417). To these boys, there is an identity shared and a belonging felt that they may not have been experienced in other group settings throughout their life, such as their family of origin. The director now has to create a new dynamic within the walls of the detention center; otherwise the intergroup conflict that will emerge will become dangerous for the detainees as well as the people employed by the institution. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Interpersonal Effectiveness <ul><li>Although research has suggested six ways of reducing intergroup conflict, I will highlight three such ways that I feel are especially important for the director to utilize. First of all the director needs to set “social norms that promote diversity” (Argosy University, 2010). In other words, re-grouping the boys so as to include different gang members having to work, play, and learn together. By restructuring the boys living situations, or pairing them with others who have no outside affiliation with themselves, the director creates a situation where the boys are forced into cooperating with members of their out-side group. This may initially cause conflict; however, as the boys learn that there will always be this set of guidelines influencing their daily lives, they will eventually succumb to this reality and learn to cooperate. Secondly, the “form or structure of interaction should be cooperative rather than competitive” (Argosy University, 2010). The director has to push cooperation within the new social environment of these boys, allowing them to learn to trust and rely on each other. By creating and implementing “positive associations or rewards” (Argosy University, 2010) for cooperation the director will assist in fostering a break down in negative prejudices and stereotypes that are embedded in each of these boys. Not only allowing for a new and positive out-group schema to form but also improving individual self-esteem. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Interpersonal Effectiveness <ul><li>By re-grouping the boys, and requiring them to interact with boys from their typical out-group, the director is implementing an opportunity for positive interaction to occur between the boys, as these positive interactions increase the negative stereotypes that had been formed will break-down to be replaced with positive views of others. There is no doubt that the director will have to regulate recreation time, as well as the chores and education that happens during the day. By doing so, he/she will ensure that the boys are experiencing new dynamics with new people within a positive and cooperative environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Requiring the boys to work, play, and learn together in this cooperative environment will require norms, most likely in a set of rules that are set forth to give guidelines on how to treat others with respect inside the institution. These norms, such as no name calling, swearing at or about each other, and no fighting will foster a sense of equality among the boys as long as the regulations are upheld by the director and his/her staff. Equal opportunity to earn free time and privileges will be given to all who choose to follow the norms set forth. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Interpersonal Effectiveness <ul><li>It is imperative that the boys feel the positive effects of their actions within their groups on an individual basis, and to ensure that these feelings come to fruition there must be an individual rewarding system set in place. Our text states that “group members are more likely to loaf when their individual contributions can’t be evaluated” (Kenrick, D.T. et al., 2007, p426). This being said, there needs to be a points system that not only evaluates the team or groups progress and achievements, but the individuals as well to ensure that no one is free-loading on the other individuals in his group. </li></ul><ul><li>I believe it is important to make and maintain guidelines when working in this sort of environment. Not only do negative stereotypes need to be broken down, but positive self regard needs to be built. Not only do I believe that setting guidelines and norms are required, but also team building exercises need to be implemented to assist in creating trust between the boys. These exercises would be implemented in game forms, such as falling into the arms of another person with your back turned and your eyes closed. Such simulations will encourage these boys to break out of their stereotypical and negative out-group schema and prepare them for living in the real world once their stay at the detention center comes to an end. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Interpersonal Effectiveness <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University. (2010). Argosy University Online Lecture. Retrieved April 18, 2010 from Argosy Online Database. . </li></ul><ul><li>Kenrick, D.T., Neuberg, S.L., & Cialdini, R.B. (2007) Social Psychology: Goals in interaction. 4 th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education . </li></ul>
  61. 61. My Future in Learning <ul><li>Learning is a life-long process. There is no doubt that when you give up learning you give up living. I plan to live as long as I possibly can; in essence, I will be learning until I leave this world. </li></ul>
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